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brodsky essay cavafy Vayenass article outlines the of propaganda farm attempt of a number of Greek critics to solve what Vayenas calls the problem of Cavafy. A major aspect of the problem is who is enkidu seen to be that of finding an appropriate definitionreally a categorizationof Cavafys work, preferably in a single word. Types Of Propaganda Farm? Dimaras, the great literary historian of modern Greece, suggested lyric. Seferis challenged this, at least for a time, with the term didactic, then preferred dramatic. Vayenas makes his case for the term ironic. Of course no single term is define theory sufficient in itself to describe Cavafys work over of propaganda, the course of his career. Haiti Ethnicity? All four terms are to some degree relevant, depending on types of propaganda farm the period of what is howl, Cavafys work in of propaganda farm, question and who is enkidu the character of individual poems, and sometimes all four might be brought to bear on a single poem. In Animal? An even less fruitful aspect of the problem is posed by who is enkidu, the questions How could [Cavafy] write poetry when his expressive means were those of prose? and How could poetry transmit emotion when its language was not emotive, that is, not poetic? (p.

43). Types Of Propaganda? Vayenas traces the suggested solutions offered by the critics Agras, Nikolareizis, Dallas, and hip hop fashion Seferis, but finds each too limited to resolve the mystery of of propaganda in animal farm, Cavafys presumably unpoetic poetic. He concludes that the problem of his poetry is not beyond solution (p. What About? 51) if one looks at types of propaganda his use of postmodernism definition, irony. For those interested in types of propaganda in animal, exploring the poems themselves with new insight and recognition, these questions seem remote, and the so-called problem remains in concept of leadership, the realm of types, theoretical rather than practical criticism. W.H. Auden provided the key to a different approach in his introduction to concept the Rae Dalven translation of of propaganda farm, Cavafy, 3 where he offered the phrase tone of voice to characterize what was unique about Cavafy and where he implicitly indicated the futility of a debate over definitions of the concept of leadership kind presented in Vayenass article. Auden states that a unique tone of voice cannot be described; it can only of propaganda in animal farm, be imitated, that is to say, either parodied or quoted (p. ix). And with this remark he leads the reader back to the poetry itself, which is who is enkidu its own definition, requiring no all-encompassing characterization or categorization for those who will give the types of propaganda poems a sensitive reading. What Is Howl? Fortunately Vayenas does not limit himself to the hypothetical problem he explores but uses his solution to provide new insight into several of Cavafys more complicatedand often misunderstoodpoems, as we shall see below. Audens term tone of voice is a more helpful guide to the work (even if he himself points to types its inadequacy) than any definition he might have attempted, and define the domino theory so is his elaboration of its implications: Reading any poem of of propaganda in animal, [Cavafys] I feel: This reveals a person with a unique perspective on what is howl the world (p. viii).

Voice and farm perspective are the terms that give us access to is howl about a better understanding of of propaganda farm, Cavafys subtleties. About? Audens remarks imply that there is a tone of of propaganda, voice in search yahoo, Cavafys poetry, a personal speech, that colors the speaking voice in any particular poem, as there is a perspective on the world that colors the attitude in types of propaganda in animal, any particular poem. The tone of voice and haiti ethnicity the perspective are strong enough, in Audens view, to emerge through any translation: I have read translations of Cavafy made by types farm, many different hands, but every one of them was immediately recognizable as a poem by of leadership, Cavafy; nobody else could possibly have written it (p. viii). Tone of types of propaganda in animal farm, voice, in this view, is obviously more than a matter of personal style and particular language, since these are mostly lost in translation (one is compelled to add here that Cavafys language is special enough to contribute significantly to his tone of voice in haiti ethnicity, Greek, however one interprets the in animal farm phrase). Of Leadership? As I understand Audens remarks, what he has in mind is the poets particular way of presenting his material and the perspective that emerges from types of propaganda farm, this presentation, and I agree that these add up to a unique voice that not only colors individual poems but that implies a certain unified sensibility in his work. Still, Cavafys presentation is varied and often complex, and arriving at the perspective that colors individual poems is definition not as easy or immediate as Audens remarks may suggest.

It is often an exercise that requires unusual tact and of propaganda in animal farm a heightened sensitivity to postmodernism definition the poetrys context. Evidence of the difficulty is the considerable disagreement even among Cavafys best critics about the perspective that emerges in types, specific instances and some disagreement about who is enkidu whether there is what can be called a perspective at all. We have seen in chapter 2 that, in developing his mature voice, Cavafy went through a period of experimentation with various modeslyric, didactic, narrative, and dramatic among themand these modes continued to types of propaganda play their role in who is enkidu, shaping the poetry of types of propaganda, his mature period. But if we focus on define the domino his work from types farm, 1910 forward, I think we can now assume general agreement among his recent critics that the who is enkidu starting point in gaining access to his poems is a consideration of the types of propaganda in animal farm poets stance in about, a given poemwhat an older generation of critics might have called the particular mask the poet chose to wear in specific instances. Even if the poets unique tone of voice generally colors his work, there is still inevitably some stance in Cavafy, whether the poet chooses to speak in the first person, act as narrator, address a character in the second person, or take on in animal the role of a character in a dramatic monologue. It is in haiti ethnicity, Cavafys narrations and types dramatic monologues that the postmodernism sociology poets voicethat is, the voice behind the maskis the most muted, often heard by way of irony alone (as Vayenas suggests), often discernible only by a careful examination of the poems tone and types of propaganda farm context. Hip Hop Fashion? (I use the of propaganda in animal term tone here in the standard sense of the postmodernism definition sociology speakers attitude in the poem, sometimes quite at farm odds with the definition sociology poets attitude and usually distinguished from in animal, it by at postmodernism definition sociology least the of propaganda in animal farm distance that the term persona is hip hop fashion meant to indicate). The difficulty of types of propaganda farm, determining the character of Cavafys stance in the first instance, and haiti ethnicity of his voice and of propaganda perspective in hip hop fashion, the second, in some of his more subtle (and usually late) poems is types of propaganda in animal illustrated by the divergent interpretations of postmodernism sociology, On the Outskirts of in animal farm, Antioch (1932/33) and A Great Procession of Priests and Laymen (1926), the google two dramatic monologues that Vayenas discusses at types the conclusion of his essay. Of Reaction? Both of types of propaganda in animal farm, these belong to about the cycle of poems having to types of propaganda farm do with Julian the Apostate (see above, pp.

120-122). 4. The Julian poems constitute by who is enkidu, far the of propaganda in animal largest group devoted to the same historical character in Cavafys work. It is sociology therefore exceedingly difficult to consider any single poem in the cycle outside the in animal context of hip hop fashion, others in the group; in fact, I would suggest that the types farm critic who does so, and who also doesnt consider this group in its relation to define the domino Cavafys late mode and voice in general, proceeds perilously. In Animal? In any case, the is howl starting point is correctly perceived by types farm, Vayenas to be that of about, determining the types in animal farm stance and tone of the poems. Who Is Enkidu? The speaking voice in in animal farm, both poemsthe poets maskis that of a Christian who represents the Christians of rates of reaction, Antioch during Julians brief reign, A.D. Types Of Propaganda Farm? 361-363, in the one instance shortly before the end of that reign, and in the other shortly after.

Seferiss reading of the two poems implicitly assumes an postmodernism definition, identity between the poet and his speaker, thus promoting an interpretation that sees the poems as an types farm, expression of Cavafys total sympathy with the Christians of Antioch and their ridicule of hip hop fashion, Julians pagan pretensions. Vayenas shrewdly challenges this view of Cavafys attitude by of propaganda in animal, pointing out that the postmodernism tone of of propaganda in animal, both poemsthat is, the speakers attitude in eachindicates a magnitude of. hatred for Julian inconsistent with the google yahoo indications of types of propaganda in animal farm, Christian piety in define, the poems, and of propaganda farm this contradiction serves to rates of reaction suggest the magnitude of the Christians hypocrisy, a hypocrisy that is seen to have its origins in types of propaganda, the Antiochians strong distaste for Julians ascetic version of the ancient worship, the google application of which would result in a code of behavior not unlike that prescribed by types of propaganda in animal farm, Christianity (p. 54). Vayenas therefore regards Seferiss assumption in concept, the case of On the types farm Outskirts of Antioch, that the rates of reaction poem is simply an attack against Julian and that Cavafy is on the side of Babylas and the Christians and against the ancients, as a misinterpretation. In the case of A Great Procession of Priests and Laymen, he challenges Seferiss view that the poem is an unfavorable comment on Julian and types farm Seferiss opinion that the last line of the poem should be declaimed in the concept reverent tone appropriate to types of propaganda in animal the prayers of the concept of leadership divine liturgy. Vayenas asserts that the line should be read in an ironic tone of voice to call into question the types in animal genuineness of the emotion so skillfully created in definition sociology, the preceding lines (p. Types Of Propaganda Farm? 55). There is some merit in this reconsideration of hip hop fashion, Seferiss position, but it is types of propaganda in animal not a full enough account of either poems implications nor a sufficient designation of Cavafys perspective. Let us review the poems in turn. The speaker in On the haiti ethnicity Outskirts of Antioch is depicted as being not so much hypocritical as arrogant in his defense of his martyr Babylas (or Vavylas).

His attitude toward Julian is types too close to what he portrays Julians to be in who is enkidu, dismissing the types in animal martyr. The speaker shows us Julian losing his temper and shouting: . take him away immediately, this Vavylas. Of Reaction? / You there, do you hear? He gets on Apollos nerves. / Grab him, raise him at once, / dig him out, take him wherever you want, / take him away, throw him out. This isnt a joke. Whether or not the speakers rendering of Julians tone is accurate, the speakers own tone gives him away for being similarly arrogant and types in animal intolerantif more subtle in his manner of expressionas he brings his irony to bear in revealing the define destruction he and his fellow Christians have wrought in taking their revenge on of propaganda in animal farm Julian: In no time at all a colossal fire broke out, a terrible fire, and both the hip hop fashion temple and farm Apollo burned to the ground. what else could he do?that we, the Christians, had set the haiti ethnicity fire. Let him say so. It hasnt been proved. Types Of Propaganda In Animal? Let him say so. The essential thing is: he blew up. If the speaker condemns himself by showing the of reaction same arrogant intolerance of of propaganda in animal, Julian that he has Julian demonstrate toward this Vavylas, can the of reaction reader trust the image of types, Julian that the haiti ethnicity speaker projects?

The answer to of propaganda farm this seems to me to rates temperature reside in the poems context, both the types historical context that it presupposes and who is enkidu whatever relevant knowledge of the types in animal poets mature voice we can bring to the poem. We know from is howl, history that Julian did indeed order the church that the Christians built over in animal, Vavylass tomb to rates be demolished and the relic of Vavylas to be removed, and we also know that he was intolerant of types in animal farm, those who professed to rates teach while harbor[ing] in types of propaganda, their souls opinions irreconcilable with the spirit of the what about state, namely the of propaganda spirit of Emperor Julians austere paganism. 6 Whether or not the speaker catches the exact tone of Julians intolerance, he has the substance of it right. And other of Cavafys Julian poems would seem to provide the kind of define the domino theory, gloss on of propaganda farm this one that suggests the the domino theory poet is sympathetic toward the types of propaganda in animal farm speakers image of the emperor. Who Is Enkidu? Two earlier poems are particularly relevant in this connection, Julian Seeing Contempt (1923) and Julian and types of propaganda farm the Antiochians (1926). Define? Neither is types a dramatic monologue; in google search, both the poet enters the of propaganda poem through a persona who comments on search the historical moment that the poem dramatizes, as close as Cavafy comes to types farm making a direct statement in his mature work.

In the first, the persona mocks Julian for attempting to hip hop fashion incite and goad his friends, among whom Julian finds great contempt for farm the gods, friends who werent Christians but who also werent ready to go so far as to playas Julian ironically could, having been brought up a Christianwith a new religious system that the persona calls ludicrous in theory and application. Julians friends were Greeks, after all, guided stillthe persona impliesby the ancient maxim that the concept of leadership persona quotes in in animal farm, concluding the haiti ethnicity poem: Nothing in in animal, excess, Augustus. This image of temperature, Julian as a man given at times to ludicrous excess is not out of of propaganda farm, keeping with the Julian who loses his temper in casting out the martyr Vavylas. Nor is the image of what about, Julian that we find in Julian and the Antiochians, where the persona contrasts Julians hot air about the false gods, / his boring self-advertisement, / his childish fear of the theater, / his graceless prudery, his ridiculous beard with the notorious, immoral, quite unChristian but nevertheless beautiful and delectable way of life of Christian Antiochians, which consummated a union between Art / and the erotic proclivities of the flesh and types farm which was always in absolute good taste. The persona asks rhetorically whether it could ever have been possible for the Antiochians to give up the rates temperature latter out of an of propaganda in animal farm, allegiance to the former. Define Theory? He concludes that of of propaganda farm, course they preferred the postmodernism more tolerant, less puritanical regime of Apostate Julians Christian predecessors. The theme of excess and the intolerance it engenders is in animal what links these two poems to who is enkidu the later On the Outskirts of farm, Antioch and what helps to haiti ethnicity clarify the poets perspective in the later poem. Both the of propaganda in animal farm Christian speaker in the poem and unholy Julian demonstrate a like propensity for define theory excess; both are given to fanaticism and intolerance toward those with opposing beliefs. Of Propaganda In Animal? Cavafys perspective emerges from the who is enkidu interplay between the juxtaposed representations of excess in of propaganda farm, the poem. In this instance he sides with neither the Christian speaker nor the what pagan emperor; his perspective, most aptly characterized by the maxim Nothing in excess, transcends both. This conclusion challenges not only in animal farm, Vayenass view of Cavafys perspective in both poems but also my own too-hasty generalization (p. 121 above) regarding those Julian poems that are dramatic monologues (as distinct from of reaction, those that one might call persona lyrics or narrations).

I say that the tone of in animal, each makes it clear that the yahoo poet sides with the Christian speaker. Not so; the tone of each monologue defines the speakers attitude, not the poets, and in animal farm it is who is enkidu clear from types of propaganda in animal, our discussion here that the poets perspective can be said to be a degree ironic toward both the Christian speaker and the object of the speakers sarcasm, in effect siding with neither and subtly satirizing both for their intolerant excess. Haiti Ethnicity? And that is often the case both in this historical context and types of propaganda elsewhere. The Domino Theory? Even in the poem Julian and in animal the Antiochians, where the personas irony is about overtly at types Julians expense, we have that passing note on rates the Christians excess: Immoral to a degreeand probably more than a degreethey certainly were. an ominous note if one is types in animal aware of the postmodernism sociology close relation between the of propaganda in animal farm Christian way of google yahoo, life depicted in this poem and that of Cavafys ancient Alexandrians, especially those commemorated in several of the epitaphs he wrote between 1914 and of propaganda farm 1918, where we have seen (p. 86 above) that the union between elegance, beauty, youth, art, and the erotic proclivities of the flesh is shown to have its dark side: I, Iasis, lie herefamous for my good looks / in google, this great city. / excess wore me out, killed me. Traveler, / if youre an Alexandrian, you wont blame me. / You know the types of propaganda in animal pace of define the domino, our lifeits fever, its absolute devotion to pleasure (from Tomb of Iasis). Joseph Brodsky tells us in in animal farm, his generally illuminating essay-review on Cavafy that the poet did not choose between paganism and Christianity but was swinging between them like a pendulum. 7 One might modify the metaphor by suggesting that it is the google yahoo speaking voice that does the farm swinging; Cavafys perspective is what holds the pendulum in place, aloof from the is howl about action, not taking sides except when arrogance, fanaticism, intolerance, hubris, or other excess earns his irony. Brodsky points out that Cavafys most vigorous ironies were directed against one of the in animal farm main vices of Christianitypious intolerance. We have seen that Julian is define also shown to have had his moments of pious intolerance, but in types, A Great Procession of postmodernism, Priests and types farm Laymen, it is the Christian vice that sets the poems tone, as Vayenas suggests in challenging Seferiss reading of the poem (though Vayenas does not indicate exactly what it is in the text that promotes his own ironic reading of the postmodernism sociology poem). The speaker here is kin to the Christian speaker in On the Outskirts of Antioch. He may not express himself with the same degree of sarcasm, but he is equally intolerant in his view of Julian, calling him unholy () and appalling (). More to types of propaganda farm the point, he mocks Julians pagan followers, lately so full of is howl, arrogance, for farm slinking away from the what is howl Christian procession, and sees it as good riddance as long as they dont renounce their errors. In the in animal Cavafian context, this kind of language and this attitude clearly set the stage for theory a fall from farm, grace. Pious self-satisfaction and arrogant disdain carry in is howl about, them the seeds of their own destruction; if the arrogant pagans have had their day, one can expect that the of propaganda in animal infallible (as long as they dont renounce their errors) and hip hop fashion self-satisfied Christians will have theirs too. It is this typically Cavafian perspectivewhich, incidentally, Seferis was the first to identify, at least implicitly, in types farm, his commentary on Alexander Jannaios and Alexandra (see fn.10 to haiti ethnicity chapter 6)that most compels an ironic reading of the in animal poems concluding line. Define The Domino Theory? And the irony is types in animal farm not only the domino, a matter of tone. Types Of Propaganda? (The hypocrisy behind the Christians piety that Vayenas sees as the determinant of the lines tonehis use of the term really designating the poets rather than the speakers attitudeis not as clearly represented in rates temperature, this poem as it is in On the types of propaganda farm Outskirts of Antioch, though it is part of the hip hop fashion Cavafian context that one can legitimately bring to types of propaganda farm the poem).

The dominant irony at postmodernism the end of the poem is what we traditionally call dramatic irony. Of Propaganda? The speaker sees the empire delivered at last because appalling Julian has been replaced by most pious Jovian, who is of reaction now to be the object of Christian prayers. What the types of propaganda farm speaker does not knowwhile the reader presumably doesis that pious, tolerant, and haiti ethnicity relatively ineffectual Jovian will reign for only seven months (until February, A.D. 364), Christianity will triumph but will also be marked by types farm, constant strife and contention, the empire will soon divide permanently under Valentinian in the West and concept Valens in of propaganda in animal farm, the East, and within less than a century, the Western empire will have fallen irretrievably. Haiti Ethnicity? The irony here is underlined in of propaganda farm, Cavafian terms by a passage in who is enkidu, Gibbon, one of Cavafys principal historical sources, as he meditates on the death of Valentinian the types in animal Third in A.D.

455 and the doom of theory, Rome: . Types Of Propaganda? even his religion was questionable; and though he never deviated into the paths of heresy, he scandalized the who is enkidu pious Christians by types in animal, his attachment to hip hop fashion the profane arts of magic and types in animal farm divination. Postmodernism Sociology? The severe inquisition, which confiscated their goods and types in animal farm tortured their persons, compelled the what subjects of Valentinian to prefer the more simple tyranny of the Barbarians. If all the Barbarian conquerors had been annihilated in the same hour, their total destruction would not have restored the empire of the West; and, if Rome still survived, she survived the loss of freedom, of types, virtue, and the domino theory of honour. 8. The historical context of which the types in animal speaker is unaware, source of the hip hop fashion poems dramatic irony, is what Seferis would call the missing statue on Cavafys pedestal. As we have seen in the discussion of several of Cavafys subtlest late poems in chapter 6Alexander Jannaios and Alexandra and In the Year 200 B.C. in of propaganda farm, particularit is events that follow on the speakers heels which provide the poems final comment, outside the range of the hip hop fashion speakers voice and perception, the types kind of silent comment that raises the poets perspective above the of leadership speakers particular bias to the level of the types in animal poet-historian who sees a more universaland generally tragicpattern behind even those moments of history with which he has shown some degree of sympathetic identification. As is suggested in chapter 6, the poets perspective may be seen as a usually unspoken conscience that recognizes any individual success and any specific historical change as subject to reversal by the gods, that sometimes serves to warn against those excesses that lead to who is enkidu fanaticism, intolerance, or self-satisfied complacency, and that sometimes finds wisdom and courage to types in animal reside in a recognition of human limitations. Hip Hop Fashion? It is this perspective that seems to types in animal me to theory be a fundamental aspect of Cavafys mature voice, an aspect of the types in animal unique perspective on the world that Auden saw stamped on who is enkidu every Cavafy poem, even in translation. One might find other terms in which to express the perspective as it relates to individual poems, and one might find its presence more or less overt, but an awareness of farm, its role is often valuableand sometimes essentialin establishing the force and meaning of Cavafys more complex poems. It is not enough, in my opinion, to see Cavafy as simply an ironist, though he surely is that at times. And in any case, one has to be sensitive to the context, the what pattern of types in animal farm, thought and who is enkidu sensibility, within which his irony operates if one is to types understand its full implications. Roderick Beaton appears, in his provocative article, to be somewhat out of sympathy with this position. Temperature? Following the lead given by Vayenas, Beaton argues, persuasively at times, that Cavafy was a fully conscious ironist and of propaganda farm that the google emotional impact of types in animal, his poems derives not from sensuousness of the language, nor from the search intensity of a vision. but from the vivid juxtaposition of types of propaganda, contradictory emotions, of things seen from contradictory angles, of contradictory visions (p.

518). This is not a structuralist position (though that school of criticism is who is enkidu invoked at one point) which might find meanings in types in animal farm, the textliteral, ironic, otherwisethat the definition sociology poet did not necessarily intend but that are there to be discovered nevertheless in of propaganda in animal farm, its structure; Beaton is haiti ethnicity concerned with identifying ironies and contradictory visions that Cavafy fully intended, as a fully conscious ironist would presumably have to. He goes on of propaganda in animal farm to tell us that irony is all-pervasive in Cavafys poetry and nothing in his poetic world is search yahoo sacred. He finds that Cavafy created a world of shifting relativities (p. Of Propaganda In Animal? 519) and that he used irony not to of reaction debunk certain attitudes and characters, nor in types farm, support of convictions or a world-view of his own, but in define theory, order to create an types farm, autonomous dramatic world, one that in its paradoxes and postmodernism its relativities, in of propaganda in animal farm, the richness and at postmodernism definition sociology the same time hollowness of types of propaganda, its appearances, and in is howl about, its refusal of any ultimate, profound truth, is a powerful metaphor for farm the outside world as it has often been perceived in haiti ethnicity, the twentieth century (pp. Types Of Propaganda Farm? 527-528). Haiti Ethnicity? It is hard to take issue with this position without seeming to be insensitive to the poets complex ironies, or pretentiously in search of large profundities, or evento quote Beatons view of farm, my approach in this bookgiven to impos[ing] on who is enkidu Cavafys work a structure and types of propaganda in animal farm world-view which do not always emerge naturally from [Cavafys] texts (p. 517). The term world-view is a grand one that I have always found suspiciously vague, but if it implies what Auden calls Cavafys perspective on is howl about the world, then I would have to acknowledgein keeping with what I have already indicatedthat I do indeed believe there is a perspective of that kind in types of propaganda in animal, his work.

And if the who is enkidu term structure implies that there is an types of propaganda in animal, interrelation between Cavafys poems in rates temperature, mode and attitude, and that a pattern of types farm, images and attitudes emerges from this interrelationwhat I have here called the what about voice and perspective of of propaganda, his poetrythen I admit to that position as well (though of hip hop fashion, course I cannot agree that these do not emerge naturally from his texts without proposing a non sequitur). The danger of of propaganda in animal, seeing Cavafys world as one characterized entirely by shifting relativities in which the poets irony is never used to support his own convictions is hip hop fashion that the critic has little solid basis for determining the types farm object of the poets irony in specific instances. Without a firm foundation in define the domino theory, perspective and context, one begins to see irony everywhere, hear it everywhere, find ones sense of the types of propaganda farm poets irony undercut by haiti ethnicity, another irony, and types farm that by the irony of google search, this undercutting. Farm? In short, it becomes difficult to establish exactly when the poet intends irony and exactly what he intends to what is howl about be ironic about. In actual practice, Beatons relativist position is of propaganda in animal qualified by what he himself calls the context of hip hop fashion, Cavafys work, and this leads to in animal farm some perceptive and helpful criticism of hip hop fashion, individual poems based on a proper sensitivity to dramatic form, tone, and historical backgroundas in his subtle reading of Dangerous Things. But some of of propaganda farm, his readings seem to me too clever by half, and google search yahoo their identification of levels of irony is occasionally misleading. Of Propaganda In Animal? His interpretation of define, Ionic, for example, draws heavily on the context of types in animal, Cavafys work for its substantiation but is haiti ethnicity finally overwhelmed by types of propaganda farm, ironies that do not, in my opinion, emerge naturally from the text of the poem and postmodernism that in of propaganda farm, any case serve to diminish its intended impact on the reader.

Context is first invoked to undermine the literal reading of the poem by emphasizing that the speaking voice, the poems we, has an actual concrete existence in haiti ethnicity, a specific historical period, and as always in a poem by Cavafy, this suggests a distancing that allows us to view the speaker with some detachment, even irony. 9 Beaton then invokes the context of types in animal, Cavafys poetry in terms of mode by definition, pointing to types in animal the role of apostrophe in define, his work and, in farm, this particular poem, the use of hip hop fashion, a convention that the poet does not normally use. Finally, he brings to types of propaganda in animal farm bear two attitudes that are part of the Cavafian perspectiveCavafy had no time for yahoo romanticism and he was perversely unaffected by of propaganda, the beauties of natureto help the reader determine how he is to read the poems concluding image. This use of context raises an what is howl, impertinent question: if the critic were to say that Cavafys aptitude for using history to achieve an ironic distancing, his occasional manipulation of lyrical excess (as in the case of the apostrophe mentioned here), his anti-romanticism, and his indifference to nature are all part of the structure, the pattern of types of propaganda in animal, modes, attitudes, and even convictions, that constitute the poets mature voice and perspective, would the define critic be courting censure for imposing too much structure on types of propaganda Cavafys autonomous, relativist dramatic world, as Beaton suggests I do in this book? Presumably not, because without an awareness of these attitudes and convictions, of the google context they create, the in animal critic cannot hope to make his way through Cavafys world, with its instant possibilities of irony, and hip hop fashion find a just reading of of propaganda in animal farm, individual poems. My own reading of Ionic is not entirely congruent with Beatons, because the search yahoo context I bring to types of propaganda farm the poem promotes less irony and rates of reaction temperature more legitimate lyricism than he discovers, and I find a different emphasis in the poems tone and syntax.

I would agree for a start that to read Ionic simply as a nostalgic evocation of the in animal farm pagan past of Hellenism and haiti ethnicity assertion of its essential continuity may be quite satisfactory but is of propaganda in animal farm hardly a sufficient account of the poems subtleties or of hip hop fashion, its vitality. Of Propaganda? (I take it to be one of the define the domino theory most striking and beautiful of Cavafys relatively early poems; a first version was published in types in animal farm, 1896, the poem was rewritten in 1905 and published again in 1911.) 10 Yet, to see a central irony in the poem emerging from the who is enkidu presumed contradiction between the austere piety which motivated the destruction of the in animal farm [pagan] temples and the slightly naughty ethereal vision of the concept of leadership poems last three lines is to restrict and to distort the of propaganda in animal poems implications. Let me first offer a version of the definition full poem: that weve driven them out of types in animal farm, their temples, doesnt mean at all that the definition sociology gods are dead. O land of types in animal farm, Ionia, theyre still in love with you, their souls still keep your memory. When an August dawn wakes over you, your atmosphere is hip hop fashion potent with their life, and sometimes a young ethereal figure, indistinct, in types of propaganda in animal, rapid flight, wings across your hills. This interpretation strikes me as more than too clever by half. It is true that by search yahoo, using the plural we the speaker identifies himself at types the start as a Christian who by haiti ethnicity, implicationand implication aloneshares in the responsibility for breaking the pagan statues and driving the pagan gods from types, their temples, but it is not his supposed complicity in austere piety that this identification underlines, presumably in order to establish a contradiction between this and other attitudes he expresses. Austere piety is in any case not among the attitudes he expresses, nor is it dramatized in the poem. One could in fact argue that the speakers use of the concept of leadership strong terms (broke or broke down) and (threw out) to describe the Christians deed actually implies some distance between his attitude and that of types of propaganda in animal, his perhaps austerely pious but certainly intolerantly destructive fellow Christians. Neither does the google search speaker express a shallow and types in animal sentimental nostalgia for the artistic beauty associated with pagan Hellenism, as Beaton has it, nor does he claim to admire beauty or the Greek pastand since he does not express these various attitudes, he cannot logically refer to what is howl a change of heart or be the object of the poets irony for being unaware of the contradiction between them. Types Of Propaganda In Animal? What the speaker does express is his view that, for all the about Christians attempt to get rid of the pagan gods by types of propaganda farm, destroying their statues and driving them out of their temples, the gods are not dead. The implication is that the destruction of haiti ethnicity, statues and temples is not enough to do in the gods because their vision, their ardorthe of types of propaganda in animal farm, their life 11 is focused and housed elsewhere. With some lyrical fervor the rates speaker goes on to say O land of types farm, Ionia, you they love still, / you their souls remember still; that is the emphasis of the Greek syntax: I, / (emphasis mine).

In fact, the gods still love and remember Ionia in their souls so ardently that on an August morning one can still feel the youthful exuberance of their life (existence) passing through the haiti ethnicity air and types farm sometimes actually see the young ethereal figure of a god, indistinct and with hurried pace, crossing above the Ionian hills. The lyricism of the poem does not so much celebrate the speakers love of what, beauty or the Greek past asin keeping with the poems titleit celebrates the land of types of propaganda, Ionia, still home for haiti ethnicity the souls of the gods who cannot forsake their love of it nor forget what it represents for them. Types Of Propaganda In Animal Farm? This celebrative purpose might even excuse the what is howl about speakers unusual use of the apostrophe O land of Ionia. In any case, it is not a romantic landscape that Ionia represents but a sensual one. Of Propaganda Farm? When dawn breaks, what appears is not the beauty of google search, nature but a god in the shape of an ephebe ( ). And if there is irony in the poem, it is a rather mild kind, consistent with a typical Cavafian emphasis; it emerges not from the poet undermin[ing] the poems lyricism or undermining his unaware speaker, but from types in animal, his showing us a Christian who has to concept acknowledgeeven celebrate the factthat there is territory presumably beautiful and sensual enough for types of propaganda farm the gods to hip hop fashion haunt whatever destruction Christianity may choose to wreak on it, and that, in this Cavafian context, what is most likely to remain alive to the bitter end in such territory is types a god in hip hop fashion, the unChristian shape of what Beaton translates as an ethereal boyish form. Also, if Morning Sea is to be seen as a gloss on types of propaganda this poem (pp. Who Is Enkidu? 526-527), it is not the of propaganda farm poets subvert[ing] the convention of romantic landscape poetry that is relevant (there is concept no description of types in animal, romantic landscape in Ionicjust the mention of of leadership, dawn breaking) but the types poets invoking of those memories, the images (idols) of sensual pleasure which move in to google yahoo replace the types of propaganda in animal farm personas momentary contemplation of haiti ethnicity, sea and shore in Morning Sea. A more revealing gloss on Ionic is the poem Orophernis, where we find a related bit of rhetoric celebrating Ionia (the poem was written in types of propaganda, 1904, a year before Ionic was given its second version): 12. Haiti Ethnicity? when fearlessly, and entirely in types farm, a Greek way, he came to know sensual pleasure totally. In his heart, Asiatic always, but in manners and language, a Greek; with his turquoise jewelry, his Greek clothes, his body perfumed with oil of who is enkidu, jasmine, he was the most handsome, the most perfect. of Ionias handsome young men. In his discussion of types in animal, another poem that presumably lends itself to an ironic reading, Epitaph of Antiochos, King of define theory, Kommagini (1923), Beaton shrewdly points to the crucial ninth line, the center of the poem, and types of propaganda farm analyzes its implications with some tact: for a Greek sophist from Ephesus, center of the Greek world in Asia Minor, to temperature have to consult Syrian courtiers before writing an epitaph on types of propaganda one Antiochus of the small Asia Minor principality of google search yahoo, Kommagini seems an of propaganda farm, odd circumstance, one that could point to the possibility of irony. Cavafys use of the the domino unusual term E (which in Modern Greek normally means Greek oras Beaton puts itpertaining to Greece or Hellenism and in types in animal, ancient Greek anything from postmodernism definition, Hellenic and Greek to like the of propaganda Greeks, and pure Greek, and concept of leadership pagan), 13 to in animal farm describe the kings most precious quality of search yahoo, Hellenism also could be seen to types in animal farm promote an ironic reading. Google Search? I quote the whole of the Ephesian sophists epitaph in the Collected Poems version: the noble king, be celebrated as it deserves.

He was a provident ruler of the country. He was just, wise, courageous. In addition he was that best of all things, Hellenic. Of Propaganda? mankind has no quality more precious: everything beyond that belongs to postmodernism sociology the gods. The point of the poem is that of course Syrian courtiers, and farm Syrian courtiers perhaps most of all, would be able to advise on an epitaph in google search yahoo, which the unusual term Hellenic, as Cavafy meant it, plays such a significant role. Are not these Syrian courtiers from that part of the world that is of propaganda farm constantly identified as among the postmodernism sociology centers of diaspora Hellenism in Cavafy, especially during the historical period encompassed by in animal farm, the poem (his editor George Savidis tells us that this Antiochos could be any one of of leadership, several kings of the same name who reigned in Kommagini between 64 B.C. and types of propaganda in animal farm A.D. 72)? Three other poems that Beaton discusses in his essay show Syria to be a primary source of Hellenism during this period, in particular the kind of haiti ethnicity, diaspora Hellenism that is designated by types of propaganda in animal, the term Hellenic and that we saw in chapter 5 to be that which Cavafy is reported to have claimed as his own: I too am Hellenic (E). Notice how I put it: not Greek (), nor Hellenized (E), but Hellenic (E). 15 This remark by Cavafy in conversation with Stratis Tsirkas comes in so pat against irony and rates of reaction satire in this instance that Beaton has to work his way around it by in animal farm, a curious, unsubstantiated argument that seems to me to let him have his cake and eat it too: he dismisses the evident identity of sympathy between Cavafy and search yahoo his character in in animal, this poem that the define the domino theory remark appears to reinforce by telling us that the types in animal remark was not intended for publication, and, in any case, an essential and courageous feature of Cavafys irony is hip hop fashion that it spares neither himself nor his predilections (p. 525, n. 22).

Sometimes so indeed (as I suggest above in in animal farm, my commentary on In the the domino Year 200 B. C., p. 147), but where are the grounds for in animal farm assuming such self-irony, and hip hop fashion the distance it implies, in farm, this instance? The biographical gloss provided by theory, Cavafys remark is not the only contextual evidence that undermines Beatons ironic reading of Epitaph to in animal Antiochos. ; we also have the who is enkidu gloss provided by the three other relevant poems. In Returning from Greece (or, as Diskin Clay has shrewdly suggested, Going Home from of propaganda farm, Greece or Homeward Bound from Greece 16 ), the philosopher-speaker, who identifies himself as a diaspora Greek returning to who is enkidu his home waters of Cyprus, Syria, and Egypt, tells us that the correct attitude for types in animal farm Greeks like us is to who is enkidu honor and delight in the Syrian and types Egyptian blood in our veinsin other words, to honor that quality of being Hellenic as distinct from that quality represented by mainland Greeks (without Asiatic tastes and feelings) or that quality represented by pretenders to the domino theory Hellenism, with their showy Hellenified exteriors based on a Macedonian model. 17 The Syrian courtiers of Epitaph of Antiochos. are not identified specifically as Greeks from Syria, though they could be: as we see in in animal farm, One of concept of leadership, Their Gods, Greeks from types of propaganda, Syria are taken to be what we would now call native Syrians, distinguished in the poem from what, a stranger or foreigner () in Syrian Selefkia. Of Propaganda In Animal Farm? They are in any case very much a part of the search mixturethe , as In a Town of types of propaganda in animal farm, Osroini puts itthat constitutes the essence of sociology, Cavafys diaspora Hellenic world. And in Herodis Attikos, which presents this Hellenic world in of propaganda in animal farm, the second century after Christ, the speaker describes Alexander of Selefkia in sociology, Syria as one of our better sophists, and he tells us that at this time future orators being trained by Hellenism are getting their training in the two Syrian cities of types of propaganda in animal farm, Beirut and who is enkidu Antioch (as well as Alexandria). 18 Finally, such dubious Hellenism as the petty Asian monarch of Philhellene can claim comesif at types allfrom Syrian sophists.

Given this essential Cavafian context, it is not only difficult to envision the Syrian courtiers in sociology, Epitaph of in animal, Antiochos. as the temperature object of the farm poets irony, but what Beaton sees as a contradiction at the poems heart, that what is called Hellenic and praised so highly is rates as much the creation of Syrians and others as of in animal farm, Greeks is, in the Cavafian context, no contradiction at all. What Is Howl About? The term Hellenic (E) as distinct from farm, Greek or Hellene or Philhellene or Hellenified non-Greek, aptly designates what Antiochos of the who is enkidu small Asia Minor principality of Kommagini would have felt himself to be and of propaganda farm would have been honored to have himself designated in his epitaph, as Cavafy himself might have in concept, keeping with his identification of himself as E. And it is farm Syrian courtiers perhaps even more than a Greek sophist from Ephesus (which, as Beaton points out, though in Asia Minor had been close [in this context, read too close] to the centre of the Greek world since pre-classical times) who would be most likely to define understand the particular relevance of the term. As we have seen in chapter 5, Cavafys friend and farm early critic, E.M. Forster, puts the case most succinctly when he tells us that Cavafy was a loyal Greek but that Greece for search yahoo him was not territorial: it was rather the types in animal farm influence that has flowed from his race this way and that through the ages, and that (since Alexander the haiti ethnicity Great) never disdained to mix with barbarism, has indeed desired to mix. And Forster adds: Racial purity bored him. Types Farm? The civilization he respected was a bastardy in which the Greek strain prevailed, and into which, age after age, outsiders would push, to modify and be modified. 19. Antiochoss epitaph does not celebrate the haiti ethnicity racially pure Hellenism associated with Classical Greece, that which is normally indicated by the term (Greek or Hellene), but the specifically mixed Hellenism of diaspora Greece that includes Asiatic tastes and feelings whichas the Syrian-Egyptian philosopher of Returning from Greece suggestedare sometimes alien to types of propaganda in animal Hellenism of the mainland Greek tradition and what which, in types of propaganda, the case of this philosopher, become the source of proper self-recognition and pride. In short, the E version of search, Hellenism is what Syrian courtiers in Kommagini would justly promote as mankinds highest quality. And that is why the of propaganda in animal poet has the Ephesian sophist and his Syrian advisers use that unusual, that special, term to honor the provident, wise, and courageous king of is howl, Kommagini. Neither he nor his courtiers are the object of the poets irony. Of Propaganda In Animal Farm? If there is irony in of leadership, this poem too, it is directed at those who might choose to think that what the types of propaganda in animal farm epitaph designates as mankinds highest quality is the haiti ethnicity exclusive province of racially pure Greeks belonging to the pre-Alexandrian tradition or their disciples, those who might find Cavafys term E merely strange or confusing or ironic rather than special and therefore to the point. In arriving at this not-so-ironic view of Epitaph of types, Antiochos. , one lays oneself open to define theory two charges: that the reading is not as complicated or ambivalent as some critical approaches might prefer and that it draws for some of its implications not simply on the poem under perusal but also on a structure of attitudes created by other Cavafy poems presumed to be relevant, in types farm, this case specifically those that are seen to build a complex and special image of google search yahoo, Hellenism.

Regarding the farm first charge, I personally find sufficient complication and richness in Cavafy for my taste even when his irony is muted, and I would hope that the approach to definition sociology his work in of propaganda in animal, this book serves to demonstrate that richness. Also, given my view of concept, Cavafys work both in types, this chapter and haiti ethnicity throughout Cavafys Alexandria , I have to reaffirm my belief that, though Cavafy was a consummate ironist, he nevertheless did have certain convictions, and if not what is types called a world-view, at google least a perspective on the world that was complex, subtle, subject to development over farm, the course of concept of leadership, his career, yet generally identifiable. In fact, without some sense of this perspective as it developed over the years, it is in animal farm almost impossible to establish the hip hop fashion sources and implications of the poets irony in specific instances, especially in the more complicated poems of his late years. Finally, I have to types of propaganda farm acknowledge seeing a certain structure in google, the images that Cavafy created of both ancient and of propaganda in animal modern Alexandria and of the haiti ethnicity broader world of Hellenism which most interested him, a structure that I have perhaps loosely called his myth, as defined above, pp. 100-102. This is not the product of an attempt to discover a hidden meaning in Cavafy, nor to decode him in of propaganda in animal farm, a particular way, nor to establish ultimate, profound truth outside the dramatic context of his work, as Beaton would have it (pp. 517, 519, 528). Of Leadership? The myth is a way of characterizing certain facets of what Beaton calls Cavafys autonomous dramatic world, this characterization for the purpose of of propaganda, illustrating the concept of leadership interrelation of many of his poems, which in turn is meant to help illuminate individual poems (what I assumed to be the function of criticism at types of propaganda in animal farm the start of this discourse). Hip Hop Fashion? I am grateful to both Nasos Vayenas and Roderick Beaton for of propaganda the assistance their approach has given me in reinterpreting certain of the search poems they have analyzed with new insight, but I cannot accept Vayenass view that the problem of types of propaganda in animal farm, Cavafys poetry is define the domino theory solved by looking simply at his use of irony, nor Beatons view that irony is of propaganda farm all-pervasive in Cavafys poetry, that nothing in his poetic world is sacred, and rates of reaction temperature that this world is entirely one of shifting relativities. Though irony is central to Cavafys work, it is not the only mode, and in his as in types, any other poetic world, the presence of postmodernism, irony depends on types of propaganda context. In Cavafy the hip hop fashion context that helps the reader to types farm determine exactly what may be subject to irony, and the degree to which irony may or may not be relevant, consists of many things: the poets historical sources; the what about pattern of images and structure of attitudes that his poems build beyond his shifting relativities; the tone and perspectiveto invoke Auden againthat characterize his mature voice; and of propaganda in animal farm even those old-fashioned resources of the theory poets biography and types the poets expression of attitudes outside his work. At the yahoo risk of types in animal, seeming to rates of reaction temperature plead a personal case, I would again underline what Seferis identified as the virtue of reading Cavafy whole, of seeing his poetry as a life-long work-in-progress, of types in animal farm, studying the who is enkidu interrelation of his poems and types the expanding perspective they shaped over the course of his career.

But I have argued this at hip hop fashion length in chapter 6. And the farm proof of the value of this approach must still reside in whether or not the rates reader finds that it promotes a better understanding and a larger appreciation of individual poems, my primary aspiration in types of propaganda in animal, this book. Hip Hop Fashion? 19. Two Cheers for Democracy (London, 1951), pp. 249-250. Types Of Propaganda In Animal Farm? Forsters essay on Cavafy was omitted from the American edition of this collection.

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Modernity Essay: An useful Essay on Modernity in India. The other widely expressed way of coming to grips with our lack of true modernity is to say that there are multiple modernities, and that the Indian variety is just another expression of types farm, modernity. Anthony Giddens has put a very sound thesis that modernity is multi-dimensional. It is neither monolith, nor liberal only. Nor it is democratic only. It has several dimensions. Indian sociologist, Dipankar Gupta in his book, Mistaken Modernity (2000), has made yet another statement which applies to different nation-states.

If modernity is multiple, it means that India should have its own variant of who is enkidu, modernity. In Animal? And, further, there are several or plural ethnicities in this country and therefore modernity in this country has to be defined in terms of the social-historical and cultural conditions of different regions or social segments of the nation. When European countries had entered into industrial era, feudalism was on the wane. The series of revolutions which took place in Europe, gave emergence to democracy and rates, nation-states. And, interestingly, Europe had already experienced renaissance and enlightenment. Such a kind of social conditions in Europe created modernity. And, with the increasing force of modernity, there came into of propaganda farm, existence the form of modernity which is search now called late modernity.

The pioneers of sociology Marx, Weber, Durkheim and Simmel were the products of modernity, i.e., capitalism, democracy and of propaganda in animal, industrialism. Indian social conditions were different. Our challenges were serious. There was colonialism and in princely states, feudalism. Search Yahoo? Our first priority was to get freedom, and our ambition was to in animal farm, build India into a nation. Our pioneering sociologists, G.S. Ghurye, M.N. Srinivas, D.P. Postmodernism? Mukerji, B.K.

Sarkar, Radhakamal Mukherjee, S.V. Ketkar, B.N. Dutt and types of propaganda in animal farm, K.P. Chattopadhyay drew their value premises and perspectives on the approach to studying Indian society from nationalist reformation leadership of the 19ih century. All these sociologists had not encountered the challenges of industrialism and capitalism. Nor had they any experience of western modernity. Specifying the who is enkidu, orientation of pioneer Indian sociologists, Yogendra Singh, in his book Indian Sociology (1986), writes: The sociologists of the pioneer generation were less concerned with the professionalization of sociology as a discipline, in respect of concepts, theories, methodology of social observation or with establishing sociology as a branch of science. Types In Animal? Their deeper concern, however, was with the about, issue of social relevance. Yogendra Singh spells out the types, issues of social relevance and says that pioneers of google, sociology in India wanted to types of propaganda, focus on the domino theory social change.

For them, industrialism in whatever form it was brought by colonial rule was not a challenge. It was first a beginning of modernity and therefore they showed their concern for the study of family, kin, caste and village. And, what is important is that the social background of most of the sociologists of this period was that they came from renaissant middle class, urban gentry; most were educated in European, particularly British universities; and had inherited in their consciousness both a substantial package of western philosophy of science, liberalism and humanism (both Marxist and non-Marxist) and deeper concern for issues of national identity, freedom from colonial rule and in animal farm, establishment of a culturally, economically and politically independent Indian society. Indian sociologists paid very little attention to the study of modernity and who is enkidu, its impact on Indian society. Modernity as a distinct form of enquiry came late during the seventies. We have two very excellent research documents Trends Reports sponsored by ICSSR and the book by Yogendra Singh (1986). In the Trend Report (1969-1979), Pravin J. Patel surveys the literature in industrial sociology in India and puts his concluding remarks: As a matter of fact quite a few studies on the reciprocal relationship between industrialization and society have a direct bearing upon modernization theory. Similarly, some of the studies on industrial organizations, trade unions and types, industrial relations have explicitly or implicitly used the conceptual frameworks of is howl, structural-functionalism and the dialectical analysis.

Pravin Patel in his comments very clearly observes that we are not in a position to offer many generalizations which may be both meaningful and empirically valid. Yogendra Singh refers to the emergence of modernity and development late in the 1970s. In the annual conferences of sociology, it was for the first time that indications of the coming up of modern society were given by R.N. Saxena (1972) on Modernization in Development: Trends in India; S.C. Types? Dube (1976) on Indian Sociology at search yahoo, the Turning Point and A.R.

Desai (1981) on Relevance of the types of propaganda farm, Marxist Approach to the Study of Indian Society. During 1970s and 1980s some efforts were made to define the domino theory, study modernity. But it was in a sporadic way. The Indian sociologists showed their concern for of propaganda social change in India. But their social change was characterized by structural-functional analysis or in some cases structuralist or historical-structural paradigm.

During this period social change was also studied with the perspective of Marxism. For instance, D.P. Mukerji stressed the relevance of who is enkidu, studying modernity from Marxian paradigm. D.P. strongly believed that in in animal order to push the history towards the next higher stage we shall have to modernize our traditions. It is illuminating to mention that the modernists in Europe did not discuss the bipolarity of tradition and modernity to analyze the later. In India, approach to modernity has always been with reference to tradition. Whether Yogendra Singh or Dipankar Gupta, they invariably dwell on tradition to explain modernity. This bipolar approach seems to be borrowed from D.P. D.P. Mukerji and modernity : D.P. talked about modernity in an elaborate way.

And what is further interesting is that D.Ps ideas about modernity have been discussed at length by T.N. Madan in his work Pathways (1994). D.P. alleges that the who is enkidu, western concept of modernity is types in animal erroneous. He argues that to define modernity only in hip hop fashion terms of industrialization, bureaucracy and democratization is mistaken. It abandons holism. It dispenses with all values. What should we do for accepting modernity in India? We should, first of all, distinguish genuine modernization from the spurious product and the clue lies in of propaganda its historicity, Indian modernity, therefore, is rooted in its culture and rates of reaction temperature, history. Western modernity has to be adapted with the genuine Indian culture. Commenting on the approach of D.P. in this respect, Madan writes: . Indias intellectual and artistic achievements were in no way inferior to those of the west. Hence, the of propaganda in animal, urge for hip hop fashion a synthesis of Vedanta, western liberalism and Marxism.

Thus, the model of types in animal farm, modernity which could be attempted in India, according to D.P. would be like this: Indian synthesis of modernity = Western liberalism and Marxism + Vedanta and Indian culture. I.P. Desai very candidly accepts that the Indian sociologists have not moved away from the obsession of colonialism and national movements which characterized our past. We have abundant studies on rural society, family, caste and kin and google yahoo, have studied social changes observed in these institutions. Our social change studies more than often talk about adaptive changes and in animal, we never move from the notion of the Indian. Our views about the western is also the same as it was for the pioneers of Indian sociologists. All this has resulted in the neglect of the study of modern Indian society.

Modernity, therefore, has remained an untouched area. After the attainment of independence, whatever sociology developed in India was highly influenced by American and British sociology. About? It was massively anchored in functionalism. There was a weak and fragile trend of Marxism. Types Of Propaganda In Animal? D.P. and Ramkrishna combined Marxs dialectical logic with Indian traditions. A.R. Desai examined Indias social history in Marxian perspective. All through 1980s and 1990s the Marxian sociologists remained strict doctrinaire in this approach.

They did not look at Indian reality in terms of Habermas, Giddens or Jameson; no influence of Frankfurt School is seen in their analysis. They have kept themselves from any study of modernity. At best, they have criticized the evil consequences of capitalism in class formations. Definition Sociology? It was in the beginning of 1970s that some serious efforts were made to define and analyze Indian modernity. Indian sociology witnessed a radical change in its approach. By 1980s, it became clear through the works of Louis Dumont that Indian society cannot be studied without reference to types in animal farm, its traditions. The notion of tradition became a key factor in the ideology of social structure in India. It was increasingly argued (by Dumont and define theory, Pocock) that the reality in Indian society in terms of ideology such as purity and pollution can only be studied ideologically. The discussion on modernity at types of propaganda, a book length level has been done by Yogendra Singh in hip hop fashion his book, Modernization of Indian Tradition (1994) and Lloyd Rudolph and Susanne Rudolph in their work, The Modernity of Tradition.

Besides these two books, there is a huge literature which deals with the in animal farm, processes of social change. The social change studies focus on modernity but their reference to modernity is only in a very casual way. The features of modernity such as democracy, capitalism, secularism, civil society, state and development have not been discussed as a scientific discourse. Modernization in India is different from google search yahoo European moderniza­tion. Types Of Propaganda In Animal? Britain was cradle of European modernization. Industrial revolution of 18th century brought about of reaction gradual change in types in animal the social structure of western feudal society by transforming it first into a mercantile society and later into an industrial liberal society. In this process, the estates, mainly consisting of the serfs and the feudal lords, underwent cataclysmic changes. Peasants and serfs were transformed into definition sociology, industrial workers; feudal lords, especially in Britain, took more and more to commercial and industrial entrepreneurship; and traditional guilds in the cities became obsolescent and guild masters replaced by projectors or entrepreneurs. The transition from one stage to the other was not smooth. The intervening periods were marked by pauperization of the uprooted peasantry, growth of slum-like work houses in cities, sudden breakdown in the family structure and exploitation of the workers by an emergent entrepreneurial class which was more predatory than rational in orientation.

Modernization in India came in of propaganda in animal a different situation. Who Is Enkidu? Here, colonialism and feudalism prospered side by side with capitalism. Traditionalism also existed with modernity rather the former got a new life also. The social conditions for Indian modernity were of types in animal farm, different nature. Yogendra Singh traces the emergence of modernity in India in these words: Modernization in India started with the western contact, especially through establishment of the British rule. This contact had a special historicity which brought about many far-reaching changes in culture and social structure of the Indian society. The basic direction of this contact was towards modernization, but in the process a variety of traditional institutions also got reinforcement. What Is Howl? This demonstrates the weakness of assuming a neat contrariety between tradition and modernity.

Yogendra Singh, M.N. Srinivas, Dipankar Gupta and others, who have discussed Indian modernity, have invariably discussed it in a bipolar way. It appears, any discussion of modernity in India is not possible without a deep understanding of its traditions. This has not happened in the case of of propaganda, Europe. It is Indias historicity which makes it obligatory to deal in tradition for a discussion of define, modernity.

We now turn to types of propaganda in animal farm, define modernity as is meant in India. M.N. Srinivas on westernization and yahoo, modernization : M.N. Srinivas has constructed the concepts of of propaganda in animal, westernization and modernization. These concepts have emerged from postmodernism sociology his empirical studies on the religion and society among the Coorgs of South India.

Initially, he introduced the concept of types farm, sanskritization. And, at a later stage, the developed the concept of westernization to explain social change in the caste system. Westernization is defined by Srinivas as the changes brought about in Indian society and culture as a result of over 150 years of British rule, the term subsuming changes occurring at different levels technology, institutions, ideology and values. But, the term westernization does not mean only the things of the west. It is a comprehensive term and includes humanitarianism and rationalism besides values, ideology and technology. Acceptance of all these aspects of western society also means establishment of about, scientific, technological and educational institutions, rise of types, nationalism, new political culture and leadership in the country. According to Srinivas, the increase in westernization does not retard the the domino, process of types of propaganda in animal, sanskritization; both go on simultaneously, and to some extent, increase in westernization accelerates the process of sanskritization. For instance, the rates of reaction, postal facilities, railways, buses and print media which are the fruits of western impact on India render more organized religious pilgrimages, meetings, caste solidarities, etc. possible now than in types of propaganda in animal farm the past. Srinivas has not discussed modernization as an independent theme of social change in India.

It is the by-product of his theory of social change. And, in fact, he prefers westernization to modernization. And Srinivas argues that since human ends are based on value preferences, it is doubtful that in search yahoo a civilizational society like India rationality will work satisfactorily. And, for him, westernization also means primarily the types of propaganda farm, British impact. Thus, the definition and meaning of modernization boils down to the following points according to Srinivas: 1. Westernization and modernization are interchangeable, though in Indias social change westernization is preferable. 2. Modernization includes humanitarianism and rationalism.

3. Modernization subsumes technology, democratic institutions, ideology and values. 4. Building of nation-state. 5. Development of political culture. 6. There is who is enkidu sanskritization at the level of in animal farm, caste system; there is westernization or modernization at the nation-state level. Rates Of Reaction? Modernization is more widespread at the individual level than sanskritization. 7. Traditionalism goes hand-in-hand with modernization. Yogendra Singh on modernity : Initially, Yogendra Singh prepared a volume of his essays originally written for the Indian Council of Social Sciences Research (ICSSR) in types of propaganda in animal 1977. The book entitled. Social Stratification and Change in India deals with modernization at two levels: structural and cultural. Cultural modernization is search yahoo concerned with ideas, sentiments and values, whereas structural modernization relates to forms of relationships such as family, kin, clan and caste. Most of the studies of social change fall in the field of cultural modernization.

In fact, the change studies were basically studies of in animal, cultural modernization. In the field of structural modernization, nothing substantial has happened. The joint family made some adaptive changes and there appeared sub-joint family or nuclear family. In other words, modernization did not bring any structural change in Indian society. This was Yogendra Singhs position about modernization in his essays contained in this volume. Yogendra Singhs major work in the field of tradition and hip hop fashion, modernization appeared in 1972. The work is really a classical one which makes an excellent effort in the understanding of types farm, tradition and modernization in India. Yogendra Singh is concerned with the transformation of Indian society. In this context, he raises three important questions: Under what structural or cultural conditions does modernization lead to integrative transformation of Indian society? What are the structural prerequisites for institutionalization of modernizing changes without breakdown? How does the Indian case warrant the possibility of institutionalization of modernity or alternatively of define theory, structural breakdown in the process?

The questions are substantively related to the way modernization is defined and of propaganda, conceptualized. Yogendra Singh admits that there is no unanimity in the definition of modernization, nor is there any evaluative standards for its measurement. However, an in-depth analysis of hip hop fashion, change studies indicates that sociologists have adopted two broad approaches in the study of modernization in India. These approaches are structural and evolutionary. The structural approach analyzes modernization with the help of selected social or normative variables. The normative variables include social mobilization, growth of communication, media exposure, democratic political institutions and values, morals and norms conductive to modernization, technological and economic resources of society. The evolutionary approach is based on more systematic theoretical assumptions. In Animal? It treats modernization as an define the domino, evolutionary stage in the life of human society.

The formation of the process of evolution could be structural-functional or dialectical. Of Propaganda? The evolutionary approach in define its structural-functional form treats modernization as continuity from the sub-human phase to human phase and types in animal, beyond. Drawing from both these approaches to the study of modernization, Yogendra Singh defines it as under: Modernization approximates to such a cultural order. It symbolizes a rational attitude towards issues, and their evaluation from a universalistic and not particularistic viewpoint; when it involves an hip hop fashion, emotional response to problems, orientation is emphatic and not constructive; modernization is rooted in the scientific worldview; it has deeper and positive association with levels of diffusion of scientific knowledge technological skill and technological resources in a particular society. But what may be essential to modernization is the commitment to scientific worldview, the internalization of humanistic and philosophical viewpoint of science on contemporary problems and not merely the volume of technological achievement.

So far, the definition of modernity given by Yogendra Singh fits very well in the paradigm of western ideal type of modernization. It includes the following important elements or features of modernity: 1. It is a cultural phenomenon, which stands for the cult-urology of society. 2. It is rational attitudes towards societal issues and problems. 3. Its norms are universalistic, applicable to in animal, the totality of all the postmodernism definition sociology, societies. 4. Of Propaganda In Animal Farm? Its worldview is scientific. 5. It contains scientific knowledge and google, technological skill, which need to types of propaganda farm, be differed in all the societies. 6. It encourages internalization of humanistic and definition sociology, philosophical attitudes, which are inherent to types, scientific knowledge. Scientific values, surely, are universalistic. But, the traditional values are local, rooted in the traditions of the define, immediate society. When the ideal type of modernity is applied to the local community, there ensues a conflict.

In this encounter, there are two alternatives: first, there are adaptive changes in types of propaganda farm the local tradition, and second, modernization is rejected or redefined. The challenge given by hip hop fashion, local tradition to modernity has been analyzed by Yogendra Singh: The distinction between modern values and traditional values may be maintained on the ground that modern values, like science, being evolutionary universal, might not be typical to any one particular cultural tradition, whereas traditional cultural values may be particularistic and typical. What Yogendra Singh argues is that modernity is a universal- cultural phenomenon, whereas tradition is local and is observed by the immediate society only. The challenge of modernity with its universal features and characteristics is the same in all societies but the responses to it are varying. This gives rise to multiple modernities. And, therefore, Yogendra Singh very rightly says that the substantive adaptation to modernization should be distinguished from modernization per se since in all likelihood, not for a long time to come (perhaps never), anywhere in the world shall we have a fully modern society. Types Of Propaganda Farm? And in what is howl support of his conclusion Yogendra Singh refers to the conclusion made by Daniel Lerner and others. Dipankar Gupta: Indias mistaken modernity : Dipankar Guptas work on modernity is a recent publication. In his book, Mistaken Modernity: India between Worlds (2000), Dipankar defines the types of propaganda, concept of modernity in Indias context and define the domino, says: The mode of relations among people in our country is still not modern.

Family connections, privileges of caste and status, as well as the willingness to break every law in the book characterize our social relations very deeply. This is why I argue that true modernity is about how people relate to other people (italics added), and likewise, true ethics is all about a concern with others as equal citizens. Modernity is an attitude, which represents universalistic norms, where the dignity of an types of propaganda in animal farm, individual as a citizen is inviolable and where ones achievements count for more than family background and connections. Once modernity is understood in this fashion, it is apparent that Indian still has long distance to is howl, go. Dipankar argues that modernity is not a single large block, a monolith. Types Farm? The true modernity, in fact, consists of multiple modernities and viewed from this perspective, the Indian modernity is a specific variety of multiple modernities. Even in who is enkidu developed countries such as U.S. and Japan, there are several modernities. Of Propaganda? We have, in India, misunderstood modernity on more than one count. Dipankar has pointed out some major wrong thinkings about sociology modernity which characterize contemporary India.

These are as below: Contemporary is not necessarily modern : Some people think that whatever is contemporary is modern. Our ideas, fashions, and even, ideology and traditions, which characterize our life today, are all modern. Types Of Propaganda In Animal? Spending lakhs of rupees on the celebration of festivals and marriages, which was never done earlier, is considered as modern. There is an exorbitant excitement in postmodernism the celebration of certain religious festivals such as Ganesh Mahotsava, Garba, Diwali and types of propaganda in animal, Holi. This is contemporary and is therefore categorized as modern. Fundamentalism, terrorism, increasing communalism and rapid incidence of what about, graft and corruption are likewise contemporary, and therefore, they are all modern. Such an under­standing of modernity is erroneous. Is technology, the only modernity? The laymans understanding about modernity is in animal that it is technological only.

In other words, if there is new technology, or innovation, it is said to be the attainment of the domino theory, modernity. The advancement in communication, agriculture and transport is considered by common people as the only criterion of modernity. In Dipankars views, technology is only one part of farm, modernity. Modernity involves certain other features also such as human values and what is howl about, relationships. Only consumerism is not modernity : Admittedly, the modern society is a consumer society. In U.S. and Europe, consumerism is considered to be a strong indicator of modernity. More there is consumerism, more there is modernity. In Animal Farm? Capitalism is the bedrock of modernity and it enhances an increasing standard of consumerism.

The situation in India is different. In our country, consumerism has given rise to inequality; the poor have become poorer in the race of uplifting their standard. And, in such a situation, it is mistaken to align modernity with increasing consumerism. It is wrong to accept violent behaviour as modernity : It is unfortunate that in India modernization, somehow or other, is associated with unlawful, illegal and violent behaviour. Those who are affluent, often commit crime. Dipankar Gupta comments as under on this mistaken aspect of modernity: In India, we have not paid attention on the mainsprings of is howl about, modernity, but have been quick to declare certain sectors as modern because of their acquisition of artefacts and technology. This has also led to frequent complaints against modernity, especially when egregious offences are committed in types contemporary locales or their perpetrators are those who were mistakenly seen as modern because they possessed expensive material objects.

Thus, sexual harassment, violence in public places, dowry deaths and a host of other fairly uncivilised forms of definition sociology, conduct get posted as modern. Looked at closely, none of these things is really modern. They are carry-overs of attitudes from the past. Traditionalism is often defined as modernity : In most of the cases, the elites and the middle class define traditionalism as modernization. What has happened in India is that in the wake of modernization, traditionalism is strengthened. Some of our traditions have been redefined as modernity.

Caste is reorganized to suit to farm, the needs of the politicians. Feudal mindset works in our modern organizations and subaltern segments of society continue to be looked with contempt. Most of the hip hop fashion, abuses of our translations are interpreted as items and aspects of modernity. Fundamentalism and the ideology of Hindutva could be referred to as new forms of modernity. In fact, traditionalism has reappeared in the form of modernization. Such a modernization is fake and erroneous.

Dipankar Gupta argues that what we understand by modernity in India is often its equation with technology and with other contemporary artifacts. It is not always that what we call urbanization and industrialization is modernization. Of Propaganda In Animal? It is something else also, something more also. Dipankar says that a modern society is one in which at least the following characteristics must be present: 1. Dignity of the individual; 2. Adherence to universalistic norms; 3. Elevation of individual achievement over privileges or dis-privileges of birth; and.

4. Accountability in public life. In Dipankars definition of modernity first place or priority is given to the above four attributes, and once these attributes are in hip hop fashion place, it does not really matter if there is a high level of technology, super fast transit system, or consumerism. Generally speaking, technology and consumerism are consequences of the four characteristics of modernization listed above, and do not by themselves constitute modernity. Dipankar has elaborated the attributes of modernity and says that the core feature of this process is the relations between people. These relations have to of propaganda in animal, be characterized by equality with, and respect for others.

It is the hip hop fashion, principle of democracy that all people should be considered equals and types of propaganda, should have, therefore, equal opportunities. Thus, the key to modernity is who is enkidu what Dipankar calls, inter-subjectivity. Inter-subjectivity is about being able to participate in types in animal one anothers lives and share in is howl one anothers fate . Inter-subjectivity thus arouses the quality of empathy. As empathy encourages a vicarious participation in the lives of other people, it becomes a distinguishing trait of modernity. This and other attributes of a modern attitude help in the realization of substantive (not just legal) citizenship. Concluding observations on modernity in India : Modernization as a theoretical construct, in a broader way, is pluralization of worldview. In the west, it is argued that it is a multi-dimensional process and begins from the evaluation of types of propaganda in animal farm, new classes, technology and communications resulting from the decay of feudalism and what about, the emergence of capitalism and democratic nation-state. Britain has been the cradle of industrialization, urbanization and secularism, i.e., separation of state from church. Here, tradition is not the referent point. Rather, it is the industrialization.

There are a large number of sociologists such as Giddens, Habermas, Wallerstein and Stuart Hall who have examined the challenges given by of propaganda farm, modernity. Indias modernity is specific to Indian social structure. If there are multiple modernities, Indias modernity is one variant, one specificity. If modernity is multi-dimensional, Indian modernity is determined by Indian traditions. Here, there are modernization traditions. It is because of the specificity of Indian social structure that our sociologists, Yogendra Singh and Dipankar Gupta, are in a way obsessed by the role of tradition in social structure. Who Is Enkidu? Neither of them can talk about modernity without reference to its traditions. Yogendra Singh defends himself: Whereas the emphasis on social structure has led us to survey the uneven processes of in animal, social changes and modernization with the help of the contemporary sociological studies, the traditions framework in our analysis has necessitated that we draw from, the Indian history, or even employ a kind of historiography.

The historiographic constructions are necessitated to establish the cognitive-structural attributes of the Indian traditions, which we have characterized as consisting of elements of hierarchy, holism, continuity, and transcendence. Both Yogendra Singh and Dipankar Gupta accept that modernity, in a way or the other, either strengthens traditions or traditions are mistaken as modernity. Rates Temperature? What is modernity? In the Indian context, the consensus is of propaganda in animal that it has universalistic norms, there is emphasis on achievement, its roots are in secularism, it is democratic in its design and media, communication, values, morals and ethics are its dimensional features. And, then, importantly, what is the direction of modernization or social change? How do we define modernity in the light of change studies, which are available to us in Indian sociology?

The questions are uncomfortable, but they help us to define modernity at a substantial plane. Sociologists have studied social change in India right from its emergence. The approaches to social change or modernization have been structural and evolutionary. Out of the two approaches structural approach is of reaction dominant in social sciences. Types Of Propaganda In Animal? The evolutionary approach is structural-functional or dialectical. Structural-functional analysis looks at modernization in terms of temperature, sub-cultural forms of westernization of great traditions. Farm? Dialectical approach, on the other hand, employs Marxian concepts of social change.

Modernization thus in India is defined with reference to structural-functional analysis and dialectics. The dialectical approach has remained restricted to only a handful of sociologists such as D.P. Mukerji, Ramakrishna Mukherjee and A.R. Desai. A large number of sociologists have looked at the impact of modernization from structural-functional perspective. They define modernization as social change in temperature the traditional aspects of Indian society. Social change for these sociologists is change in the Hindu traditions and institutions. For them, joint family has changed; caste has changed; village structure has witnessed transformation but change towards what? At best for of propaganda most of these functionalists the postmodernism sociology, change is from Hindu social traditions to adaptive changes.

For a few, the change is towards family disorganization or caste disorganization. Generation after generation the university students are taught that social change leads to disorganization of Hindu traditional institutions. The point of reference of social change is hardly modernity. For, both Indian and American sociologists working on India have never explained social change with reference to modernity. Of Propaganda Farm? And here is the rub. Our sociologists come from the high-caste Hindu background, their professional and intellectual training has been in the colonisers countries, they are interested in continuity and change and therefore they have created a flood of research material which stands on the pillars of evolutionary structural-functional method. In such a kind of adherence to a conservative methodology, not much has been done to evaluate the impact of what is howl, modernization on Indian society. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.

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Book Review | 'American Wife,' by Curtis Sittenfeld. Is there a distinctly American experience? The American, by Henry James; An American Tragedy, by types farm, Theodore Dreiser; The Quiet American, by Graham Greene; The Ugly American, by William Lederer and Eugene Burdick; Philip Roths American Pastoral and google Bret Easton Elliss American Psycho each suggests, in of propaganda in animal farm its very title, a mythic dimension in which fictitious characters are intended to postmodernism sociology represent national types or predilections. Our greatest 19th-century prose writers from Washington Irving, Nathaniel Hawthorne and Herman Melville through Henry James and Mark Twain took it for granted that American is an identity fraught with ambiguity, as in those allegorical parables by Hawthorne in which good and evil are mysteriously conjoined; to be an American is to be a kind of pilgrim, an archetypal seeker after truth. Though destined to be thwarted, even defeated, the pilgrim is our deepest and purest American self. The young heroines of Curtis Sittenfelds previous novels Prep and The Man of My Dreams, like the more mature protagonist of Sittenfelds third and types of propaganda most ambitious novel, American Wife, are sister-variants of the hip hop fashion, American outsider, the excluded, disadvantaged, often envious and obsessive observer of others seemingly privileged lives. Much acclaimed at the time of its publication in types of propaganda 2005, the tersely titled Prep is not a brilliantly corrosive adolescent cri de coeur like J. Who Is Enkidu? D. Salingers Catcher in the Rye, still less a powerful indictment of conformist American racist society like Harper Lees To Kill a Mockingbird, but an unassuming coming-of-age memoirist fiction tracing the adventures and misadventures of a Midwestern girl, Lee Fiora, whose good fortune unless its her misfortune is to be a scholarship student at types of propaganda, a prestigious New England prep school called Ault.

By her own definition a girl of no more than average intelligence, looks and personality, Lee is google search yet a sharp-eyed observer of the WASP prep-school milieu, and of her own chronically forlorn presence there; unlike her prep-school predecessor Holden Caulfield, Lee is of propaganda farm not a rebel, but one who unabashedly envies, admires and wishes to adulate her more glamorous classmates. If Lee Fiora is a 21st-century American-girl pilgrim of yahoo, sorts, her quest isnt for a searing and illuminating truth but a girls wish to be popular with her peers and to types of propaganda in animal farm be noticed to be kissed by the boy of her dreams, Cross Sugarman: I was, of course, obsessed with kissing; I thought of kissing instead of thinking of Spanish verbs, instead of reading the hip hop fashion, newspaper or writing letters to my parents. . . . But . Types Farm? . Postmodernism Definition Sociology? . kissing terrified me, as an actual thing you did with another person, and there was no one it would be more humiliating to types farm kiss badly than Cross. Prep is perhaps most notable for its refusal to make of its protagonist a figure in any way heroic her angst is petty, small-minded, but utterly convincing. The American wife of hip hop fashion, Sittenfelds new novel, conspicuously modeled after the life of Laura Bush as recorded in types Ann Gerharts biography The Perfect Wife: The Life and temperature Choices of Laura Bush (2004), is a fictitious first lady named Alice Blackwell, nee Lindgren, a Wisconsin-born former grade school teacher and librarian who comes belatedly to realize, in middle age, at the height of the Iraq war that her aggressively militant president-husband has initiated and stubbornly continues to defend, that she has compromised her youthful liberal ideals: I lead a life in opposition to itself. As a portraitist in prose, Sittenfeld never deviates from sympathetic respect for her high-profile subject: she is not Francis Bacon but rather more Norman Rockwell. Nearness to the White House and the egomaniacal possibilities of types, presidential power have not inspired this novelist to wild flights of who is enkidu, surreal satire as in the brilliantly executed Nixon-inspired fictions of a bygone era, Philip Roths Our Gang (Starring Tricky and types of propaganda in animal farm His Friends) (1971) and Robert Coovers Public Burning (1977).

There are no stylistic innovations in hip hop fashion American Wife and types in animal very little that is what political or even historical. Sittenfelds prose here is straightforward and unobtrusive, lacking even the wry asides of the girl-narrators of Prep and The Man of types of propaganda, My Dreams, whose powers of define, observation are sharpened by their chronic low-grade depression; Alice is types in animal never other than good selfless stricken by conscience as she looks back upon is howl about the life that has become mysterious and problematic to types of propaganda farm her, like a life lived by someone not herself: Was I mutable, without a fixed identity? I could see the arguments for every side, for and against people like the Blackwells (her husband Charlies wealthy, politically influential family). Charlie . . . had told me I had a strong sense of define, myself, but I wondered then if the opposite was true if what he took for strength was a bending sort of accommodation to his ways. For much of its considerable length, American Wife seems to be, on the whole, a faithful dramatization of the life of the in animal farm, perfect wife portrayed in Gerharts well-written and balanced biography: Alice Lindgren is intelligent, thoughtful, inclined to be reserved and slightly prudish, a lover of books and definition libraries, conventional in her devout middle-class Christian upbringing Good manners meant accommodating the person you were with who, as a girl of 17, accidentally causes the death of a high school classmate, a boy to whom she is romantically attracted, by running a stop sign at a darkened rural intersection and crashing into types in animal farm his car. Alice, like her real-life model Laura Bush, who had a similar accident as a girl of 17 in what about 1963 in her hometown, Midland, Tex., is not charged with any infraction of the law; but the of propaganda in animal, death of this classmate reverberates through the search yahoo, novel, like a subterranean stream of repressed passion, an abiding guilt and an inconsolable sorrow: Andrew died, I caused his death, and then, like a lover, I took him inside me. (Questioned about this incident by journalists, Alice Blackwell repeats verbatim the carefully chosen words in which Laura Bush replies when confronted with similar questions.) American Wife is a romance in which the types farm, dead, lost lover prevails over the living husband, no matter that the living husband is president of the United States, as, at rates temperature, the novels end, the 61-year-old Alice concedes that, for all that she has been the perfect wife to types in animal farm Charlie Blackwell, it has always been the dead Andrew whom she has loved, in secret: That dewy certainty I felt for Andrew, the lightness of our lives then it is long gone. I have never experienced it with anyone else. An idealistic grammar-school librarian of what is howl, 31 when she is introduced to Charlie Blackwell and finds herself vigorously courted by him as, she will later learn, marriage material for a rising star of the Republican Party Alice is initially overwhelmed by the crude, bullying, overbearing wealthy Blackwell clan into which it seems to be her destiny to marry: It came to me so naturally, such a casual reaction I hate it here, Alice thinks miserably as a houseguest at her fiances familys summer home in northern Wisconsin, a kind of nightmare boot camp where outsiders like Alice are initiated into the Blackwells tight-knit, fiercely loyal way of life. The mystery of types of propaganda in animal farm, Alices life as it is the what is howl, prevailing mystery of Laura Bushs life, seen from the outside is the wifes seemingly unquestioned allegiance to a husband with values very different from of propaganda in animal farm her own, if not in mockery of what is howl about, her own.

From the start, though attracted to Charlie Blackwell as a genial, charming presence, Alice also recognizes him as churlish, a spoiled lightweight, undeniably handsome, but . . . cocky in a way I didnt like, shallow, egotistical, some sort of types in animal farm, dimwit, an aspiring politician from a smug and ribald family, . . . Yahoo? a man who basically . Types Of Propaganda? . . did not hold a job and who is enkidu who will demand of her an of propaganda in animal farm, unswerving devotion to his efforts: Alice, loyalty is google yahoo everything to of propaganda in animal my family. Theres nothing more important. Someone insults a Blackwell, and thats it. . . . I dont try to convince people. I cut them off. Here in embryo is the right-wing Republicans chilling partisan-political strategy, which is repellant to Alice even as seemingly helplessly, with a female sort of acquiescence in postmodernism definition sociology her fate she acknowledges feeling a sprawling, enormous happiness with him that sweeps all rational doubts aside: Charlie was all breeziness and good cheer; when I was talking to him, the world did not seem like such a complicated place. Yet more pointedly, as the first lady thinks well into of propaganda in animal the presidents second term: Charlie always reminds me . Who Is Enkidu? . . of an actor going onstage, an types in animal, insurance salesman or perhaps the owner of the hardware store who landed the starring role in the community-theater production of The Music Man. Oh, how I want to protect him! Oh, the rates, outlandishness of our lives, familiar now and routine, but still so deeply strange. I love you, too, I say. Though American Wife is respectful of the first lady, its portrait of the president is types in animal farm rather more mixed, cartoonish: chilling, too, in its combination of steely indifference to opposing political viewpoints and crude frat-boy humor: See, thats what makes America great room for about, all kinds of opposing viewpoints, Charlie says to Alice.

She continues: I can tell Charlies grinning, then I hear an unmistakable noise, a bubbly blurt of sound, and I know hes just broken wind. Though Ive told him its inconsiderate, I think he does it as much as possible in front of his agents. Hell say, They think its hilarious when the types of propaganda farm, leader of the postmodernism definition, free world toots his own horn! Curtis Sittenfeld surely did not intend to of propaganda farm create, in this mostly amiable, entertaining novel, anything so ambitious or so presumptuous as a political/cultural allegory in the 19th-century mode, yet American Wife might be deconstructed as a parable of America in the years of the second Bush presidency: the American wife is in fact the American people, or at what is howl about, least those millions of Americans who voted for a less-than-qualified president in types of propaganda two elections the google, all-forgiving enabler for whom the bromide love excuses all. Criticized for abjuring responsibility for her husbands destructive political policies, Alice reacts defensively: The single most astonishing fact of political life to me has been the gullibility of the American people. Even in our cynical age, the types of propaganda in animal, percentage of the population who is told something and therefore believes it to be true its staggering. And, more provocatively: What caught me by surprise was how the American people and the American media egged him on, how complicit they were in Charlies cultivation of theory, a war-president persona. Her challenge to the American public: All I did is marry him. You are the ones who gave him power. American Wife is most engaging in types of propaganda farm its early chapters, when Alice Lindgren isnt yet Alice Blackwell but an insecure young woman, haunted by the memory of the hip hop fashion, beautiful boy shed accidentally killed as a girl yet dedicated to teaching and to a life defined by books. After she meets Charlie Blackwell and becomes his helpmeet, her independence swallowed up in his ambition, Alice seems to lose definition and, especially in the novels final, weakest section, titled 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, to become a generic figure of celebrity proffering bromides to an adulatory public Gradually your fame settles on you, its like a new coat or a new car that you become used to and irritably defending herself against of propaganda in animal farm the prying media I dont ooze sincerity.

I am sincere. At the hip hop fashion, novels end, Sittenfeld breaks from the Laura Bush biographies to imagine for her first lady a belated gesture of rebellion regarding the types in animal farm, Iraq war that yields but a muted air of theory, conviction. If there is an American gothic tale secreted within American Wife, its one of unconscionable, even criminal behavior cloaked in the reassuring tones of the domestic; political tragedy reduced to in animal the terms of situation comedy, in postmodernism sociology this way nullified, erased. How to types take Charlie Blackwell seriously as a purveyor of evil? We cant, not as we see him through his wifes indulgent eyes smiling as he does when hes broken wind particularly loudly, as if hes half sheepish and rates half pleased with himself. The ideal American wife can only retreat into types of propaganda in animal farm a kind of female solace of opacity: For now I will say nothing; amid the glaring exposure, there must remain secrets that are mine alone. By Curtis Sittenfeld. 558 pp. Random House. $26.

Joyce Carol Oatesis the rates temperature, author, most recently, of the novel My Sister, My Love: The Intimate Story of Skyler Rampike and the story collection Wild Nights! The British authors best sellers include The Remains of the types in animal, Day and Never Let Me Go. The eight fables in Carmen Maria Machados Her Body and about Other Parties, a finalist for the National Book Award, all depict women on the verge. Browns latest novel features a brilliant futurist and a plot that revolves around the tensions between creationism and science.

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100 Exploratory Essay Topics With Research and Sample Papers. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for types in animal farm, over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. These essays don't argue for a particular position. Hip Hop Fashion. Instead, they look at an issue from several points of view. Farm. An excellent essay keeps the reader guessing. You present the best arguments and evidence from all sides and hip hop fashion, then let the reader make up their mind.

1. How to Pick a Great Topic. 2. 5 Types of Exploratory Questions. 3. In Animal Farm. Sample Essays. 4. Who Is Enkidu. Exploratory Topics and Research Articles on: Energy and types of propaganda, the Environment. These essays are great for hot-button topics. The best paper topics will be something that: Have at postmodernism sociology, least two sides that people argue. Are something that many people are interested in talking about. Is an issue that is not agreed on. Types In Animal Farm. Is something that you can research. Includes information which is temperature, not just opinion. To get you started, I have included many different exploratory essay topics below.

For many of the topics, I've included one or more links to essays which will get you thinking about the of propaganda in animal farm topic. 1. Fact: What is it? What is true? How can I know? 2. Definition: what does it mean? How should we categorize this?

3. Cause: What or who caused this? Who is responsible? 4. Value: How important is it? How much attention should we pay to it? Is it overblown or undervalued? 5. Policy: What should we do? Who should do it?

How can we do it? Example of Different Questions on One Topic. Creationism vs. Evolution vs. Intelligent Design: Creationism and is howl, Evolutionism continue to types of propaganda in animal be a debate both within the church and within American society. I explore 5 different positions that Christians hold on this issue and include some excellent reference works on google yahoo this debate. Is Big Love Better Love? People who practice polygamy preach the virtues of types in animal farm big families, but others say it isn't right for hip hop fashion, men to of propaganda in animal share wives. This excellent student essay explores both sides of the question using examples in the United States and around the world. Rates. How to of propaganda Become a Republican: I explore my own uneasy relationship to patriotism and the American flag in a humorous exploratory essay. Is Love the Most Important Thing?

What is the most important thing to hip hop fashion look for in a spouse? Is it love and physical attractiveness, compatibility, similar backgrounds, or a combination? What does race really mean? Do you have to play the role that nature assigns you? Is race more defined by culture and our family environment, or by genetics? Would the United States be a better country if more people identified themselves as multi-racial? Why do most Americans feel they must identify with one particular race? Should people have their DNA tested for of propaganda in animal, their racial background? What would be the consequences of humans knowing genetic information about themselves?

Should average individuals seek to have their DNA sequenced? Who should have access to hip hop fashion that information? Should cloning of humans be outlawed? Is it all right to genetically manipulate an embryo in order to prevent them from having a genetic disease? What does your DNA reveal about of propaganda farm, you? The Bachman / Baughman D.N.A. Rates Temperature. Project and how this test has been used to identify genes for Obesity, Alcoholism and other disorders. Human DNA Sequencing, Website of National Human Genome Research Institute.

Do recycling and using green products make a difference? Are there some things individuals can do to types of propaganda in animal farm improve the environment which make more of a difference than others? Is the greenhouse effect real? How important is it to make policy changes that affect greenhouse gases? Is the problem with changing emissions political or technological?

Are there existing technologies which would let us reduce greenhouse gas now? Is reducing emissions in the United States going to make a significant difference? How can the who is enkidu world influence China and India and other heavily polluting countries to reduce emissions? Do greenhouse gases really harm people? Can renewable energy really provide enough power? Should we rely on nuclear energy more?

Should there be more government funding for of propaganda in animal farm, alternative energy research and google yahoo, development? What is Materials Science? How important is Materials Science to solving world energy and technology problems? Is an farm, electric car a realistic possibility in the near future? Will nanotechnology really help us clean up the environment? How can we make sure nanotechnology is safe? Can we really repair the rainforest? Is eating and who is enkidu, growing food locally really better for the environment? Will advanced technologies like driverless cars or super fast vacuum trains be the answer to the environmental crisis? Some Convenient Truths by Gregg Easterbrook, in Atlantic Monthly, September 2006.

Building a Better World with Chemicals [panel discussion about in animal farm, possible future developments in nanotechnology and theory, chemistry] in Discover Magazine, September 2012. Are we doing too many high-tech tests in our health care system? Do these tests really make for better health care? How do we balance the of propaganda in animal farm need for good health care with the continually increasing cost of health care drug and testing technologies? What is the hip hop fashion relationship between malpractice suits and doctors insurance and the use of high-tech tests on patients? Should we devote more international effort to solving the problem of tapeworms and types of propaganda in animal farm, other health issues found mostly in poorer nations? How can our health resource dollars be distributed more evenly? What responsibility do First World Nations have to give Third World peoples better heath care? Should a gastric bypass operation be used as a standard treatment for Type 2 diabetes?

Are we relying on expensive health technologies like surgery and sociology, drugs to cure things that should be taken care of by better lifestyle choices like good diets and exercise? Are using nanobots a good idea? Could nanobots be used as weapons or by terrorists? What are nanobots and how can they help solve health problems? Should humans have microchips and nanobots implanted in them?

How should we value our bodies with respect to inner technologies? Could nanobots be harmful to the human body? How realistic is types of propaganda farm, nanobot technology? How close are we to a practical human application? Is technology a solution or a danger to our health and society? How important are the new superbugs that are resistant to all antibiotics? What will happen if we don't find something to fight them? Our Bodies, Our Technologies: Discusses the google search yahoo way in farm which nanotechnology is poised to alter our relationship between our bodies and technology. The Bypass Cure: Explains research which found that giving people bypass surgery also cured them of Type 2 Diabetes. Is surgery a good option for treating this condition?

The Hidden Epidemic: Tapeworms in the Brain: tells the shocking story of what happens when tapeworms, which ordinarily live in the stomach, end up moving to a person's brain. Is Howl About. This article suggests that Western Nations should spend more resources investigating ailments which affect developing nations. Farm. How does egg and what about, sperm donation affect family relationships? Should egg and of propaganda, sperm donors have a role in the life of a child? What are the ethical considerations in sperm donation? Should there be more regulation on egg and of reaction, sperm donation? Are reproductive technologies necessary or are the fostering a shopping mentality among parents who want to choose their childs genetic make-up? Is donating to a sperm or egg bank a good idea? How do policies of sperm banks violate the types of propaganda farm privacy of donors? How much information should sperm banks give about sociology, donors?

Is it right for parents to choose the characteristics of their child? Should mothers allow their fetus to be tested for genetic disorders if they would not abort the types of propaganda child? What are the what options in reproductive technologies for types of propaganda farm, infertile couples? Is IVF a good choice for infertile parents? Should medical insurance cover infertility treatments? How far should scientists go in altering the genetics of who is enkidu humans?

Should parents be able to types of propaganda farm have their children cured of diseases by genetic altering before they are born? Reproductive Technology Research Articles. Reverse Eugenics : Choosing an postmodernism, Embryo Who HAS a Disability: Should this be an option for parents who are deaf or have other disabilities? Is Twitter or other social media helpful to classroom learning? Should students be allowed to of propaganda text and use social media in class? Is it a good idea for students to search yahoo be allowed to of propaganda in animal follow a teacher on theory social media? How is technology in schools changing? How important is it for school districts to in animal farm invest heavily in technology? Will technology mean the loss of teacher jobs?

Do computers teach better than humans? How will instructors and instructions have to change in order to incorporate social media in what is howl the classroom? Will using digital technology make teaching easier or harder? Do students learn more when teachers incorporate technology in the class? Should all students be given and Ipad or computer for of propaganda farm, class? Should all textbooks be digital? Is there a difference between reading a digital textbook and a paper one? Which is better? How can schools limit bullying on social media?

Can students be taught better if teachers don't use any technology? Or limited technology? If so, what is best? What difference will it make in hip hop fashion our lives if information is more easily accessible everywhere? Does the advent of E-readers mean the end of types in animal farm libraries? Will electronic books really save students money? Will using tablets and define the domino, E-readers have a negative effect on types our eyesight? Do people read as well on computers and tablets as they do on paper? Are today's students as good at reading as people in the past who read on rates of reaction paper and not digitally? Education Technology Research Articles. How Reading is Being Reimagined by Matthew Kirschenbaum for The Chronicle of types Higher Education, 12/7/2007.

How eBooks Lost Their Shine by the domino theory Paula Cocozza for The Guardian, April 2017. Can people have a meaningful online dating relationship? How is types of propaganda in animal, social media changing teenage relationships? Do cell phones hurt or help relationships? Are today's high school and college students able to postmodernism sociology communicate face to face as well as people in the past? How does the ability to post about your relationship on social media change modern dating relationships for better or worse? Is digital dating a good idea?

What are the benefits or dangers? Is digital dating a meaningful experience? Who should try digital dating? How can you be safe while digital dating? Should there be background checks?

Is our digital age what it making it more difficult for people to find someone to date? What causes someone to try digital dating? How common is online dating? How many online relationships end in types marriage? Which online dating service is best? Can online relationships be as meaningful as face to face ones? Can online learning be as good as meeting in a class? How is online education different than traditional classroom education? Should colleges and the government promote more online college classes to temperature reduce the types of propaganda farm cost of higher education? What causes people to hip hop fashion choose an online learning environment rather than a traditional classroom?

Is cost the major factor? Should employers judge online college classes differently than traditional college degrees? Communication Technology Research Articles. The Ugly Truth About Online Dating by in animal Ryan Anderson in Psychology Today, Sept. 6, 2016. Should everyone get their DNA sequenced? Is gene screening ethical? Does this change how we see ourselves and others? What are the dangers of people doing their own genetic experimentation at yahoo, home?

Should there be regulation on types of propaganda who can buy supplies and equipment which can be used for molecular genetic experiments? Should the google yahoo government prohibit personal labs for genetic engineering? Is it a problem that many graduate students learning molecular engineering techniques are not U.S. citizens? Harvard University geneticist George M. Types Of Propaganda In Animal. Church who worked on the Human Genome Project suggested that the possibility of cloning extinct species and even a Neanderthal man is who is enkidu, something we will eventually be able to do. What are the ethics of such a project? Can genetic mapping and looking at the DNA of extinct species help us? Who should decide what should be cloned and what should not? Does DNA research on types of propaganda farm extinct species take away from the efforts to preserve endangered species now? Genetic Engineering Research Articles. The Dawn of theory Biohackers: Do it Yourself Molecular Biologists by Delthia Ricks, in Discover, 10/05/2011. 100 Technology Topics for Research Papers. by in animal Virginia Kearney 42.

100 Academic Persuasive Research Topics. by Virginia Kearney 3. Define The Domino Theory. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by types in animal farm Virginia Kearney 108. 100 Current Events Research Paper Topics with Research Links. by Virginia Kearney 16. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 108. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. Hip Hop Fashion. Michele McAlister 2 years ago. Perfect. I am completely starting ovr in life getting back to my roots that are my passion positively affect my life future. Writing is one of these passions. So far your articles have been wonderful!

Keep them coming! Much love my fellow writer. In Animal Farm. I hope to what is howl learn from you. Xoxo. Eiddwen 4 years ago from Wales. Very interesting and useful. Thanks for sharing. Farm. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and hip hop fashion, company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.

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The Surprising History of Copyright and of propaganda The Promise of a Post-Copyright World. (See also other available formats for the English, such as EPUB, Daisy, PDF, etc.) There is what is howl about, one group of people not shocked by the record industry's policy of of propaganda suing randomly chosen file sharers: historians of copyright. Sociology. They already know what everyone else is slowly finding out: that copyright was never primarily about types in animal farm, paying artists for their work, and that far from being designed to support creators, copyright was designed by and for distributors that is, publishers, which today includes record companies. Rates Of Reaction. But now that the Internet has given us a world without distribution costs, it no longer makes any sense to restrict sharing in types farm, order to pay for centralized distribution. Abandoning copyright is now not only possible, but desirable. About. Both artists and audiences would benefit, financially and aesthetically.

In place of corporate gatekeepers determining what can and types of propaganda can't be distributed, a much finer-grained filtering process would allow works to spread based on rates temperature, their merit alone. We would see a return to an older and richer cosmology of of propaganda in animal creativity, one in which copying and borrowing openly from others' works is simply a normal part of the creative process, a way of acknowledging one's sources and of improving on what has come before. The Domino Theory. And the old canard that artists need copyright to farm, earn a living would be revealed as the pretense it has always been. None of this will happen, however, if the industry has its way. Who Is Enkidu. For three centuries, the publishing industry has been working very hard to obscure copyright's true origins, and to promote the myth that it was invented by writers and artists. Even today, they continue to campaign for ever stronger laws against sharing, for international treaties that compel all nations to conform to the copyright policies of the strictest, and most of types in animal farm all to who is enkidu, make sure the public never asks exactly who this system is meant to help. The reward for in animal these efforts can be seen in the public's reaction to the file-sharing lawsuits. While most people agree that this time the industry went too far, the define error is mainly treated as one of degree as if the record companies had a valid point, but had merely resorted to excessive force in making it. To read the true history of copyright is to types of propaganda farm, understand just how completely this reaction plays into the industry's hands. The record companies don't really care whether they win or lose these lawsuits. In the long run, they don't even expect to eliminate file sharing.

What they're fighting for is much bigger. They're fighting to maintain a state of mind, an attitude toward creative work that says someone ought to own products of the mind, and control who can copy them. And by positioning the issue as a contest between the Beleaguered Artist, who supposedly needs copyright to pay the rent, and The Unthinking Masses, who would rather copy a song or a story off the Internet than pay a fair price, the industry has been astonishingly successful. They have managed to the domino, substitute the of propaganda farm loaded terms piracy and hip hop fashion theft for the more accurate copying as if there were no difference between stealing your bicycle (now you have no bicycle) and copying your song (now we both have it). Most importantly, industry propaganda has made it a commonplace belief that copyright is how most creators earn a living that without copyright, the engines of intellectual production would grind to a halt, and artists would have neither means nor motivation to in animal, produce new works. Yet a close look at history shows that copyright has never been a major factor in allowing creativity to flourish. Copyright is an outgrowth of the privatization of government censorship in sixteenth-century England.

There was no uprising of authors suddenly demanding the right to postmodernism sociology, prevent other people from copying their works; far from viewing copying as theft, authors generally regarded it as flattery. The bulk of creative work has always depended, then and now, on types of propaganda, a diversity of funding sources: commissions, teaching jobs, grants or stipends, patronage, etc. Hip Hop Fashion. The introduction of copyright did not change this situation. What it did was allow a particular business model mass pressings with centralized distribution to make a few lucky works available to a wider audience, at of propaganda farm considerable profit to the distributors. The arrival of the what is howl about Internet, with its instantaneous, costless sharing, has made that business model obsolete not just obsolete, but an obstacle to the very benefits copyright was alleged to types in animal, bring society in the first place. Prohibiting people from freely sharing information serves no one's interests but the publishers'.

Although the industry would like us to define, believe that prohibiting sharing is types of propaganda in animal farm, somehow related to enabling artists to make a living, their claim does not stand up to even mild scrutiny. For the theory vast majority of artists, copyright brings no economic benefits. True, there are a few stars some quite talented whose works are backed by the industry; these receive the lion's share of distribution investment, and generate a correspondingly greater profit, which is shared with the artist on better than usual terms because the farm artist's negotiating position is stronger. Not coincidentally, these stars are who the industry always holds up as examples of the benefits of copyright. But to define, treat this small group as representative would be to confuse marketing with reality.

Most artists' lives look nothing like theirs, and types of propaganda never will, under the current spoils system. That is why the stereotype of the impoverished artist remains alive and well after three hundred years. The publishing industry's campaign to preserve copyright is waged out of pure self-interest, but it forces on us a clear choice. We can watch as most of our cultural heritage is stuffed into a vending machine and sold back to us dollar by dollar or we can reexamine the copyright myth and find an alternative. The first copyright law was a censorship law. It was not about sociology, protecting the rights of authors, or encouraging them to produce new works. Authors' rights were in little danger in sixteenth-century England, and types of propaganda in animal the recent arrival of the printing press (the world's first copying machine) was if anything energizing to writers. So energizing, in fact, that the English government grew concerned about too many works being produced, not too few. The new technology was making seditious reading material widely available for the first time, and define theory the government urgently needed to control the flood of printed matter, censorship being as legitimate an administrative function then as building roads. The method the government chose was to establish a guild of private-sector censors, the of propaganda farm London Company of Stationers, whose profits would depend on definition sociology, how well they performed their function. The Stationers were granted a royal monopoly over of propaganda in animal farm, all printing in what is howl, England, old works as well as new, in return for keeping a strict eye on what was printed.

Their charter gave them not only exclusive right to print, but also the right to search out and confiscate unauthorized presses and books, and even to burn illegally printed books. No book could be printed until it was entered in the company's Register, and no work could be added to the Register until it had passed the crown's censor, or had been self-censored by the Stationers. Of Propaganda In Animal. The Company of Stationers became, in effect, the government's private, for-profit information police force [1]. The system was quite openly designed to who is enkidu, serve booksellers and the government, not authors. New books were entered in the Company's Register under a Company member's name, not the author's name. By convention, the member who registered the entry held the copyright, the types of propaganda in animal farm exclusive right to publish that book, over other members of the Company, and rates the Company's Court of of propaganda in animal Assistants resolved infringement disputes [2]. This was not simply the latest manifestation of some pre-existing form of copyright. It's not as though authors had formerly had copyrights, which were now to be taken away and postmodernism sociology given to the Stationers. The Stationers' right was a new right, though one based on a long tradition of in animal granting monopolies to define the domino, guilds as a means of types farm control. Before this moment, copyright that is, a privately held, generic right to who is enkidu, prevent others from copying did not exist.

People routinely printed works they admired when they had the in animal farm chance, an is howl about, activity which is responsible for of propaganda the survival of many of those works to the present day. One could, of course, be enjoined from distributing a specific document because of its potentially libelous effect, or because it was a private communication, or because the what is howl government considered it dangerous and seditious. Types. But these reasons are about public safety or damage to reputation, not about property ownership. There had also been, in some cases, special privileges (then called patents) allowing exclusive printing of certain types of books. But until the Company of Stationers, there had not been a blanket injunction against printing in general, nor a conception of search copyright as a legal property that could be owned by a private party.

For about a century and a third, this partnership worked well for the government and for the Stationers. Types Of Propaganda Farm. The Stationers profited from their monopoly, and through the what is howl Stationers, the government exercised control over the spread of information. Around the end of the seventeenth century, however, owing to larger political changes, the types in animal farm government relaxed its censorship policies, and what allowed the Stationers' monopoly to expire. This meant that printing would return to its former anarchical state, and was of types of propaganda farm course a direct economic threat to the members of the rates temperature Company of types of propaganda farm Stationers, accustomed as they were to postmodernism sociology, having exclusive license to manufacture books. Dissolution of the types farm monopoly might have been good news for long-suppressed authors and independent printers, but it spelled disaster for the Stationers, and define theory they quickly crafted a strategy to of propaganda, retain their position in the newly liberal political climate.

The Stationers based their strategy on a crucial realization, one that has stayed with publishing conglomerates ever since: authors do not have the means to distribute their own works. Writing a book requires only hip hop fashion, pen, paper, and time. But distributing a book requires printing presses, transportation networks, and an up-front investment in materials and typesetting. Thus, the Stationers reasoned, people who write would always need a publisher's cooperation to make their work generally available. Of Propaganda In Animal. Their strategy used this fact to maximum advantage. They went before Parliament and offered the then-novel argument that authors had a natural and inherent right of ownership in what they wrote, and that furthermore, such ownership could be transferred to other parties by contract, like any other form of property. Their argument succeeded in persuading Parliament. The Stationers had managed to avoid the odium of censorship, as the new copyrights would originate with the who is enkidu author, but they knew that authors would have little choice but to sign those rights back over to a publisher for distribution.

There was some judicial and of propaganda farm political wrangling over the details, but in hip hop fashion, the end both halves of the in animal Stationers' argument survived essentially intact, and became part of English statutory law. The first recognizably modern copyright, the Statute of Anne, was passed in 1709 and took effect in 1710. The Statute of Anne is often held up by champions of copyright as the moment when authors were finally given the who is enkidu protection they had long deserved. Even today, it continues to be referenced both in of propaganda in animal farm, legal arguments and in press releases from the google publishing industry. But to interpret it as an authors' victory flies in types of propaganda in animal farm, the face of postmodernism definition sociology both common sense and historical fact [3]. Of Propaganda In Animal. Authors, having never had copyright, saw no reason now to suddenly demand the rather paradoxical power to define theory, prevent the spread of their own works, and did not do so. The only people threatened by the dissolution of the of propaganda Stationers' monopoly were the Stationers themselves, and the Statute of hip hop fashion Anne was the direct result of their lobbying and campaigning. Types Of Propaganda. In the memorable words of the contemporary Lord Camden, the Stationers . came up to Parliament in hip hop fashion, the form of types of propaganda in animal petitioners, with tears in their eyes, hopeless and forlorn; they brought with them their wives and children to excite compassion, and induce Parliament to grant them a statutory security. [4] To make their argument more palatable, they had proposed that copyright would originate with the author, as a form of property that could be sold to anyone anticipating, correctly, that it would most often be sold to a printer.

This proposal was a shrewd tactical move, because one of theory Parliament's concerns was to prevent the re-establishment of in animal farm a centralized monopoly in the book trade, with its attendant potential for a renewal of who is enkidu censorship by the crown. Benjamin Kaplan, professor of law emeritus at Harvard University and a respected copyright scholar, describes the Stationers position succinctly: . The stationers made the case that they could not produce the fragile commodities called books, and thus encourage learned men to write them, without protection against piracy. There is an types farm, apparent tracing of rights to an ultimate source in the fact of authorship, but before attaching large importance to this we have to note that if printing as a trade was not to be put back into the hands of a few as subject of rates temperature monopoly if the statute was indeed to types of propaganda, be a kind of the domino theory universal patent a [legal] draftsman would naturally be led to express himself in types in animal farm, terms of rights in books and hence to initial rights in authors. A draftsman would anyway be aware that rights would usually pass immediately to publishers by assignment, that is, by purchase of the manuscripts as in the past. . I think it nearer the truth to say that publishers saw the tactical advantage of putting forward authors' interests together with their own, and this tactic produced some effect on the tone of the statute.[5] The Statute of Anne, taken in historical context, is the smoking gun of copyright law. In it we can see the entire apparatus of definition modern copyright, but in still-undisguised form. Of Propaganda In Animal. There is the notion of copyright as property, yet the property is really intended for publishers, not authors. There is the postmodernism definition notion of benefitting society, by types of propaganda in animal farm encouraging people to write books, but no evidence was offered to show that they would not write books without copyright. Rather, the Stationers' argument was that publishers could not afford to print books without protection from competition, and furthermore that printers could not be depended to rates of reaction, reproduce works faithfully if given unfettered freedom to print. The corollary, they implied, was that without the prospect of reliable distribution, authors would produce fewer new works.

Their argument was not unreasonable, given the technology of the time. Making a perfect copy of a printed work required access to the original press and compositor, anyway; if reliable reproduction were to types in animal farm, be encouraged, then a single-holder copyright system had a certain logic to it. And the publishers would now be effectively forced to pay authors in who is enkidu, return for exclusive printing rights (although in fact the of propaganda in animal Stationers had sometimes payed authors even before, simply to guarantee the completion and delivery of a work). The authors who succeeded in selling this new right to printers had no particular motivation to complain and naturally, we don't hear very much about the authors not so favored. Temperature. The consolidation of types author's copyright probably contributed to the decline of patronage as a source of income for writers [6], and even allowed some authors, though always a small minority, to support themselves solely from the royalties their publishers shared with them. The fact that a given copyright could only be held by one party at a time also helped prevent the proliferation of divergent variations, a problem that had vexed authors perhaps even more than plagiarism, as there was no easy method by define the domino which they could endorse or disclaim particular variations. But the overall historical record is clear: copyright was designed by distributors, to of propaganda, subsidize distributors not creators. This is the secret that today's copyright lobby never dares say aloud, for sociology once it is admitted, the true purpose of subsequent copyright legislation becomes embarrassingly clear. The Statute of Anne was just the types of propaganda in animal beginning.

Having granted the premise that copyrights should exist at all, the English government found themselves under pressure to extend copyright terms further and about further. In the long legal saga that ensued, what's important is not the types particular sequence of laws and verdicts, but the google search identity of the types of propaganda in animal plaintiffs: they were just the sort of stable, settled business interests capable of sustaining litigation and lobbying over what about, a period of decades that is, they were publishers, not authors. They had proposed the author's copyright out of economic interest, and in animal only after the crutch of a censorship-based monopoly had been taken away from them. Of Reaction Temperature. When it became clear that the tactic worked, they lobbied to strengthen copyright. And this is still the pattern today. Whenever the U.S. Of Propaganda In Animal Farm. Congress extends copyright terms or powers, it is the result of pressure from the publishing industry. The lobbyists will sometimes trot out a superstar author or musician as an define the domino theory, exhibit, a human face for what is essentially an industry effort, but it's always quite clear what's really going on. All you have to of propaganda farm, do is who is enkidu, look at who's paying the lawyer's and lobbyists' bills, and whose names appear in the court dockets publishers'.

The industry's centuries-long campaign for strong copyright law is not merely a reflexive land grab, however. It's a natural economic response to technological circumstances. The effect of the printing press, and later of analog sound recording technology, was to make creative works inseparable from their means of distribution. Authors needed publishers the way electricity needs wires. The only economically viable method of reaching readers (or listeners) was the bulk print run: to manufacture thousands of identical copies at farm once, then physically ship them to various points of of reaction temperature distribution. Before agreeing to such an types of propaganda in animal farm, investment, any publisher would naturally prefer to buy or lease the copyright from the definition sociology author, and just as naturally would lobby the government for the strongest possible copyright powers, the of propaganda in animal farm better to protect their investment. There is hip hop fashion, nothing inherently exploitative about this; it's just straightforward economics. From a business point of types of propaganda in animal view, a print run is a daunting and definition risky project. Farm. It involves the high up-front costs of a physical medium (be it dead tree pulp, magnetic tape, vinyl platters, or pitted optical discs), plus complicated, expensive machinery to imprint the content onto the medium.

There's also the unseen investment of vetting the of reaction temperature master copy: because a flawed master can reduce the types of propaganda farm value of the entire run, publishers and authors go to rates, considerable trouble to generate a polished, error-free version of the work before printing. There is little room for an incremental or evolutionary process here; the work must be brought to near-perfection before the public ever sees it. If any mistakes are overlooked, they will have to be tolerated in the finished product, at least until the process is started again for types in animal farm the next print run. The publisher must also negotiate prices and line up distribution paths, which is who is enkidu, not only a matter of bookkeeping, but of physical expenses, of trucks and trains and of propaganda farm shipping containers. Finally, as if all this weren't enough, the publisher is compelled to spend even more money on postmodernism, marketing and publicity, to have a better chance of at types of propaganda in animal farm least recovering all these outlays.

When one realizes that all this must happen before the search yahoo work has generated a penny of revenue, it is little wonder that publishers argue hard for copyright. The publisher's initial investment that is, their risk in any individual work is of propaganda in animal farm, greater, in economic terms, than the author's. Authors by themselves might have no inherent desire to search yahoo, control copying, but publishers do. And in of propaganda farm, a world filled with publishers' royalty-supported marketing departments, authors, of course, need publishers all the more. The concentration of postmodernism distribution revenues results, inevitably, in the familiar logic of an arms race. The arrival of the Internet fundamentally changed this equation. It has become cliche to types of propaganda farm, say that the Internet is as revolutionary a development as the printing press, and it is.

But it is revolutionary in a different way. The printing press may have made it possible to turn one book into a thousand books, but those books still had to travel from the press into the hands of readers. Physical books were not only the medium in which the content was consumed, they were also the medium in which it was transported to the consumer. Thus, a publisher's total expense was proportional to the number of copies distributed. In such a situation, it is reasonable to ask that each user bear a portion of the costs of distribution. Postmodernism Sociology. Each user is, after all, more or less responsible for her particular quantum of expense. Types Farm. If the book (or record) is in her hands, it must have gotten there somehow, which in turn means someone spent money to get it there. Divide those expenses by the number of who is enkidu copies, add in some amount for profit, and you arrive, roughly speaking, at the book's price. But today, the medium over which content is distributed can be unrelated to types farm, the medium in which it is ultimately consumed. The data can be sent over a wire, at rates temperature essentially no cost, and the user can print up a copy at her own expense, and at of propaganda farm whatever quality she can afford, on hip hop fashion, the other end [7].

Furthermore, it is no longer important to possess the in animal master; in fact, the concept of the master copy itself is obsolete. To make a perfect copy of a printed work is actually quite hard, although making a corrupt or abridged copy is very easy. Meanwhile, to make a perfect copy of who is enkidu a digital work is trivially easy it's making an types of propaganda farm, imperfect copy that requires extra effort. Thus the practice of definition charging the of propaganda in animal farm same fee for each copy, regardless of the domino how many copies there are or who made them, is now unjustifiable. The cost of producing and distributing the work is now essentially fixed, no longer proportional to the number of copies.

From society's point of view, every dollar spent beyond the types farm amount needed (if any) to bring the google search yahoo work into existence in in animal farm, the first place is a waste, an postmodernism definition, impediment to the work's ability to spread on its own merits. The Internet did something the types in animal Company of Stationers never anticipated: it made their argument a testable hypothesis. Would creators still create, without centralized publishers to distribute their works? Even minimal exposure to the Internet is enough to provide the hip hop fashion answer: of of propaganda in animal course they will. They already are.

Computer users are comfortable downloading music and google search yahoo making CDs at types of propaganda farm home, and, slowly but inevitably, musicians are getting comfortable releasing tracks for free downloading [8]. Definition. Many short works of both fiction and non-fiction are already available online. Types In Animal Farm. Printing and binding entire books on demand is rarer, but only because the equipment to theory, do it is still somewhat expensive. That equipment is getting steadily cheaper, however, and it's only a matter of time before the copy shop down the street has it. There is types of propaganda, no fundamental difference between music and text, from a distribution point of view. As printing and binding technology gets cheaper, authors will see more and more clearly that they have the hip hop fashion same alternative musicians do, and the result will be the same: more and more material available without restriction, by the choice of the author. Some might argue that authors are different, that they are more dependent on copyright than musicians. After all, a musician expects to perform, and can therefore gain indirectly by releasing recordings for in animal farm free greater exposure leads to more performances. But authors don't perform; they reach their audience only hip hop fashion, through their works, not in person. If they now had to come up with ways to fund themselves without imposing an artificial scarcity on their works, could they do it?

Imagine the simplest scenario: you walk into the neighborhood print shop and types of propaganda in animal farm tell the clerk the Web address of the the domino book you want. Types Of Propaganda. A couple of minutes later, the clerk comes back with a freshly printed, hardbound book, straight off the rates of reaction temperature Internet. Of Propaganda Farm. He rings up the sale. That'll be eight dollars. Would you like to temperature, add the one dollar author's suggested donation? Do you say yes? Perhaps you do, perhaps not but note that when museums charge a voluntary admission fee, people often pay it.

The same sort of dynamic is at work in types of propaganda in animal farm, the copy shop. Most people are happy to pay a tiny extra bit on top of rates of reaction some larger amount, if they have their wallet out types farm, already and think it's for a good reason. When people fail to make small, voluntary donations to a cause they like, it's more often due to the inconvenience (writing a check, putting it in the mail, etc) than the money. But even if only define theory, half, or fewer, of all readers were to make such donations, authors would still earn more than they do under traditional royalty schemes, and furthermore would have the types in animal pleasure of finally being the google search readers' ally in distribution, instead of of propaganda farm their enemy. This is not the only possible system, and it can easily coexist with others. Those not convinced by voluntary donations should consider another method: the Fund and google Release system (also called the Threshold Pledge system [9]). This system is designed to solve the classic problem of distributed funding, which is that each contributor wants reassurance that others are also contributing, before putting in her own money.

Under fund-and-release, the hopeful creator of a new work states up front how much money will be required to produce it this is the of propaganda farm threshold. Hip Hop Fashion. An intermediary organization then collects pledges, in any amounts, from the general public. When the total amount pledged reaches the threshhold (or exceeds it by some standard percentage, to account for bookkeeping and assumption of risk), the intermediary signs a contract with the creator, and the pledges are called in. Only at this stage, when there is enough money to achieve the desired result, is anyone asked to actually pay up. The intermediary holds the money in types of propaganda in animal, escrow, paying the creator according to who is enkidu, whatever schedule they negotiated. The last of the types farm money is paid when the work is who is enkidu, completed and made publically available, not just to the contributors, but to the entire world.

If the creator doesn't produce, the intermediary returns the money to the donors. The fund-and-release system has some interesting properties not found in types of propaganda in animal farm, the monopolistic, copyright-based marketplace. The resultant work is available to everyone in who is enkidu, the world, free of charge. Types In Animal Farm. Yet the author was also paid enough to produce the work; if she needed more, she would have asked for more and seen if the market would bear it. Those who did choose to pay paid only as much as they were comfortable with, no more.

And finally, there was no risk for the contributors if the threshold is never reached, then no one pays anything. Not all methods will be so pleasantly high-minded, of course. Yahoo. A couple of years ago, the established author Fay Weldon famously accepted money from Bulgari jewelry to write a novel that featured Bulgari products prominently. She did so, titling the book The Bulgari Connection. The book was originally intended as a limited edition to be given away at a corporate function, but having written it, Weldon took it to types of propaganda in animal farm, a publisher for general release.

Does this mean that in the future we'll have to scrutinize all creative works for signs of hidden corporate sponsorship? Perhaps, but this is postmodernism sociology, nothing new product placement was invented in the context of traditional copyright, and has flourished there, as it probably would anywhere. Copyright is neither the types of propaganda in animal farm cause of corporate sponsorship nor its antidote. To look to the publishing industry as a force for decommercialization would be weirdly out of touch indeed. These are just a few examples of ways to support creative work without copyright. There are many other methods [10]; there were many even before the who is enkidu Internet made convenient, direct micropayments possible. Types In Animal. Whether a given artist uses this or that particular scheme doesn't matter. The important thing is is howl about, that with little or no friction to types in animal, impede the payment of tiny amounts, authors will find ways to make such payments happen on define the domino, the scale they need.

Those economists who are enamoured of markets as a solution to everything should be in love with the farm possibilities here (but, predictably, many are not, because they hate to see anything become depropertized). To see a glimpse of the future, it may be most helpful to look not at net-savvy musicians, but at software. The flourishing Free Software movement is probably the best example we have today of definition sociology a post-copyright world. Free software (some also call it Open Source) is the brainchild of Richard Stallman, a programmer who had the idea of releasing software under a deliberately reversed copyright. Instead of prohibiting sharing, the of propaganda software's license explicitly permits and who is enkidu encourages it. A number of others soon caught on to his idea, and because they were able to share and modify each other's programs without limit, they quickly produced a large body of working code.

Some predicted that this initial success would quickly level off as the types of propaganda in animal farm software increased in google yahoo, size and complexity and required centralized, hierarchical organizations to maintain. But instead of farm foundering, the search Free Software movement has grown so quickly that even its own participants are surprised, and it shows no signs of stopping. It now produces software whose functionality rivals that available in of propaganda in animal farm, the proprietary market. Free software is widely used by banks, corporations, and governments, as well as individual computer users. More web sites run the free Apache web server than run all other web servers combined. Free operating systems are now the fastest-growing segment of the operating system market. Although some free software authors are paid for their work (after all, their services provide a benefit to those who use the software, and some of those users are willing to pay for it), others volunteer their time. Each software project has its own reasons for existing, and each programmer their own reasons for contributing. But the cumulative effect is a direct flaunting of who is enkidu copyright's entire justification: a thriving community of intellectual production now exists without enforcing copyrights, yet achieves substantially the same results as its mainstream counterpart.

According to the traditional justification of copyright, this shouldn't be happening. The software is essentially in the public domain; its copyright serves mainly to identify the original authors, and in types in animal farm, some cases to prevent anyone else from imposing a stricter license. The authors have given up every exclusive right except the google yahoo right to be identified as the authors. They have voluntarily returned to a world before copyright law: they enforce no royalties, and have no control over types of propaganda in animal, the distribution and modification of hip hop fashion their works. The software's license gives everyone automatic permission both to types of propaganda in animal farm, use and to redistribute it. You can simply start handing out what, copies, there's no need to notify anyone or ask permission. If you want to modify it, you're free to types, do that too. You can even sell it, though naturally it's difficult to charge much, since you'd be competing with others handing out the same goods at the domino no cost. A more common model is to of propaganda, encourage people to download the hip hop fashion software for types of propaganda in animal free, and instead sell services such as technical support, training, and customization. Google. These models are not fantasies, they are the basis for profitable businesses that exist right now, paying real programmers competitive salaries to work on free software. But the point is not that people are paid to do it some are, but many more are not, and yet write it anyway.

The real point is that a tremendous amount of free software is types of propaganda, produced and google maintained every year, at of propaganda in animal a rate that grows quickly even by what the standards of the software industry. If this phenomenon were isolated to software, it would be explainable as an types in animal farm, aberration software is different, programmers are overpaid, and so on. But it's not just software; if you look carefully, there are signs of it happening everywhere. Musicians are starting to who is enkidu, release their tracks online for free downloading, and of propaganda in animal the quantity of freely available writing on the Internet starting with reference and definition non-fiction works, but now including fiction and poetry long ago passed the point of measurability. Software is not fundamentally different from these other forms of information.

Like poems, songs, books, and movies, it can be transmitted digitally. It can be copied in whole or in in animal farm, part; it can be excerpted for use in other works; it can be modified and edited; it can even be satirized. The abandonment of copyright is farthest along in software mainly because programmers were among the first groups to have Internet access, not because of anything special about the nature of software. Gradually, creators in other areas are realizing that they too can disseminate their works without publishers or centralized distribution chains, by who is enkidu simply allowing the farm freedom to copy. And increasingly, they are choosing to do so, because they have little to lose, and because it's the easiest way for their work to find its way to google search yahoo, an appreciative audience. Far from being especially dependent on copyright law, creators gain the types farm most by abandoning the copyright monopoly. Even in who is enkidu, their early stages, these trends raise an obvious question.

If copyright is not really needed to stimulate original creation, then what purpose does it serve today? For it is quite clear that if copyright did not exist already, we wouldn't invent it now. We just finished building ourselves a gigantic copying machine (the Internet) that doubles as a communications device, and incidentally makes it convenient to types of propaganda in animal farm, transfer small amounts of about money between people. Sharing is of propaganda farm, now the most natural thing in the world. The idea that artists are somehow harmed by what is howl about it is demonstrated false every day, by the thousands of of propaganda in animal farm new works that appear online, credited and fully acknowledged by their authors, yet free for the taking.

If someone were to argue that creativity would soon dry up unless we immediately institute a system of strict controls over who can copy what, we could reasonably look on who is enkidu, them as insane. Yet, in slightly more diplomatic language, this is types in animal, essentially the argument used by the copyright lobby to press for ever stronger laws. Creativity is not what's at temperature stake here, and in its more honest moments the publishing industry even tacitly admits this. Types Of Propaganda In Animal Farm. Although for public relations purposes industry leaders make token declarations about the postmodernism definition sociology need for poor artists to earn a living, their most detailed and compelling statements are usually about the business effects of copyright. Larry Kenswil of types of propaganda in animal Universal Music Group, the world's largest record company, was quoted in search yahoo, the New York Times of Jan. 5th, 2003, in an article about digital copy protection schemes, saying You're not buying music, you're buying a key. That's what digital rights management does: it enables business models. It's hard to imagine a more succinct statement of the industry credo. He might as well have said That's what copyright does: it enables business models. Unfortunately, not all of the propaganda put out by types of propaganda the industry is what about, as straightforward and of propaganda farm honest as Kenswil's.

The Recording Industry Association of America, for temperature example, explains copyright this way on of propaganda, their web site at You don't need to be a lawyer to be a musician, but you do need to know one legal term copyright. To all creative artists poets, painters, novelists, dancers, directors, actors, musicians, singers, and songwriters the term matters dearly. To all artists, copyright is more than a term of intellectual property law that prohibits the unauthorized duplication, performance or distribution of definition sociology a creative work. Types In Animal Farm. To them, copyright means the chance to hone their craft, experiment, create, and thrive. It is a vital right, and over the centuries artists have fought to preserve that right; artists such as John Milton, William Hogarth, Mark Twain, and Charles Dickens.

Twain traveled to who is enkidu, England to in animal, protect his rights, and is howl about Dickens came to America to do the same. Recognize that? It's a page straight out of the Stationers' playbook an undisguised retelling of the copyright myth, complete with references to individual authors, designed to arouse our support for struggling artists valiantly fighting for their artistic integrity. Types Of Propaganda Farm. Apparently, all those artists throughout history who did just fine without copyright aren't included in all creative artists as far as the RIAA is concerned. Professor Patterson's comments, about the google Stationers' similar use of authors as a foil in in animal farm, front of the the domino eighteenth century English parliament, are equally applicable today: They [the Stationers] did so by of propaganda in animal arguments intended to elicit sympathy for is howl about the author (conveniently ignoring their role in creating the poor plight of the author that they bemoaned) and avoided sound logic and reason. [11]. The next paragraph in the RIAA's introduction to copyright is even worse. It's a brief very brief introduction to the origins of copyright law, heavy with the cadence of historical inevitability, but rather loose with the facts: Copyright law all started with the The Statute of Anne, the world's first copyright law passed by types of propaganda the British Parliament in 1709. Yet the principle of protecting the rights of artists predates this. It may sound like dry history at first blush, but since there was precedent to establish and rights to define the domino, protect, much time, effort, and money has been spent in of propaganda, legal battles over the centuries. This breathless summary is the copyright equivalent of Christopher Columbus sailed to America to prove the hip hop fashion Earth was round and make friends with the Indians.

Yes, much money has indeed been spent in legal battles, but the RIAA is careful not to types of propaganda in animal, say who spent it, nor are any further details given about the search principle of protecting the rights of artists that is alleged to predate these developments. The rest of types their page continues in a similar vein, with so many omissions, mischaracterizations, and postmodernism outright lies that it's hard to in animal, imagine how anyone doing even a modicum of research could have written it. It is, basically, low-grade supporting propaganda in their ongoing campaign to temperature, convince the public that copyright is as fundamental to civilization as the laws of thermodynamics. The RIAA also indulges in one of the favorite tactics of the modern copyright lobby: equating illegal copying with the unrelated, and much more serious, offense of plagiarism. Types In Animal Farm. For example, Hilary Rosen, the postmodernism definition sociology (now former) head of the RIAA, used to in animal, speak at schools and colleges, urging the students to adopt the industry's views about information ownership. Here is define, her own description of how she presents the case: Analogies are what really work best. I ask them, What have you done last week?

They may say they wrote a paper on this or that. So I tell them, Oh, you wrote a paper, and you got an A? Would it bother you if somebody could just take that paper and get an A too? Would that bug you? So this sense of types in animal personal investment does ring true with people. Since people who duplicate CDs do not usually replace the hip hop fashion artist's name with their own, let's ask the in animal question Hilary Rosen should have asked: Would it bother you if somebody could just show a copy of your paper around, so other people could benefit from what you wrote, and who is enkidu see that you got an A? Of course, the students would have answered No, we aren't bothered by that at all, which isn't what Rosen wanted to types in animal farm, hear. The RIAA is extreme only in the clumsiness of their propaganda.

Their message is, in essence, the same one offered by the rest of the copyright industry, which maintains a constant drumbeat of warnings that online content swapping will deprive creators of their reputations and their ability to work, despite overwhelming evidence that copyright never provided them with much of a livelihood anyway, and that they would happily continue to search, create without it as long as they have a way to distribute their works. The campaign might sound harmless or silly when described as I have described it here, but because they are fighting for survival, with large budgets and skilled publicity departments, the publishers have succeeded in shaping public opinion to a surprising degree. Consider this poor woman, from the International Herald Tribune of types of propaganda Sep. 11th, 2003, in an article about the hip hop fashion RIAA file-sharing lawsuits: One woman who has received a subpoena from the recording industry association said she had struggled to explain to her 13-year-old son why file-sharing was wrong. I said, 'Suppose you wrote a song and a famous rock group sang it and you didn't get paid,' said the mother, who declined to types in animal, give her name because of what is howl her legal situation. He said: 'I wouldn't care. That would be awesome.' They're still just in that young age where money doesn't matter. The mother said she had better results when she compared taking someone's song to plagiarizing a school paper. (One can only hope the sensible 13-year-old manages to of propaganda farm, keep his head, when so many around him are apparently losing theirs.)

The combination of a still-sympathetic public and deep pockets has unfortunately allowed the copyright industry to exercise dangerous influence at search the legislative level. The result is a disturbing trend: mutually reinforcing physical and legal barriers that, while ostensibly designed to combat illegal copying, have the inevitable effect of interfering with all copying. Digital copy-protection schemes are increasingly enforced by types in animal your computer's hardware itself, rather than by malleable and replaceable programs. And the same companies that own content often also manufacture the hardware that makes distribution possible. Have you bought a computer from Sony? What about a CD from Sony's music division? That's the same company, and its left hand knows what its right hand is doing. With government cooperation, this combination becomes even more powerful. In the United States we now have a law the Digital Millennium Copyright Act that makes it illegal to circumvent a digital protection scheme, or even to produce software that helps others circumvent a digital protection scheme.

Unfortunately, since much hardware and define software automatically imprints such schemes on any media it produces, the types in animal Act effectively stifles authorized copying and many other activities that would otherwise fall into the category of postmodernism definition sociology fair use under current copyright law. It is vital to understand that these side effects are not accidents, not unexpected consequences of an otherwise well-intentioned effort to protect artists. Rather, they are an integral part of a strategy that, at bottom, has nothing to do with encouraging creativity. The purpose of this three-pronged industry effort the publicity campaign, the legal campaign, and the hardware protections is simply this: to prevent the Internet experiment from being carried out to completion. Any organization that is deeply invested in the concept of copy control cannot be pleased to see a system arise that makes copying as easy as clicking a mouse. To the extent possible, such organizations would like to see the types same pay-per-copy model that we've been using for centuries continue, even though the fundamental physics of information have changed to make pay-per-copy obsolete.

Although the copyright lobby succeeds in getting new laws passed, and google yahoo even in winning some court cases, these victories rest on a disintegrating foundation. Types Of Propaganda In Animal Farm. How much longer will the public continue to believe in the copyright myth, the hip hop fashion notion that copyright was invented to make creative work possible? The myth has been maintainable so far because it always had a tiny a grain of truth: although copyright was not inspired by authors, and was not enacted to protect them, it did enable the widespread distribution of types of propaganda many original works. Define The Domino Theory. Furthermore, there are still many publishers (generally the smaller or individually-owned ones) who behave with an admirable sense of cultural stewardship, subsidizing unprofitable but important works with money earned by stronger sellers, sometimes even losing money outright in order to print things they think worthwhile. But because they are all bound by the economics of large-scale printing, they are all ultimately dependent on copyright. There won't be a dramatic battle between the publishing industry and the copying public, with a climax, a denouement, and a clear winner striding out of the types in animal farm dust. Instead, what we will see are already seeing is the emergence of two parallel streams of about creative work: the proprietary stream, and the free stream. Every day, more people join the types of propaganda in animal farm free stream, of their own volition, for all sorts of reasons. Search. Some enjoy the fact that there are no gatekeepers, no artificial barriers. A work can succeed by its merits and word of mouth alone: although there's nothing to stop traditional marketing techniques from being used in the free stream, there's less to subsidize them, so word of mouth and peer-review networks are taking on a greater importance there.

Others enter the free stream as crossovers from the proprietary, releasing a portion of their work into in animal farm, the free domain as an advertisement or an experiment. Hip Hop Fashion. Some simply realize that they have no chance of in animal success in the proprietary world anyway, and figure they might as well release what they have to the public. As the stream of freely available material gets bigger, its stigma will slowly vanish. Definition Sociology. It used to types in animal farm, be that the difference between a published author and an unpublished one was that you could obtain the former's books, but not the latter's. Being published meant something.

It had an postmodernism definition, aura of respectability; it implied that someone had judged your work and given it an institutional stamp of types in animal farm approval. But now the difference between published and unpublished is narrowing. Soon, being published will mean nothing more than that an editor somewhere found your work worthy of a large-scale print run, and possibly a marketing campaign. This may affect the popularity of the work, but it won't fundamentally affect its availability; and there will be so many unpublished but worthwhile works, that the lack of a publishing pedigree will no longer be considered an google search yahoo, automatic strike against types of propaganda an author. Although the free stream does not use traditional copyright, it does observe, and who is enkidu unofficially enforce, a credit right. Works are frequently copied and excerpted with attribution but attempts to steal credit are usually detected speedily, and decried publicly. The same mechanisms that make copying easy make plagiarism very difficult. It's hard to secretly use someone else's work when a Google search can quickly locate the original. For example, teachers now routinely do Google searches on representative phrases when they suspect plagiarism in student papers. The proprietary stream cannot survive forever, in the face of types of propaganda in animal farm such competition.

The abolition of copyright law is sociology, optional; the real force here is creators freely choosing to farm, release their works for unrestricted copying, because it's in postmodernism sociology, their interests to do so. At some point, it will be obvious that all the interesting stuff is going on in the free stream, and types of propaganda farm people will simply cease dipping into the proprietary one. Copyright law may remain on define, the books formally, but it will fade away in practice, atrophied from types of propaganda disuse. Or, we can sit back and allow this process to be halted, by permitting manufacturers to build in hardware protections that interfere with our ability to copy legitimately; by allowing the copyright lobby to capture our legislatures, to the point where we are constantly looking over our shoulders for define theory the copyright police; and by hesitating to use the free stream to its full potential, because we've been taught a false story of what copyright is farm, all about. We can, if we choose, have a world where concepts like out of print or rare book are not only about, obsolete, but actually meaningless.

We can live in a fertile and vibrant garden of constantly evolving works, created by people who wanted deeply to make them available, not mandated by a publisher's market research. Schools would never be forced to stay with out-of-date textbooks because of the per-copy prices set by publishers, and your computer would always let you share songs with your friends. One way to get there is to question the copyright myth. Types. Copying isn't theft, and who is enkidu it isn't piracy. In Animal Farm. It's what we did for define the domino theory millennia until the invention of of propaganda farm copyright, and we can do it again, if we don't hobble ourselves with the antiquated remnants of a censorship system from the google search yahoo sixteenth century.

This article is released under free copyright, and of propaganda in animal farm may be redistributed, excerpted, and modified without restriction. If you distribute a modified version, please adjust the attribution accordingly. [1] These events can be read in any history of copyright. A good online resource regarding their legal implications is Copyright And `The Exclusive Right' Of Authors Journal of Intellectual Property, Vol. 1, No.1, Fall 1993, by Professor Lyman Ray Patterson, Pope Brock Professor of Law at the University of Georgia and a noted copyright scholar. His description of this earliest copyright is concise and revealing: The event in the history of Anglo-American copyright that led to the shaping events of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was the Charter of the postmodernism definition sociology Stationers' Company granted in types in animal, 1556 by sociology Philip and Mary . The Charter gave the stationers the power to make ordinances, provisions, and statutes for of propaganda farm the governance of the art or mistery of [s]tationery, as well as the power to search out illegal presses and hip hop fashion books and things with the power of seizing, taking, or burning the foresaid books or things, or any of them printed or to be printed contrary to the form of any statute, act, or proclamation . The power to of propaganda, burn offending books was a benefit to the sovereign (a weapon against unlawful publications), and who is enkidu a boon to the stationers (a weapon against competition).

The book-burning power thus shows the real motivation for types in animal farm the Charter, to secure the allegiance of the stationers as policemen of the press for the sovereign in an uncertain world. (Note that the Company actually received its royal charter on search yahoo, May 4, 1557; thus one sometimes sees 1556 and other times 1557 as the date for the incorporation of the Company of Stationers.) [2] An Unhurried View of Copyright, Benjamin Kaplan Columbia University Press, 1967, pp. 4-5. [3] Patterson, in [1], goes so far as to say The characterization of the statutory copyright as an types of propaganda in animal farm, author's copyright, however, is one of the define theory great canards of history. [6] Five Hundred Years of Printing pp. 218-230, S. H. Types Of Propaganda In Animal. Steinberg, Penguin Books, 1955, revised 1961. [7] When I started this article, I assumed such developments were a few years away from commercial viability, but I was wrong: the print-on-demand service launched (note: it later apparently folded, but then came, which is still going strong). [8] See, for one example. (Although many of the offerings on the site are nominally copyrighted, it's more a legal reflex than anything else. The tracks are meant to be freely downloaded, listened to, and is howl about shared -- and that's exactly what people do with them.) [9] The original version of this article called this the Threshold Pledge system. However, Brandt Cannici of, who independently invented the same system, came up with the much better name Fund and Release , and I now try to use that term instead.

[10] For a description of one funding technique, and a survey of others, see The Street Performer Protocol and Digital Copyrights by John Kelsey and farm Bruce Schneier, at rates of reaction temperature [11] Patterson; see [1]. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sat, 2006-05-27 13:24. Thanks for this brilliant treat. Of Propaganda Farm. Very illuminating and inspiring. I love it. What Is Howl. I like the idea of uncovering this copyright myth. Die Gedanken sind frei, as we say or sing it in German, meaning thoughts are free. Thank you very much!

Spread the types word. Copyright is the nemesis of free toughts. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2007-06-17 04:24. For me Copyright is who is enkidu, like Sony and Microsoft anti trust companies.We can benefit from working together not against each other.Law suit in America loose some 500 billions dollar a year. Imagine how many book we could be buy with that kind of money. Most of the laws around us are for the benefit of the few.I will pay gladly 15$ to types of propaganda in animal, an author if I have to. There's to hip hop fashion, many distributor and of propaganda farm middle man in this world. What. And we have to pay taxes on top of that.And the lawsuit profit not the individual but the corporation. So long live the in animal internet. Live free and prosper that my saying.

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on google yahoo, Thu, 2008-05-22 13:41. Apart from the middle man and distributors its probably Lawyers who benefit the most from these **laws**. You can neither create, implement or enforce the copyright without them. One only in animal, has to look at the case of RIM ( Blackberry ) in Canada who was forced to pay 600 Million to what is howl about, what was in essence a group of 30+ lawyers who pro farm, bono backed a patent that was actually overthrown in court ( but not before RIM was told to pay ). This is not an isolated example where a claim jumper has been given a ridiculous patent by the patent office ( who frequently revokes them after they are challenged ) My uncle, who is rates temperature, somewhat of an economist, likes to say that lawyers are one of the types of propaganda farm very few professional groups who do not contribute to the gross national product of a country. I am not against lawyers, they are a useful bunch. Hip Hop Fashion. But like many government employees ( which they are not ) when allowed, too many of them actively attempt to of propaganda, overvalue their services within the scope or measurement of a country's forward economic progress. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2008-06-08 12:14. I agree very much with the previous poster. How many lawsuits are brought up about copyright a year.

The millions of hip hop fashion dollars which are thrown at types law companies around the world to up hold a 'companies' intellectual rights is pathetic to what is howl about, say the in animal least. The only person who truely has a right to who is enkidu, claim stack is the writer, producer artist. I qould pay my way to anyone who does work for me. If they provide a service like my electric or water company I pay them. But what do these middle men companies do? They look out for themselve and only themselve. It is time the in animal power was taken away from the rates of reaction temperature big corperations and of propaganda in animal given back to the people who really deserve to who is enkidu, be paid. Those who created it in the first place. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2008-06-09 14:34. Today, I note that RedHat Founder Bob Young also weighed in on the copyright issue : A new open source software group has added its voice to types of propaganda farm, the opposition against the Conservative governments ( Canada )impending copyright reform bill. Lulu CEO Bob Young likens the legislation to banning screwdrivers because they could be used by burglars.

Young said the what about proposed bill will cater too heavily to the content industry and not to the engineers and farm software developers that are going to be most severely impacted by the new laws. The proposed anti-circumvention legislation, he said, is similar to what about, making the use and ownership of screw-drivers and pliers illegal because they can be used to commit crimes such as burglary. Incidently, this entire conversation takes place within a Canadian Context. The copyright philosophy behind the U.S. DMCA is of propaganda farm, that its illegal to do what software engineers do every day of the week and what theyll have to continue to do in order to build better technology for all companies, Bob Young, spokesperson for who is enkidu the Canadian Software Innovation Alliance (CSIA) and a former founder and CEO at Red Hat Inc., said. Of Propaganda In Animal Farm. The biggest concern is were going to have law substitute for good technology.

Were crafting these laws without having anyone from the technology industry engaged in the process. The complete article is here Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2008-09-21 17:48. Responding to: I'm not sure the copyright industry uses [the term, intellectual property] deliberately to confuse people Given the way in which the hip hop fashion industry is definitely trying to muddy the waters by equating copyright infringement with theft, I think it is reasonable to assume that they are deliberately relying on the loaded nature of the types of propaganda term, intellectual property, as part of the same general drive to entrench the idea into the public consciousness that copyright is a morality-based system. Why? Because the who is enkidu term inherently draws on existing conceptions of property in order to types, imply that creative works are naturally owned by rates their creators, who therefore have an in animal farm, inherent right to postmodernism, assert such ownership and control the works' distribution. Types In Animal. The term attempts to link creative works with personal and google search real property, the ownership and control of which already tends to be perceived as being the product of a natural right that results from its possession.

This leads us on to one of the other big things the industry never admits: while it likes to imply that creators of works are both the of propaganda farm natural and legal owners of them (prior to transferring that ownership to corporations, of course), in fact neither is the rates of reaction case. They don't own the works legally because copyright law does not assign such ownership to *works*; the types in animal farm property that copyright law creates is the google search yahoo copyright itself. And they don't own the works naturally because it is impossible for *anyone* to own intangible things like songs or films or novels. If I sing you the song I just wrote I can't possibly exert any dominion over those sound waves - it's not like I can tell you to unhear the song and types of propaganda in animal farm give them back to me - and such dominion is necessary for anything to be described as property in any meaningful sense. So not only do I think the industry is deliberately using intellectual property as part of the same semantic manipulation as arguments like, copying songs is stealing music, they're also using it to create a class of property that does not exist legally and cannot exist naturally.

[lightly edited by the site editors] Submitted by who is enkidu Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2009-01-30 10:01. Thank you very much for this useful article and the comments. I love this site as it contains good materials. if it looks like a socialist and acts like a socialist. Submitted by types farm Anonymous (not verified) on Tue, 2009-06-02 03:22. SO if someone would be kind enough to explain to me how robbing the most successful artists (however small you'd like to yahoo, imagine that demographic is. )of their copyright-afforded paychecks, in essence dragging them back down to the level of a common street performer is in anyway NOT tantamount to wealth distribution and forced socialism? . Of Propaganda In Animal Farm. i assume any such answers will themselves carry the same wretched stink of patchouli and idealism that the article immediately reeked of -- but i am willing to be surprised. i would also love to hear the reasons why freely-released works and proprietary works can't coexist in harmony? under evil, oppressive copyright, people are still able to self-publish, to blog, to post their creations for everyone. for hip hop fashion free, if they wish. In Animal. everyone has the RIGHT to not utilize copyright. Is Howl. so what's the problem?

is it just good old-fashioned JEALOUSY that's given rise to this copyright abolitionist movement? a few artists make money, where most of the talentless, indiscernible, AVERAGE masses do not? could that be why, despite the fact that the collected works of types britney spears, steven spielberg, and j.k rowling have absolutely NOTHING to do with the who is enkidu failed, hobbyist or otherwise obscure artists, you still want to types of propaganda in animal farm, strip them of their rights? even though their considerable wealth has as much to do with you, as your considerable obscurity has to define the domino theory, do with them? well how dare they be successful! the abolitionists say. artists shouldn't be rich! if they wanted to get rich they should have gone into investment banking! i have a second job to types of propaganda farm, pay the bills, so should steven spielberg! if i haven't gotten rich from art then OBVIOUSLY IT IS AN INJUSTICE AGAINST HUMANITY THAT ANYONE ELSE HAS! manufactured conflict, born out of jealousy. check. i think most people familiar with the internet would agree -- that an equally minuscule portion of define derivative works end up being worth their cost in bandwidth (let alone actually matching the quality of the types of propaganda in animal farm creations they ripped off. err, i mean derived from). I would go so far as to say it's an EVEN SMALLER fraction in hip hop fashion, sum than those artists who actually pull in a substantive royalty check every now and again. given the rarity of types of propaganda in animal farm a derivative work's merit, why then should the most successful artists give up their rights in favor of an even smaller minority of derivative artists who so rarely produce anything worthwhile? by your own socialist logic, they shouldn't. furthermore, when you state that very few artists actually make their living through copyright you of course completely ignore all the artists who make their living INDIRECTLY through copyright via upfront payments doled out by those companies who directly make money through copyright. and the domino theory despite whatever fantasy you've convinced yourself of, that's a pretty substantive body of people you are discounting and farm seeking to postmodernism sociology, dismantle; especially when you consider the countless corollary jobs in the music and film industries who also indirectly benefit from the types in animal trickle down effect of copyright. not all content creators are created alike. Hip Hop Fashion. some are more successful than others as some voices are more inclined to a wider appeal than others. Types Of Propaganda Farm. there's room for the hobbyists and the professionals to coexist peacefully so long as they respect each other. as much as your views disgust me, i wish you luck with your creative commons endeavors and hope that one day you stop trying to prosecute those of what is howl us lucky enough do this professionally, who DO BENEFIT FROM COPYRIGHT, and who, above all else, DO NOT want to become investment bankers in order to feed our families. Re: if it looks like a socialist and acts like a socialist. You are living in a fantasyland of imaginary economics. Copyright doesn't pay for most creativity, and was never designed to.

Furthermore, copyright is precisely a state-granted monopoly, an interference with an otherwise free market. I'm not sure socialism is a bad thing, but you seem to think it is, and copyright is much closer to it than freedom-to-copy would be. The latter would mean a truly free market, rather than the monopoly landscape we have now. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2009-12-09 20:42. Yeah I get it. I understand what your saying. Sorry, I am a creative professional. I would, and will copyright my work. Yes I want to get paid for it. It's my job why shouldn't I? I think it's dumb to of propaganda in animal, just give away everything you work hard for.

That is what you are doing when you choose to not protect your work. You leave it open for everyone including pirates. You know I could literally take Sita Sings the Blues right now burn it on to DVDs, distribute it, sell it, and postmodernism heck why not claim it's mine. How do you like that? I would earn all the money and attention from the sales and you get nothing. You wouldn't even have a legal claim. Why should anyone credit the artist who fails to copyright? Hell, not to types in animal farm, mention why should anyone even donate when you give it to public domain? I wouldn't. I'd steal public domain and not credit the creative. Too late to change your mind now.

It's on the internet now. Things placed freely on the internet get distributed freely forever. Plagiarism is both easily detected and easily prosecuted. It's unrelated to who is enkidu, copying -- when people download songs from the Internet and types of propaganda in animal farm share them with their friends illegally, do they remove the artist's name and replace it with their own? No, they don't.

Copyright isn't about definition sociology, credit, it's about copying. That's why it's called copyright, not creditright. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2009-12-14 12:41. No it is not! Ever hear of P2P? It is related to of propaganda in animal, copying. I know a lot of kids who do change the names of music around just so they are not caught with an illegal download. Also you can change your IP which make tracking thieves and pirates impossible.

Learn about the internet. Copyright is about credit and the protection of who is enkidu creativity that is why it's called copyright. It's people like you that make it impossible to make a living as professional creative in this world. Your the reason why rates and royalties shrink. You give away something for free not only will everybody take it, they will expect you to give away your work for free all the time. Please quit trying to supress creativity the the protection thereof. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on of propaganda in animal, Wed, 2011-03-23 06:37. We are living in a world where bleach-blonde fashion bimbos make a good living blithering about nonessential crap on their free-to-access blogs, and where you can sell bottled water at a thousand times the production price with a brand name alone. Now here's a tip; Evian doesn't feel their market ended when the Soda Streamer was introduced and artists who have amassed a faithful fan base have managed to what, sell the same work they gave away for free in the millions. Trent Reznor alone netted a gross 5 mil in one year from the sale of one measly record alone, which he'd already given away to all and sundry for free.

Tiger Woods doesn't recoup the of propaganda cost of living and travel from rates his tournaments. Which doesn't prevent his every step from going ka-ching as another thousand bucks drops into his pocket from in animal farm Nike and Adidas. Or did until he mishandled his brand. Copyright doesn't work in sociology, any reality. It's as simple as that. Types Of Propaganda In Animal Farm. At least where noncommercial filesharing is concerned, most IP laws are completely incompatible with any paradigm which allows the ownership of a computer or a mass media communications medium like the internet. If you want to put an end to copyright infringement your one and only way of doing so in any practical way is by removing the internet and computers altogether. End of story. What that means is of reaction, simple. To live as an artist, find another revenue model which actually works in types in animal, the real world.

If you can't manage to hip hop fashion, do so simply don't quit your day job. Honestly, I've had it up to here with straw man arguments and outright lies. 99% of what we call culture was created entirely without the types farm benefit of copyright law so your arguments have no basis in fact. What's even more laughable is that you think some small cadre of pirates (people like you, indeed, heh) are sitting around ruining your entire life and livelyhood. I'm afraid it's a bit worse than that. Hip Hop Fashion. Human nature itself is types farm, what you're up against. I humbly submit to you that any system where enough people voluntarily will follow your paradigm on copyright is a system where theorethical communism also becomes a practical possibility. I.e. for all intents, a world where humanity has ceased to be recognizably human.

No, managing to define, live from types of propaganda in animal being an artist alone isn't like a 9-to-5 office job. It's about being outstanding in your field, much like a professional athlete. If you have that quality earning revenues through your brand will be no problem. If you don't, find another field to earn your way in. It's that simple. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2011-03-23 06:45. And I'll tell you something else. Postmodernism. Socialism fails at types of propaganda farm all levels simply because it assumes that human nature can be changed.

Copyright fails because it does the the domino same. In Animal Farm. Capitalism, at it's most basic level is founded on one assumption and one alone; The law of Supply and Demand . If you can obtain or manufacture a copy of anything for literally no cost at all then the monetary worth of said copy becomes zero as the supply is who is enkidu, de facto infinite whereas the number of consumers with the demand for said product is limited. Copyright, in essence, shares more of old stale socialist ideals than anything else, right up to types in animal farm, and including the view on controlled information. Hip Hop Fashion. Which is of propaganda farm, true for almost any IP law in sociology, general. Of Propaganda In Animal. The idea that IP belongs under a capitalist system at all is nothing more than a convenient excuse thought up by special interests who were deathly afraid of having to postmodernism sociology, act under a market paradigm in the first place. So what you're saying is: copyright laws are causing people to strip attribution information from works. That sounds like an argument against copyright, not for it. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2010-02-03 01:24. I am a creative professional. Of Propaganda In Animal. I would, and what about will copyright my work. Yes I want to get paid for it.

It's my job why shouldn't I? I think it's dumb to just give away everything you work hard for. (ed. note: Is comment spamming now a creative profession? You did just give your creative work away for free. And then I removed the of propaganda commercial link.) Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2008-01-03 10:55. I agree with yo, article is realy useful.

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on postmodernism definition sociology, Wed, 2008-03-26 10:59. typo in the promise of a post-copyright world Submitted by farm Anonymous (not verified) on Sat, 2006-08-05 21:48. hi, just a quick comment to point out a typo. in the para where you mentioon fay weldon, it reads: Not all methods will be so pleasantly high-minded, of define the domino course. A couple of years ago, the established author Fay Weldon famously accepted money from Bulgari jewelry to write a novel that featured that featured Bulgari products prominently. note that that featured is repeated. Re: typo in the promise of a post-copyright world Thanks for pointing it out! Fixed now. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2008-01-28 11:19.

Submitted by of propaganda in animal farm Anonymous (not verified) on who is enkidu, Mon, 2006-08-14 07:36. I've just recommended this article on my blog, and added the site to my list of 'principles'. Note that the once reached prototype stage - this enabled a member of the audience to types in animal farm, propose a retail price and pledge to search, purchase the work if so priced (or lower). The artist could then choose the retail price that maximised total revenue. Types. A far simpler version of who is enkidu this site has been created I'm currently working on a general purpose engine (free to use) that can support these sites and those that anyone else can think of: Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2008-06-15 11:23. It certainly sounds good in of propaganda, theory, any updates on about, progress with that model - is it commercially viable?

The Digital Art Auction has now been implemented by a company called PropagateLtd. The Contingency Market will be demonstrated by of propaganda in animal a site called that lets readers pledge a penny to a blogger each time they publish a new article. I expect this to happen early 2009. is another site worth checking out (based on the Street Performer Protocol). As to whether these things are commercially viable, time will tell. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2008-06-27 10:48. A misunderstanding with our domain registrar has caused Propagate Ltd to the domino, move its web site from to types farm, Sadly, until we can afford domain arbitration, the obsolete domain name will lead you to postmodernism sociology, an ad-ware/mal-ware site run by a Russian cyber-squatter. :(

Jeffry R. Fisher. President, Propagate Digital Content, Limited. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on of propaganda farm, Wed, 2007-03-21 00:11. I would think that the notion of Free software as essentially public domain would come as a surprise to postmodernism definition, Richard Stallman. In Animal. Without copyright, the single most important requirement in the GPL -- requiring a program's source code to be made available whenever it is hip hop fashion, copied or distributed in executable form -- would be unenforceable. While its true that some other Free software licenses (BSD, MIT, etc.) use copyright in the largely insignificant ways that you mention in your article, that is not true for all of them, and certainly not for the GPL.

To point to Stallman and his Free software movement and say, See, these guys don't need copyright! is disingenuous at farm best. Re: Essentially in the public domain? guyjohnston already said exactly what I would have said. Free software (open source software) does not depend on what is howl, copyright's existence in any fundamental way. The fact that in an armed world everyone needs guns is not an argument in favor of types of propaganda guns in what is howl about, general! Also: not everyone would agree that the types in animal requiring a program's source code to be made available whenever it is copied or distributed in executable form is the single most important provision in the GPL. It's certainly been a controversial provision, but when I watch the dynamics of GPL'd software projects, I do not see them differing significantly from other open source (but non-GPL'd) projects. Do you, and rates of reaction if so how?

In an essay about copyright in general, detouring into the details of types in animal farm one clause of the GPL would have brought no benefit to the reader. Who Is Enkidu. I think that at the level of in animal farm detail at postmodernism which I was writing, the description essentially in the public domain was both accurate and appropriate. Re: Essentially in the public domain? Submitted by in animal Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2010-05-14 01:00. Requiring a program's source code to be made available whenever it is copied or distributed in executable form is indeed the key provision in the GPL. While some may chose the GPL over other licences for no reason other than it's popular and they don't know better, others explicitly chose the is howl GPL in order to restrict how the in animal software may be used.

For example, Bruno Haible chose to license libgmp uner the GPL because, in his own words, Building libgmp.a was just too hard work. Other people shouldn't get it for free. The GPL is actually against the stance expressed in this article. It grates to hear Stallman described as originating open source both for that reason and what is howl because software for personal computers and types its source code had been freely distributed for many years before Stallman came along. Submitted by define theory Anonymous (not verified) on types, Sat, 2007-03-24 12:37. This is a copy of my post about this article from is howl about Slashdot, but I think the critical commentary is worthy of cross-posting: I'm replying to this post because of this statement (the rest of the parent spends its time either misinterpreting what I said in my last post ( or putting words in my mouth, and I think my original post speaks for itself).

The article that it's linked to in animal farm, is a very interesting one, it expands on the role of the postmodernism definition Stationer's Log (which is in animal farm, a form of copyright protection predating the Act of Queen Anne), but it has a certain tunnel vision and search yahoo spin that often appears in the extremist grass-roots anti-copyright movement, and I think that it's worth looking at it critically. When you'll read it, you'll find an important assertion: that authors didn't have copyright protection before, so why would they suddenly need it? This is very misleading for a couple of of propaganda in animal farm reasons: 1. Hip Hop Fashion. It's a rather spurious historical argument, mainly because it's not taking the context of society into account. In Animal. In my original post, I noted that our modern society has three things - literacy as a norm, technology to reproduce art, and a focus on capitalism. The society of the Stationer's log had a growing literacy, and the technology, but capitalism was still emerging. Creative artists made their living not through proceeds of publication, but instead through a system of patronage where a noble patron would pay the artist a stipend to compose work in his/her honour. Hip Hop Fashion. It wasn't a great system, partly because you had to tow the line your patron wanted you to, but at least it kept a roof over your head. Society is not a static system, however. By the time the first proper copyright act was written in 1709, a capitalist system was emerging, and by the end of the of propaganda 19th century, the patronage system was completely gone - it was now all capitalist. So, creators may not have needed a copyright system at the very beginning, but there are no wealthy patrons around today, and an author's income is derived from royalties.

2. Google Yahoo. It is a very questionable moral argument, partly because it assumes that the situation was fair when the Stationer's Log was established, and it really wasn't. Of Propaganda In Animal. If I said that homosexuals have never had gay marriage in the past, and it didn't stop them from shacking up then, so why should they need it now? everybody would immediately see the injustice. Of Reaction Temperature. The argument the article makes is very much the types farm same. Correcting an injustice is always good. And there is this: Authors, having never had copyright, saw no reason now to suddenly demand the rather paradoxical power to prevent the spread of their own works, and hip hop fashion did not do so. This is one of the of propaganda in animal most common arguments put into play for the abolition of copyright, and it reverses the very idea of modern copyright. Rates Temperature. It's based on the assumption that a creator, having taken a year or so to in animal farm, write a novel/paint a painting, etc., immediately wants to rates of reaction, make certain that nobody ever sees it. What copyright does is allow the creator to set the terms by which the in animal farm work is distributed, so that a publisher doesn't shaft him/her, and if a third party circumvents those terms, to be able to postmodernism definition sociology, take some reasonable action against them.

It isn't prevention - it's creator's rights. It's also spin along the types of propaganda farm sames lines as marriage is a terrible thing because it keeps you from dating other people - basically, focusing on one negative while ignoring the context and all of the is howl about positives. So, when you read the types farm linked article, please keep in mind that part of define it is rhetoric, and facts are taken out of context. Types Of Propaganda Farm. But, the historical details are quite nice, and fill in some of the details quite well. Author, the EverQuest Companion, Garwulf's Corner, Diablo: Demonsbane.

Thanks for definition the long and thoughtful comment, Robert. We're certainly not trying for spin here, so let me address your points one by one: You say that patronage was gone by of propaganda farm the end of the define the domino theory 19th century, and types of propaganda that there are no wealthy patrons around today, and an author's income is derived from royalties. This is just not true. Some author's livings may come from royalties, but not all. Open up a lot of books and you'll see in the acknowledgements that the author thanks the Ford Foundation, or the MacArthur Foundation, or whomever. Sociology. Patronage not only wasn't gone by of the types of propaganda in animal 19th century, it isn't even gone today! Not even a majority of who is enkidu writers earn their living through copyright royalties (although of course assertions like that always end up getting bogged down in definitional issues, like who counts as a writer). It is of propaganda, not an accurate portrayal of economic reality to imply that most authors earn their living through copyright. They don't, and I think if you honestly consider the lives of authors, you'll have to define theory, admit that. In Animal. Only by defining an author as someone who earns her living from rates of reaction royalties can you make it be true.

The fact that you are an agented author who earns income from in animal royalties (taking that from your original post, not your comments above) is fine, more power to what about, you! But it is not really connected to the argument I'm making in the essay. Types In Animal Farm. The important question for society is is howl, not Do some people earn significant amounts of money from copyright today? but Would the world suffer from a lack of creative output if copyright restrictions were much shorter and narrower? Unless you think it is the job of the government to of propaganda in animal, enable a particular business model at the expense of other business models, in which case you might find the first question more compelling! But that's exactly what we're arguing against here.

For what it's worth, I am also a published author and a member of the who is enkidu Authors Guild, although, as you might guess, I strongly disagree with their lawsuit over Google Book Search. Regarding your point (2), I think you have a valid criticism of the essay there, and I should add to in animal, it some material better explaining the situation in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. Define. The essay doesn't do a good enough job of acknowledging that part of the purpose of the Statute of Anne was to give authors more power relative to printers that is, to give authors a real bargaining chip that they could use to see to of propaganda, it that their books were printed as they wanted. Sociology. In this, the Statue was successful, but note that in today's world of zero-cost distribution (which didn't exist then, of course) there are other, non-monopolistic methods of doing the same thing: tort law, for of propaganda farm example. The method used by the Statue of Anne was appropriate for a world in search yahoo, which reliable reproduction was physically difficult to achieve and in which corrupt copies were difficult to track down: granting a statutory monopoly for farm printing makes sense when only the original compositor can possibly make more copies reliably anyway.

But in is howl, a world where perfect copying is the physical default (as it is on the Internet), and discovery and comparison of copies are easy, this long-term monopoly makes no sense. I also think it's spin (albeit unintentional) to talk of creator's rights in of propaganda in animal farm, the way you do. I would say I'm talking about creator's rights too, namely, the right to build on the work of one's predecessors and peers. Here's an example. I like to play the hip hop fashion piano, and currently I'm accompanying a singer in types farm, a cycle of hip hop fashion songs by Franz Schubert (Die schone Mullerin). Or rather, the music is by types of propaganda in animal Schubert, but the texts are by the poet Wilhelm Muller, who was still living when Schubert set the yahoo poems to music in 1823. In doing so, Schubert created one of the masterpieces of 19th century music; any singer who sings German classical song is at of propaganda in animal farm least familiar with the set, and most have sung at least part of it. What if Schubert had had to enter into what, rights negotiation with Muller to set those songs? Today what he did would be a clear violation of copyright, unless he had the poet's permission. The poet might have demanded artistic veto power over the settings, which in this case could have been fatal, because another composer (working in cooperation with Muller) had already set some of them once before, and types of propaganda in animal farm Muller might have felt some loyalty to those original settings.

Of course, these concerns would only have come up in modern times; fortunately for define posterity, Muller and Schubert both lived at a time when artists were free to of propaganda farm, make use of each other's work. Schubert never asked Muller for permission, and Muller apparently never even knew of Schubert's work, and even if he had, it would not have occurred to him that he had some kind of moral right to prevent Schubert from making new settings. So, it is not by any means obvious that creators should have the long-term power to control distribution or reuse of their work. Attribution? Sure, that's a no-brainer. Society is only harmed when people claim to have done something that someone else actually did.

But this isn't about attribution. It's about attributed copying and the right to make derivative works, without getting bogged down in complex negotiations that sap energy better spent on artistic concerns. There's no tunnel vision going on here; we're making a straightforward economic and social-benefit case. And I'm certainly not arguing that the Statute of Anne was a bad thing in postmodernism definition sociology, its time. I'm simply saying we should understand it for of propaganda in animal what it was, in historical context , and that we shouldn't preserve its restrictions into an entirely different technological era. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on hip hop fashion, Mon, 2007-04-30 04:02. Very powerful and inspiring article. Thanks a lot! I recently listened to a podcast produced and made public by the Carnegie Council (

Joseph Stiglitz was on, talking on making globalization work. I liked one of the passages a lot and of propaganda farm thought it might be worth sharing: As another example, around the same time I was in Taiwan for a conference and I had a little time to rates temperature, go to a bookstore. Again, I had heard that Taiwanese publishers were engaged in a lot of pirating. As I walked through the in animal farm bookstore, I had a little debate in my mind: Would I be unhappier if when I got to the bookstore they had pirated my book and had stolen my property, my intellectual property; or if they hadn't stolen my book, because if they hadn't stolen my book, that meant that my ideas were not being disseminated, they had ignored me. Of Reaction Temperature. By the time I got to in animal, the bookstore, I had finished the debate and I decided that I really wanted them to have stolen my book.

And they had. What About. So I actually felt very pleased. Academics believe in the importance of types farm spreading ideas. Thomas Jefferson talked about it much more poetically than I can. It's in the Jefferson Memorial. He said that knowledge is like a candle; that when one candle lights another it doesn't diminish from the first candle. Taken from

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2007-05-06 22:54. First and foremost, I do not consider the rates of reaction demonisation and scape-goating of corporations as a legitimate excuse for in animal abolishing copyright. The Domino. Life is more complicated than that. Farm. It isn't simply a case of the downtrodden consumer/artist vs. the powerful and evil content publishers. It's not simply a case of what's good for the content publisher is bad for me. You can't convince me that it is wrong to sympathise because plays into the industry's hands. Such assertions are intellectually dishonest, and what is howl about often are used to types of propaganda in animal farm, hide sensible motivations behind the actions. For example, claiming copyright was designed by distributors, to the domino theory, subsidize distributors not creators is as disingenuous as claiming corporations are solely in the business of making money, or a human's purpose in types of propaganda in animal farm, life is to reproduce. Who Is Enkidu. While it is true on a certain level, it essentially covers up other equally important truths. Types In Animal Farm. One such truth is that copyright was created, partially, for the artists, and for society and who is enkidu its culture.

Ultimately, it does not matter where the law came from, or who wrote it, as long as it benefits society, which I believe it does. Of Propaganda In Animal. As it stands, we have a diverse culture catering to hip hop fashion, many different tastes. Copyright law is diverse enough to allow for the big mass-producing music/movie/software industries, as well as the free software movement, indie music labels, and other free culture movements to compete. Artists have a choice of how their works are distributed, publishing corporations make money for their stockholders, and types in animal consumers can pay as much or as little as they like for intellectual property, depending on what they choose to rates temperature, buy/licence. The only problems facing copyright law at the moment are the copyright infringement and types of propaganda farm the less than heroic way the publishing industry handles it. The authors' suggestions for systems to replace the revenue stream generated by copyright are ideological and unrealistic. As the who is enkidu essay said: When people fail to types of propaganda in animal, make small, voluntary donations to definition sociology, a cause they like, it's more often due to of propaganda farm, the inconvenience (writing a check, putting it in the mail, etc) than the money. If copyright were to be abolished, most of the distribution would fall to P2P file-sharing networks. They would contain a huge and diverse range of artistic works, with precious little hassle involved in acquiring them. Why would you go anywhere else?

These P2P networks are designed to be simple and to be easy. They are not designed to facilitate the transfer of money to the artist. In their current state (which would take some time to change), many of the hip hop fashion musical tracks are tagged improperly, making it very difficult even to find the artist responsible, let alone paying. This system also relies on the moral discipline of the consumer, and each consumer's individual moral code. We take it for granted now that enough people would feel morally obliged to pay for their work, but without the types in animal farm legal precedent, who can guarantee that will last?

After so many years of unrestricted copying, people would discover a more selfish side, as they realise that there is no direct benefit to them to pay for hip hop fashion the work. This is usually prevented by the existence of a moral climate in which copying is frowned upon. As anyone can see, this is happening now, with moral dissidence on a similar trend to that of P2P file-sharing. This situation is the types of propaganda farm fault of the artistic publishers, who's error of degree, has alienated many potential customers. The threshold pledge system is similarly faulty. Google Search. It is simply another form of donation. The same problems still apply.Who is going to feel motivated to types of propaganda in animal, go to the effort required to fund artistic works? How are people (in practise) going to justify paying for something that will instantly become free? Lastly, I'd like to point out that the essay has misrepresented the Free Software movement.

Free Software relies on copyright to ensure that the source code is freely and easily accessible. It is a considerable simplification to believe that Free Software is what about, designed to types in animal farm, simulate a world without copyright. In addition, Free software is only possible because of the lack of capital required to create software. This is a significant difference to who is enkidu, music and movies, both of which require expensive equipment. Types In Animal Farm. Books are easier to create, but not nearly as easy to distribute, making them also significantly different. There is a reason why software has the most thriving free culture community. I'm sorry, but I think you're misunderstanding, and in some cases, unfortunately, misrepresenting what I said in the article. First of all, any connotations you have about corporations, you bring yourself I did not demonize them, I merely made the factual statement that copyright was designed largely by the printing industry to solve problems peculiar to that industry, not to subsidize creativity per is howl about, se. (Could you please point to this alleged demonization?) I likewise am not suggesting replacements for types of propaganda the revenue stream provided by copyright, because one of my main points is that copyright is who is enkidu, not how most creative work is actually funded anyway. If we actually look at the economic realities of most creators' lives, instead of repeating to in animal, ourselves the myths we've been told, we see a variety of funding sources, of which copyright revenue is usually not even the most prominent.

This is true even for writers, who are often paid on what is howl about, a commission / piecework basis, by the way. You write that P2P filesharing networks are not designed to facilitate the types in animal farm transfer of money to postmodernism definition, the artist. Right. Isn't that exactly the point I'm making about copyright itself, that it's not designed to facilitate the transfer of money to the artist? I don't mean that in some figurative sense, I mean it literally: copyright is in animal farm, a law, it was lobbied for google search yahoo and designed by types of propaganda farm a group of rates temperature people, and the problem they were solving, while real, was not the problem of how to subsidize creative work. Re the Threshold Pledge system: Google for types in animal farm it, you'll find that people have used it to fund real projects. I think I am accurately representing the free software movement, and what is howl have written more on that here. Of Propaganda In Animal Farm. That point has also been addressed in google, this comment and this comment on types farm, the article.

Regarding these assertions: This is a significant difference to music and movies, both of definition sociology which require expensive equipment. Books are easier to create, but not nearly as easy to distribute, making them also significantly different. If you really think copyright royalties are what's paying for farm most music, then you haven't spent much time in the music industry try reading someone who has. About movies, you have a point: I don't see how the levels of is howl funding currently needed for Hollywood blockbusters can be achieved without restrictive (in the descriptive, not the pejorative, sense) copyright laws. On the other hand, I also don't think that's a very good justification for preventing people from sharing and making derivative works freely. What policy choice makes those works preferable to types, the kinds of works that flourish when people are able to who is enkidu, use everything around them without restriction?

As for books, I addressed distribution quite extensively in the article, I'm not sure if you just didn't see that or chose to ignore it. portability and fair use of music cd#039;s. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2007-05-07 22:38. the enigma of the lure of a portable media player that does not skip during everyday motion but recogizes fair use, would be solved by a gadget that carries the original cd, or its first copy, and its compressed music files stored in the device. the of propaganda gadget periodically scans for the presence of the cdrom, but the google search yahoo music comes from the compreseed file stored in the device. this should satisfy both the media corporation and the user of the music product, and allow him/her fair use access to it in his portable media device, even if the cdrom itself would have experienced skips, not to of propaganda in animal, mention scratches and unwanted battery consumption. who knows if there will be a newfangled media in the future, but let's preserve the rights and anonymity of the theory user! source code is another issue involving more players. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on of propaganda farm, Mon, 2007-05-07 22:41. In donation-world, what is the motivation of the copy-shop to ask for an additional donation?

Or can they keep a portion of it? Do they have to say how much? How do you enforce this? Also, aren't you making an assumption that the copy shop will be necessary? Is that a valid assumption? I can already make CD labels or printed CDs that are, in my opinion prettier and nicer than what generally comes from who is enkidu a mass press. Types. So where is the of reaction point of enforced solicitation? Also, I think its likely that we will reach a point, in the fairly near future, of storage and bandwidth ubiquity that it will be trivial to make and send a copy of a full length movie without really thinking of the cost. We're nearly there now.

Certainly that will be the case for farm books, since that's nearly the state we're at now. Hey, I got a great book I just finished, I mailed you a copy, in case you want to yahoo, check it out. Ok, maybe I will, if I get time.. the in animal farm 3-4 MB of text of even a lengthy book (the Wizard of Oz at Gutenberg is less than half a MB). So, that really makes the problem of enforced solicitation a bit tricky. Will my friend ever even hear about the way to send money back to theory, the author? I guess maybe if you put it at the front. But who reads the copyright notices in the beginning of books NOW? In the threshold world, I merely have an types of propaganda in animal farm, anecdote, since I have less problems with that method, though I still have to who is enkidu, ask first one quest:

Who will pay for the first work of an author? (I know, its a bit tough for them NOW to get that.) Won't threshold escrows lead to situations of And your next book BETTER have unicorns in it, or I'm withholding my donation! Its just patronage, again, really. And patronage produced fine works, but fewer people saw the farm results, and more than once a patron enforced their will on a work, to its detriment. Who Is Enkidu. To be fair, though, modern works are often targetted to sell though, so I suppose it really isn't any better now, in that respect. So, the in animal point is about, moot. Of Propaganda In Animal Farm. But, patrons paid to own, at least initially. Some of course presented it as a point of pride to their surrounding communities (though, generally just to others they felt mattered.) But my anecdote, which is of reaction temperature, more of food for though, is that there is types in animal, a certain church near me, that needs to get a new organ, and they're soliciting donations to of reaction, get one, and annoucing how much they have already collected. Of Propaganda In Animal Farm. It really didn't take them long to reach 95% of the amount needed to get the define the domino theory organ. but since, there the notice has sat, week after week, waiting for types of propaganda that last little bit to come in. Sort of a poker game to see which potential donator will fold first to bring in the last amount. Just something to think about.

Also, I think, perhaps, that the fundamental difference of most software from other creative works is that its mostly often a tool, and people (and lets face it, corporations, under which a great deal of open source and even free software is hip hop fashion, written now) use their own tools. People don't always, or as often, use their own creative works. Of Propaganda. Sure, to a degree they do, and there is always the old saw of the authors that writes for their children, etc, etc, but what would motivate them to sociology, distribute? Ego (oh, call it a need to share with the of propaganda in animal world around them if you must)? Perhaps, but that motivation exists now with the current system. Removing the likelihood to GAIN substantially from distribution simply removes one reason why the work would be propigated at rates of reaction all. Types Of Propaganda In Animal. Making for less distribution, in all likelihood. What. Yes, with the technologies here and coming, the types of propaganda in animal farm burden OF sharing is diminished, but I still know plenty of authors, particularly for whom for whatever reasons the possibility of about remuneration for of propaganda in animal publishing doesn't really strike them, who keep whole books, chapter, plot, characters, and scene, in their heads, never having committed them to paper, because the exercise of thought in creating the work alone was enough for them.

I think that in a world where its unlikely they will profit from the define the domino theory distribution of a work, there would be more of these virtual books. In fact, I can't logically see how it would be any other way. Some concerns about your arguments. Submitted by types Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2007-05-07 23:06. A passionate article about copyright, indeed. Rates Of Reaction Temperature. And it does argue well for types of propaganda in animal farm the original motivations for establishing copyright law.

But I just cant resist but to what, point to some glaring concerns, that I thing are presented as opinion: * First, even if the original motivation for establishing copyright was based on publishers greed, it does not mean copyright itself is evil. This seems to be referred to types in animal, again and again in rates, the article. * This article somehow seems to portray business as a dirty word, opposed to creativity: For e.g. That's what copyright does: it enables business models. is seen as something of an evil insider secret: Unfortunately, not all of the propaganda put out by the industry is as straightforward and honest as Kenswil's * The biggest issue of types of propaganda in animal course is about the issue of how to get rich from yahoo creative works. I hope the author is not against farm getting rich from ones works of the define the domino theory mind. This article keeps on pounding on creativity as if its the ONLY motivation for intellectual/artistic works like books or music. The author presents two possible methods (as a sample): donation-ware and pledge based. But the of propaganda in animal farm article fails to present any concrete evidence of their success. Define The Domino. This is types of propaganda farm, probably the biggest practical concern. I admire the goodwill the author anticipates from the people out there but is postmodernism, it really the truth?

Is there any significant evidence for it? If this is indeed true, why doesnt Wal-Mart simply sell its items at types in animal farm the cost price (including distribution, marketing etc) + a voluntary donation to provide profits. There is plenty of postmodernism donation-ware software out there, and I havent heard of any millionaires from these yet. Types Of Propaganda Farm. Firefox makes tons of postmodernism definition sociology money, but its from their Google ad revenue sharing agreement. The pledge based system in my opinion is types, pretty problematic: making a pledge before even the work is created? (and therefore having little idea of what one is actually paying the creator for) No thanks ! Now, I am not saying they are useless ideas: All I am saying is sociology, that they are unproven. I have seen many get rich from proprietary software, but yet to see creators/authors/artists getting rich to in animal, any significant degree from relinquishing copyright. And arguing for what is howl getting rid of copyright (not credit right) based on unproven principles is obviously not tenable.

* There are many other arguments that are simply opinions; I wont elaborate on all of them. But in in animal farm, the end all I can say is that if what the author believes is hip hop fashion, true, then the system will simply auto-regulate as the article argues in the end. Now should we force it on creators by changing the copyright law? That I am not too sure about. Types Of Propaganda Farm. I am myself in the process of writing a book and to be honest would feel uncomfortable if I am forced to relinquish my rights (open to debate of course), simply because the author feels I can make enough money from peoples benevolence. Re: Some concerns about your arguments. You write: The biggest issue of hip hop fashion course is about the issue of how to get rich from creative works. Why is that the issue?

Why should we prohibit everyone else from types in animal copying and who is enkidu making derivative works, in order that a few people (a tiny minority out of of propaganda in animal farm all artists, by the way) can get rich? If you want to what is howl, get rich, go into investment banking that's what it's for. If you want to earn a living by being an artist, then by all means have a try, but don't think that you're likely to get rich from copyright revenues. Types In Animal. You might as well play the lottery. I'm not against people getting rich. I am against us crippling important aspects of our society and justifying it on the grounds that it will enable some people to get rich. We don't justify other social policies that way; why should copyright be any different? Is this about getting rich or making a living? Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sat, 2008-09-20 22:57.

I agree that there are not too many people getting rich - as in any area of life. But don't forget that the great majority of us want to make a living, and the sword of is howl about copyright cuts both ways. Types In Animal Farm. I am not an artist, my written work is purposeful and workmanlike at best, and designed to postmodernism sociology, help me earn a living in another field. Types In Animal. But I abide by current law and I wield this law to protect myself and my work. I have carefully crafted a website about evidence-based hypnosis. Postmodernism Sociology. I have researched and acknowledged my sources and provided information as accurately and interestingly as I can. My website brings me clients and builds my reputation. However, as well as practicing my craft, I do protect my work. In Animal. It aggravates me beyond words when other sites go up with whole pages lifted from mine. And no, I am not flattered by rates temperature being copied.

I see no reason why someone else should brazenly benefit from in animal my effort and I do something about it. It is interesting to me that another writer here was flattered to see his book had been ripped off, and I am guessing that this difference in attitude comes at definition sociology least in part from the difference in purpose between us. Re: Is this about getting rich or making a living? You're talking about in animal farm, plagiarism, not copyright violation. Plagiarism is when people copy your work without crediting you. Hip Hop Fashion. No one here is in animal, arguing in favor of search yahoo that, and in fact this site advocates strong legal protections against plagiarism where necessary.

If you use the words ripped off to refer to both copying with attribution and copying without attribution, then you're using the same term for completely different things. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2007-07-27 07:25. Overall, I think you've written an excellent, thought-provoking article. However, while I was reading, a couple of things came to mind: 1) In describing the genesis of copyright law, leading up to the Statute of Anne, I think you unreasonably give the farm impression that the whole thing was lobbied for who is enkidu by publishers solely as a means of advancing their own self-interest by falsely advocating author's rights, and that Parliament simply fell for types of propaganda in animal the ruse and passed the law. This overlooks the significance of google publishing syndicates like the in animal Conger, which was quite upfront in demanding that Parliament grant exclusive rights to *publishers* so that they could prevent competitors from distributing works that the rates temperature Conger considered it owned, having paid the author for them. (I think I'm also right in saying that prior to the Statute of Anne, the courts generally backed up this state of affairs, but I'm not 100% sure about that part.) 2) Similarly, I think you do a disservice to Parliament by portraying it as simply going along with publishers' tale of their (and authors') woes, when I think it's fairer to farm, say that in passing the Statute of what Anne they were genuinely attempting to balance the interlocking interests of authors, publishers and society in of propaganda in animal farm, general. It might be better to note that intent, but point out that the framework being used to make that decision was not very representative of the real writing-publishing environment, given that it was laid out for them by who is enkidu publishers, who of farm course had both the vested interest and the political capital to get Parliament to rates of reaction temperature, see things their way from the of propaganda in animal farm outset.

3) Your depiction of the cost of digital distribution as, if not completely free, then as near to define theory, free as makes no odds is types in animal, far too facile. In reality, digital distribution still costs money, it's just that the what is howl distribution costs are minuscule in comparison to the traditional costs of doing a print run, or pressing thousands of records. The essay would be much improved if this side of the argument were made more accurate and fleshed out types of propaganda, better, because once that is established it lends greater weight to suggestions about what creators of hip hop fashion works could do to make money, i.e. it makes clearer the extent to which they would need to cover costs before being able to make a profit in a no-copyright world. Also, as a side note to this, you might want to check out economist Rufus Pollock's paper, Forever Minus a Day? Some Theory and Empirics of Optimal Copyright, which argues that as the cost of production/distribution of creative works goes down, the copyright term length should, logically, also go down. I think it gels nicely with a lot of what you're saying. Anyway, as I said, I really liked the types of propaganda in animal farm article and will be paying attention to define the domino, the site from now on!

PS I also wrote the above reply that starts, Given the way in which the of propaganda industry, but I forgot to add my name! Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2008-08-15 17:48. I've been wondering how the these and related issues affect things like Digital video instead of standard video. For example, Rob Springer, the award winning TV producer, predicted that web video would take over rates of reaction, and become the norm, especially in the face of 'forced' conversion to the Digital TV box. In fact, he has a video addition product that he's also developed - Add Video To Website - given his views on the issue. Now, the response of such forced conversions is always to the contrary of what is indented, and it is almost exactly the same in the copyright market. By forcing people to use pre-determined channels of types in animal buying and who is enkidu selling (through distributors and copyright processes), one has to wonder if this helps promote the types of propaganda in animal general good - which is distribution of knowledge - or if it simply helps a certain few gather more funds to oppose the next bill proposing reform to copyright laws.

Naive, idealistic, utopian craving for creative communism. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2007-08-13 02:08. I don't even know where to start. Maybe I'll pull some quotes from yahoo your (very interesting) article: But the overall historical record is clear: copyright was designed by distributors, to subsidize distributors not creators.This is the secret that today's copyright lobby never dares say aloud, for once it is admitted, the true purpose of subsequent copyright legislation becomes embarrassingly clear. Who cares today what the historical record of copyright looks like? Distributors liked to be able to feed their families too, so a financial arrangement was made with the author.

Win/Win. Although some free software authors are paid for their work (after all, their services provide a benefit to those who use the software, and some of those users are willing to pay for it. Totally hypocritical. You're implying that books provide NO benefit to those who read them. I can't tell you how much I benefited from of propaganda in animal farm Windows For Dummies.

And absolutely I was willing to pay for it. Why would I expect someone whom I've never met to spend hundreds of his own hours to define, write a book just so I can learn how to use my computer? If copyright is not really needed to stimulate original creation, then what purpose does it serve today? For it is quite clear that if copyright did not exist already, we wouldn't invent it now. I don't believe that your premise is correct, or at least I wasn't convinced of it by anything in the article. And nothing is quite clear here. Apparently, all those artists throughout history who did just fine without copyright aren't included in all creative artists as far as the of propaganda in animal RIAA is concerned. Could you name some of them?

Shakespeare? No. Stravinsky? No. The Beatles? Thomas Jefferson? Ernest Hemingway? Tolstoy? Bill Gates? No, no, no, no, no. Since people who duplicate CDs do not usually replace the artist's name with their own, let's ask the question Hilary Rosen should have asked: Would it bother you if somebody could just show a copy of your paper around, so other people could benefit from what you wrote, and see that you got an search yahoo, A? Of course, the students would have answered No, we aren't bothered by that at all, which isn't what Rosen wanted to types of propaganda in animal farm, hear.

Why analogize with CDs when you are discussing a paper. The vocal performance and song-writing style would of course prevent, say me, from putting my name on a Stevie Nicks song. What. If there were no copyright laws, I can guarantee you that human nature would prevail and you would see one article 1,000 times, each with a different author listed. One woman who has received a subpoena from the of propaganda recording industry association said she had struggled to explain to her 13-year-old son why file-sharing was wrong. I said, 'Suppose you wrote a song and a famous rock group sang it and you didn't get paid,' said the mother, who declined to give her name because of her legal situation.

He said: 'I wouldn't care. That would be awesome.' They're still just in that young age where money doesn't matter. (One can only hope the the domino theory sensible 13-year-old manages to types of propaganda, keep his head, when so many around him are apparently losing theirs.) The arguments are becoming more and more naive. Of course a 13 year old would think it was awesome if U2 took a song he wrote and sang it in concert or put it on an album.

He's got no bills to definition sociology, pay, no mortgage, no problems! Not a financial care in the world. Ask a struggling, homeless, 60 year old jazz musician in New Orleans the types same question. What do you think he would say? Sure!

Go ahead and let U2 get rich off of my music while I snuggle up in my cardboard box? You're asking for a Wikipedia of great works. Don't like something someone else has written? Change a few words here and there and put your name on it. Then sell it because it's the only one of theory it's kind. But it was an interesting read anyway! Re: Naive, idealistic, utopian craving for of propaganda creative communism. Most of what I would say in response to your comment is already in the articles on this site.

But a few points deserve specific rebuttal: You seem to be claiming that Shakespeare somehow benefited from copyright, but he died almost a century before copyright was invented. I don't know what you were talking about regarding Thomas Jefferson, who made no money from copyright that I'm aware of (corrections welcome, of course). Definition. Leo Tolstoy deliberately released his works into the public domain later in life, precisely because of moral concerns over the unnecessary propertizing effects of copyright. In all, you may not have picked the best set of examples there :-). (Leaving aside the question of why Bill Gates is types, included in the list at all. Or is the accumulation of great wealth in itself supposed to be a justification for copyright restrictions?) Those of us who work in the open source software world have already fulfilled this so-called naive, idealistic, utopian craving for creative communism, and we seem to be doing just fine. And, as I mentioned, we don't have plagiarism problems. Also, I release non-software works onto the Internet, such that anyone could take them, change a few words, and release a new version (see, for example). Google. Yet I do not suffer from plagiarism; I don't even worry about of propaganda in animal farm, it.

It's been a non-issue. Postmodernism Definition Sociology. If someone were going to claim to have written something they didn't write, copyright wouldn't stop them, because they'd be claiming the copyright too anyway (as explained in more detail here and here). Of course books provide wonderful benefit to their readers; who would disagree? I love to read books; I write books too, and I like to get paid for doing so, and in fact am paid. I have no idea what made you think I was saying otherwise. Part of this argument is that there are plenty of ways of paying authors that do not involve criminalizing other people who share with each other; you seem to have missed that part. The 60 year old jazz musician in of propaganda in animal farm, New Orleans, living in a cardboard box while U2 gets rich off his songs, is largely a creature of your imagination. The majority of musicians do not make noticeable money from copyright. And, if he existed, he would be in that cardboard box anyway if U2 didn't play his song.

But he would be somewhat better off if they did play it, because then at least he'd get the what is howl about publicity (remember, attribution is a separate issue). By the of propaganda in animal farm way, I have had the experience of a publisher publishing one of my freely-licensed books commercially and not paying any royalties. And you know what? I was happy: they were keeping it in print, and the domino my reputation was enhanced. This is exactly analogous to the situation with your hypothetical jazz musician, but it happened to me in real life. (Except for the part about living in types in animal farm, a cardboard box, but that was just a rhetorical device on your part: I don't think I actually have to live in a cardboard box to get the google search points, do I?) The rest of your comments are already answered elsewhere on this site.

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2007-10-08 01:27. In one of the replies above, you said: About movies, you have a point: I don't see how the levels of funding currently needed for Hollywood blockbusters can be achieved without restrictive (in the descriptive, not the pejorative, sense) copyright laws. On the other hand, I also don't think that's a very good justification for in animal farm preventing people from sharing and making derivative works freely. What policy choice makes those works preferable to the kinds of works that flourish when people are able to use everything around them without restriction?

I've thought about this at postmodernism sociology some length. In fact, I've seen first hand how the non-compliance to copyright on types, sites like Youtube can greatly enhance the who is enkidu public awareness of filmmakers who would be little-known otherwise - of filmmakers whose works aren't even SOLD on DVD (because there is types of propaganda in animal, a large financial risk involved in publishing unusual films, many such films are never released to define theory, the public after they have been made - or are never made in the first place). But here's the thing. Free Software can be (is) a viable business model because it's the technical support, etc. Of Propaganda. that the buyer pays for. Book authors can easily make money from self-publishing their books; they can make it impossible to postmodernism definition, copy their works if they wish (all they have to do is not release the complete text online, and make the book hard to scan by printing close to the centre). Perhaps they can also make money through some kind of donation system, but they will continue to have a choice in the foreseeable future. Musicians have, and always will have, the live performances which will be their bread butter.

Even if it becomes impossible to stop the spreading of their albums online, this might actually be a boost to them because it'll mean higher concert attendance. But film. I don't know. What do YOU see as the future for types of propaganda in animal film as an hip hop fashion, art form in a world where copyright not a factor? It is very different from the other things you mentioned in certain ways. There are so many variables that it's hard for me to sort them all out. here are some thoughts, anyway: -We are rapidly approaching the point at which there will be absolutely no information loss between a 35mm film and types of propaganda in animal a digitized version of the hip hop fashion film.

It is already not all that difficult to download a perfect copy of a film over the internet. (in fact, we're there already, but I mean that soon this technology will be cheaper and more accessible) -Filmmaking, even on a small scale, more often than not requires the organization of many different people and is generally not an easy thing to do well. In this, it is similar to software development. -Unlike software development, you can't make money by servicing the product (at least, I see no way to do it). -Like music, there might be a way to make money through performance. You would have to commit to keeping every single copy of it on 35mm film for theatrical showings and not digitize it (or only digitize a reduced quality version of it, or only part of it, or digitize it but guard it very carefully to prevent it from spreading). Types Of Propaganda. This would be a return to the pre-VHS business model, and would actually seem to sociology, put more power in types in animal, the hands of distributors than is currently the who is enkidu case. -On websites like, thousands of hobbyists submit 100,000 often bizarre, mostly awful films. It doesn't really give me great hope for in animal the idea of hobbyism as the future of filmmaking. Newgrounds did pay a few of definition sociology its more prominent artists for their films - their number can be counted on single digits. -Websites like Atomfilms exist which serve to promote artists who would be seen as too risky by types of propaganda in animal farm the mainstream industry. Google Yahoo. However, these websites depend on the ads before the film.

It's just another model that depends on types of propaganda, controlling the distribution venue. -Many of filmmakings' greatest artistic triumphs occurred in places where the filmmakers had a consistent wage AND were not afraid to experiment and who is enkidu do what seemed right. I talk about the subject a bit over here: This raises a somewhat different question - is it actually more efficient for a society to types farm, provide some base level of stable funding for filmmaking, and hip hop fashion allow the filmmakers to decide with their colleagues what they should be making, and who should be given what budget? If filmmakers were given a small but steady wage, and the films they made released into types of propaganda farm, the public domain or CC license, this would allow them to experiment more AND make their connection with the public stronger (because they would judge the success of one of their own films based on postmodernism definition sociology, the public reaction rather than how much money it made, which is types of propaganda in animal farm, often dependent more on marketing, distribution and plain chance than the film's quality). Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2007-11-05 07:32. I think the about solution for movies (and specifically: making enough money from movies to sustain the costs of making them professionally) in farm, a post-copyright world may lie in the approach to business models applied. How about hip hop fashion, a business that sustains itself by providing a richer experience for the audience? Would people pay more money (or indeed pay ANY money) to enjoy a movie, if they can view the movie at home, downloaded for free? Yes I think so, if the experience they get for that money is viewed as greater. An example or two: Would you pay money to see the of propaganda in animal film in a well crafted environment (such as a modern movie theatre), with superb sound and picture quality?

Would you pay if the event was a premiere, with the producer/writer/director/whoever doing a short introduction and taking questions after the show? Would you pay if it wasn't a premiere, but instead you got a personal copy of the film to take home, with a printed leaflet (akin to a theatre programme), all in nice wrapping? In short, would you pay to get an of reaction temperature, enriched experience, rather than just the movie, downloaded to of propaganda in animal, your home network. Well, not everybody would, but I think a lot of people would pay for the richer experience. If these examples alone are enough to hip hop fashion, sustain an industry resembling today's Hollywood or Bollywood, I don't know - most likely not. In Animal. But I think the what is howl about examples point to types of propaganda in animal farm, the solution; industries which have hitherto relied on who is enkidu, the concept of copyrights (and their enforcement) to protect their business models in the face of a technology shift which threatens to render that model obsolete, are just prolonging the death struggle on the road to the inevitable solution: Change your business model when the old one doesn't work, or perish. I think it's that simple. Mankind is not known for farm a lack of creativity when it comes to finding new ways of making money.

A movie industry (with all the creativity floating around that scene) surely will find not a way to do it, but probably a full plethora of ways of rates bringing you (the audience) great entertainment while making a buck. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2008-06-12 22:27. With the types in animal farm growing Bollywood film industry, I am starting to wonder how much of an issue copyright is in India? Indian cinema is blowing up big, and with the internet around, it would be so easy to download these. Rates Of Reaction. Perhaps this leads to greater exposure and familiarity with Bollywood etc.

This could help the industry grow even more on types in animal farm, an international scale. the who is enkidu way of the of propaganda farm future? Actresses like Aishwarya Rai and define the domino Katrina Kaif are already growing to be household names and they are primarily from Bollywood films. I know Indian cinema already 'borrows' Hollywood films and of propaganda in animal farm injects their own song and dance to appeal to Indian audiences. Postmodernism Definition Sociology. This seems like a breach of copyright to me. The future of copyright infringement will be an interesting one (especially with YouTube and the like) Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2007-11-16 19:11.

This message is licensed under the terms of creative communism. And don't try to types of propaganda farm, stop me from licensing everything under the terms of creative communism. Rates Temperature. Steal this message if you want, claim as your own, I don't care, but don't try to impose copyright restrictions (or any other restrictions) on it. The copyright notice at the bottom of this page seems similar to creative communism already, so it is a good start. I will make new computer system and other products, and it will be open-source and stuff, so that the general public is types farm, benefit instead of bad people (an example of bad people is the MAFIAA, the Music And Film Association of google America).

When everybody start using creative communist software then companies with too much money (because they are greedy) will be no longer. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2007-11-16 19:12. Oops, I forgot to write one thing, it includes not only computer systems and of propaganda farm software, but also music, movies, books, and other stuff. The physical property are own by whoever purchases it (or makes it themself), but intelectual properties will be free for everyone. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2008-07-10 06:05. And now with things like the DMCA are coming to Canada and that sort of thing really scares me. It's the whole overreach thing that is hip hop fashion, a big issue. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2007-12-23 11:12. Thank you for the link to this page. Ive been studying IP for of propaganda farm a while and, much to my embarrassment, didnt know about much of what you spoke of in your talk. Ive never felt comfortable with copyright law primarily, I think, because law school taught us to look at it in terms of how it allegedly protects authors despite the fact that it quite obviously does next to nothing in that respect. (Personally, the only use Ive ever had for copyright has been to use it to try to of reaction, decrease the types of propaganda in animal control which publishers have over an MS once it has been sent to them.)

Stopping to think of copyright law solely in terms of how it supposedly protects authors has enabled me to feel as though I'm finally beginning to understand it. That's the rates temperature kind of reaction every writer hopes for thank you so much, Nandita. Indeed, you'd better watch out: that kind of comment might cause us to ask you later if you want to help with any of our projects :-). It's interesting how students of copyright law are rarely taught copyright's history (for what it's worth, many other students have made comments similar to yours). The students are never exposed to the notion that copyright was designed to subsidize replication, not creation, or that it was designed around a particular set of technological constraints, constraints that do not hold today. This may have something to of propaganda in animal farm, do with the fact that today's professors came of age in a time when their own publications, including books, were distributed via traditional mass print runs. Postmodernism Definition. Thus they have real-life experience with copyright, but mediated by their dealings with publishers. Since this was all mostly off the Internet (online distribution of academic papers being still in its infancy), those professors tend to see copyright as a law that enables the distribution of their ideas; that's how the publishers present it, after all, and in in animal, a printing-press-based world, it's a reasonable assertion. But this all probably informs how the professors teach copyright.

Even then, as you pointed out, many of them have complaints about the amount of control the publisher gets over the manuscript. I even know a professor who can no longer obtain copies of his own book: it's out of print, but the publisher won't let anyone else print it either. Temperature. (This may be a familiar story in academia, I don't know.) I wonder how long the categorization of copyrights, patents, and trademarks together as intellectual property law can hold up. They're all quite different from each other; there is probably some similarity between copyrights and patents, but there's hardly any meaningful similarity between them and trademarks. Yet somehow these things all got lumped together as IP. Of Propaganda. Because copyright-based industries are always careful to mention them in google search yahoo, the same breath (see Bill Hilf's marvelous conflation while answering a question at types in animal the end of define this presentation, for example), the public gets fooled. If I had a dollar for every time I talked to a complete stranger about farm, copyright and heard them ask Well, but don't you think trademarks are important? , I'd surely be able to fund from the proceeds. It would be better if law schools and other academic institutions treated them as unrelated fields of study. That would do a lot to who is enkidu, alleviate the confusion (for the pro-copyright industry, a welcome confusion) that surrounds them now. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on of propaganda farm, Tue, 2008-01-22 19:32.

First of the domino all, thank you for the great article. You have made your point very well. I just wanted to make a quick comment about types of propaganda in animal farm, your statement Abandoning copyright is now not only possible, but desirable. Both artists and audiences would benefit, financially and aesthetically. Recently, the broadway musical The Wedding Singer came to our Performing Arts Center here in town. Postmodernism Definition Sociology. Being a fan of the movie, my wife and I bought tickets right away. We attended the in animal farm show and define the domino highly anticipated the 80's songs that were played in the movie.

To our surprise, they did not play one song from the movie. In fact, they did not play any songs from the 80's at types of propaganda in animal all. What a disappointment. I did some research after the show only to rates of reaction temperature, find out that because of copyright issues the show could not include any of the 80's songs. I think this is a perfect example of where Copyright completely ruined what could have been a terrific show and if the copyright could have been abandoned, both artists and in animal farm audiences would have benefitted, financially and aesthetically! Thanks for your kind words about the article, and for telling us about this incident (which may be a good candidate for inclusion in the Ghost Works Project, actually). Publication of hip hop fashion scientific research. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sat, 2008-02-02 18:22. I enjoyed your article, and the obvious depth of thinking you have put into your subject. I wondered if you have looked at the situation regarding scientific / medical research work?

In this world, a researcher does all the work, then submits it to an academic journal, e.g. Nature, Lancet, New England Journal of Medicine etc. The author makes no money from the types farm publication of the work, but the is howl about publisher does charge significant fees to types of propaganda, anyone who wants to buy the rates temperature work. Similarly if the researcher wants to read the works of his / her peers, he has to pay the publishing house to access those works. So basically, the publishing houses exist simply to restrict access to scientific works and make profits for themselves by of propaganda in animal restricting access to work made by who is enkidu the researchers.

It seems to me that these situations are very similar to those of artists and other creative people described in of propaganda in animal, your article. Re: Publication of scientific research. I'm glad you liked the article, thanks. Take a look at Public Library of rates temperature Science -- they're doing wonderful work to address exactly the situation you described. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Tue, 2008-02-26 15:18. Recently I was discussing a relevant topic on a different forum, that of the of propaganda farm anime industry and who is enkidu fansubs, and of propaganda I think, or at least hope, that one of the posts I came up with there is hip hop fashion, actually of great use to this debate as a whole. In Animal. I'll give a link after my post, but I think that it's best if I give an adaptation of my post first, and then provide a link to where I originally posted it. This article has been a strong influence for me in my thinking about copyright, and this post is no exclusion. First of all, I'll quote the words of Zac, the executive editor of Anime News Network, because what he said was crucial to my post:- You know, the more I read up on copyright law, the more I agree it needs to be changed dramatically.

But not in the way you're suggesting. Copyright law appears to have been written to help foster the creation of new art and the promotion of the hip hop fashion sciences. Of Propaganda In Animal. What it doesn't do is protect a company's product, and that's what entertainment media is - a product. Episode #756 of Naruto is no different from a can of Coke, realistically speaking. It is a consumable product, created and marketed much in the same way a can of soda is. Because in the digital age it has no physical form other than bytes stored on a hard drive doesn't mean it's somehow less of postmodernism a product - because people can classify entertainment product as art doesn't mean it somehow becomes less of a product, not part of the economy and not a business but instead some vague protected art. This argument isn't quite fully formed - I guess what I'm trying to say is that while copyright law protects ideas, concepts and images, an episode of Naruto is not just a collection of ideas, concepts and types in animal farm images - it's a product, created to of reaction temperature, be sold to a certain demographic.

It is no more art than a candy bar. Copyright law seems to assume that there's this grand artistic community that needs protection in order to foster the creation of new works for the betterment of all but doesn't take into account the fact that entertainment is types of propaganda, a business and who is enkidu these TV shows and movies are products. If we were to actually acknowledge this fact - that anime is not some grandiose art that deserves to be seen by as many people as possible but rather a commercial endeavor like any other business - the whole 'it's not theft if I copy it a zillion times and give it away for free to anyone who wants it!' argument loses steam. Distributing Naruto episodes online illegally should be regarded as being no different from having a magic machine that xeroxes cans of Coke and types of propaganda in animal farm standing in front of the store handing both the Coke and the machine out to anyone who shows interest. Now, without further ado, the hip hop fashion content of types in animal my post, adapted slightly, primarily to who is enkidu, remove the core of referencing to anime specifically, since the issues were generally applicable. Great stuff Zac! It seemed that the thread was dying, but you've just offered us this great post. When you discuss the writing of of propaganda in animal farm copyright law, I guess you mean current coypright law was written with that in mind, because, as you can read in The Promise of a Post-Copyright World, copyright in who is enkidu, its initial form was written as a censorship mechanism, which was also used as a monopoly for the Stationers. Now, if you mean copyright as it was laid out in farm, the United States First Amendment, then yes, that is search, how it was written.

However, is of propaganda in animal farm, that the definition purpose it currently serves? I would say that this is evidently not the case; it is a tool of the RIAA, MPAA, etc., just as it was a tool of the Stationers. It's a tool they're using to of propaganda farm, protect their profits, but sadly for them, it's not working too well. Now, I'll go onto google search the Coke xeroxing machine analogy, because I think it's an absolutely brilliant analogy to talk about, and I think I can use it to make something very convincing. If technology that could xerox a can of Coke were to exist, then what is the cost of producing a can of Coke?

Zero. Would this also mean that Coke is types of propaganda farm, worthless? It seems so, doesn't it, but shortly I'll explain why that might not be the case. At this stage this seems like a horrible analogy to books and video of today, since video especially can be very costly to google search, produce. But no, if you look deeper still, there is actually something you can draw from the in animal farm analogy. Either something that can be copied indefinetely is temperature, valueless (infinite supply = zero price), as one could argue easily from an economic perspective, or there is something else to the product that has some kind of inherent value. However, any value in such a product clearly cannot lie in the physical form of the product, and that is of propaganda in animal farm, why it is essential that any digital product must, by necessity, be seen as having value of a different kind. And here, I propose two distinct types of value, value to society (social value, I'll call it), and the value associated with the act of creation (For want of a better term I'll call it creative cost). Consequently, whether it is art or not is irrelevant - in its mere nature it cannot have value in the same way as a tangible product, but only in an intangible sense.

The very idea of trying to attach a standard, non-zero economic value to the product itself in the case of something that can be infinitely reproduced is who is enkidu, clearly unsound. However, the types in animal other two types of postmodernism definition sociology value I suggested can be applied just fine. Now I'll apply the value system I've just fleshed out to of propaganda farm, your Coke analogy, arguing that even if Coke costs nothing to reproduce (and hence produce, because the two things are equivalent in this case (though this is not the hip hop fashion case for other products), it is not worthless. Firstly, Coke has social value - it is capable of providing enjoyment to in animal farm, society, or at least that's what Coke advertises =D. Secondly, there is the value associated with the act of having invented Coke. Without the first Coke having been created in who is enkidu, the first place, infinite reproduction would be impossible. In the types in animal case of Coke, the law attempts (or attempted) to google search yahoo, recognise this value by giving Coca-Cola a patent for their product. As for any creative work, it has those same two types of in animal inherent value. There is the social value, and the creative cost. One can agree to this without accepting any creative work as art at all; social value is benefit to society of search any kind, it need not be artistic; many commercial works can still be said to be of types farm value to is howl about, society, even if that value is not artistic.

As for creative cost, well, the fact that a television show costs money to create is undeniable, so it certainly possesses creative cost. Types Farm. In the case of a written work, it can be done by a single person merely by spending time, but, as is all too often said, time is money. So, with this in mind, I'll return this to define, the issue of creative cost. It is clear that not everyone who produces something that is types of propaganda farm, a digital (or digitizable) product can offer it for free, though that would be best for society. However, once something is produced, economics says that it would be completely and utterly stupid to prevent near-infinite reproduction when it's so damned cheap. Hence comes the issue, and it is the very issue copyright failed to solve - how do you foster the creation of define theory things that have no tangible value, but have significant social value as well as creation cost? Copyright is a possible answer to this, but the fact is that it doesn't work. As far as I can see, there is no simple way to sort out such a question from a legislative perspective without significant violation of civil liberties. Consequently, the true onus is on society as a whole to types, find ways of repaying the creative cost. In the case of businesses, their role in yahoo, this affair is in animal, that they will need to hip hop fashion, make profit from the social value of in animal such a thing, rather than relying on the value of a physical product.

In the thread I said that a number of solutions to these problems already exist, and mentioned some of them, but that is unneccessary on this site. I'll return to the Coke-xeroxing machine to summarize - the presence of such a Coke-xeroxing machine could be seen as nothing other than a bonus to society. Let me now change that Coke-xeroxing machine to who is enkidu, a food-xeroxing machine (I admit I'm twisting Zac's argument slightly to of propaganda in animal, get something yet more convincing out of it, and I apologize). That would be nothing other than an ENORMOUS benefit to define the domino theory, society - it would alleviate world hunger in one fell swoop. The Internet should be seen in the exact same way. I believe a lot of what I'm saying is rather similar to what I read in this article, but I hope I'm adding something of value. Now a link to the original posts, though I think it's unneccessary:-

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Tue, 2008-02-26 16:31. Having thought about this further, I think there's a slight correction I need to make. When I use the analogy, I assert value in the form of creative cost, and then I use two different examples of such, the invention of Coke, and the creation of some kind of work. It makes for a good analogy, but I may have fallen prey to the whole grouping IP together fallacy. Now, Coke have chosen not to patent their formula, but the in animal fact that the patent was available to them remains.

However, if it were something infinitely reproducible, then, in the same way it has for software, patent law would be subject to real, mainstream debate, which is a way in which we can only google search, wish copyright would behave. A Coke xeroxing machine would, in fact, (or at least I would hope so) be seen as a whole new invention having merits of types in animal farm its own. Consequently, while parallels can be drawn between patent and copyright, that is not to say that the same course of action should be taken for both. While both are about providing incentive to postmodernism sociology, creators, patent is indeed wholly different; and, more crucially, the in animal current patent system is viable, while the copyright system certainly is not. The current patent system is hip hop fashion, viable?? . the current patent system is viable ? Those who have the most experience with it are the ones most likely to types of propaganda in animal farm, disagree with this statement :-). I tend to think that abstract economic analyses (I've made many myself, so I'm guilty too) of creativity vs products vs distribution, etc, miss the main point: We've just built a world-wide copying machine.

It makes perfect copies every time, and costs almost nothing per-copy. So, are we going to definition sociology, let ourselves use it or not? Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2008-02-27 07:32. I'm sorry, I was just afraid I'd made a mistake in drawing a parallel in the way that I did, so I basically tried to types in animal, cover my tracks as far as that parallel was concerned, and what it didn't really help. Sure, one might say that the core principle is that we have this world-wide copying machine and it would make no sense whatsoever to limit its use, but I think analysis such as mine helps to understand how society can adapt to its presence. I think that what analysing the value behind products like digital media offers us at the least a viable outlook on how people can be reimbursed for their work, even an of propaganda in animal farm, overall idea as to how a business can produce digital media and give it away for free. The basic principle for a business would be a simple one - harnessing the social value of the product to repay the creative cost, and make a profit as well. Sure, I understand what you're saying, but I also think we tend to fetishize familiar economic models -- indeed, we fetishize economic value itself, forgetting that economics is as capable of adjusting to new policy as policy is to economics. Here's another way to think about it: If it were the mid-1400s right now, but instead of inventing the printing press, Gutenberg had somehow invented the Internet, would anyone ever seriously have proposed anything resembling copyright law?

No, surely not. Free circulation of texts, etc, had been the norm up till then. The only restrictions were physical: how quickly and of reaction temperature how accurately you or your scribes could copy. There is types farm, no reason to think that the appearance of a perfect, global copying machine into hip hop fashion, that environment would have led to an urge to restrict sharing (except for in animal farm purposes of political censorship, of course, but that's not an who is enkidu, acceptable motivation today). When the printing press (not the Internet) did appear, it had certain physical limitations, and economics and types of propaganda in animal farm policy both adjusted to that. Now those limitations are gone -- not merely alleviated, but entirely obliterated. Sociology. Economics can adjust again to the real world, as it should. To argue that we should preserve economics adjustments that were designed specifically around earlier physical limitations implies that either the adjustments or the types farm limitations still serve some purpose, but if so, what? The mere preservation of a business model seems to me to be a weak goal. If the value we attribute to copyrighted works today partly depends on the monopoly restrictions of copyright, then where in postmodernism definition sociology, this accounting do we figure in the negative number -- that is, the inverse value of those who wished to types in animal, copy and make derivative works but couldn't? (Like Eldred, the publisher in Eldred vs Ashcroft, for example; see the who is enkidu Ghost Works article for types of propaganda in animal farm another example. ) What bothers me is so-called economic analyses that leave out whole sides of the google equations, and calculate value using the types of propaganda farm narrowly-defined formulas with which the publishing industry determines its profits.

Those don't represent value from hip hop fashion society's point of view, they only represent the value to of propaganda in animal, one party in a multi-party transaction. If we're going to do economic analysis, let's do it for real, instead of letting the terms be defined in such a way that the outcome is a foregone conclusion! Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on define, Mon, 2008-03-03 03:37. Well, I guess that's basically what I was trying to do - include a broader definition of value in my analysis, and see where that lead. It still gave me the same conclusions that you came up with - everyone with a stake in of propaganda in animal farm, the issue needs to realise that the current copyright model is unneccessary, and ineffective. Yup. Sorry, I get too caught up in tactics sometimes (and have been debating economists perhaps a bit too much lately -- it makes for bad reflexes :-) ). I didn't mean to imply that you had come to a conclusion other than the one you came to.

Submitted by rates temperature Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2008-07-11 16:13. I dont think that the farm current patent system is viable at all. Temperature. The way it is set up it only serves the in animal purpose of making sure copyright lawyers drive mercedes instead of honda. Do you have any idea how much it costs to get pattent protection? Submitted by who is enkidu Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2008-09-24 08:21. This is an interesting article, when it comes to japanese animation industry, the fansub community (represented by some web sites like AnimeSuki and Fansub-BT) are having some troubles with copyright owners when they translate unlicensed animes into different languages but it really helps the industry in choosing what anime they need to buy a license on a specific country. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on farm, Sun, 2008-04-13 07:07. A friend and I were actually talking about the subject of Copyrights and she sent me a link to your article. Postmodernism Definition Sociology. Very interesting points you've made and I have to say that my stance on the topic has changed considerably as a result of your arguments.

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on types of propaganda in animal farm, Sat, 2008-05-03 21:25. Bingo this is exactly what I was after, answered a lot of of reaction temperature questions I was pondering about. very neat paper definitely adding this to bookmarks as I'll be covering this subject more in depth next semester. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2008-05-23 09:52. The copyright of a work is types of propaganda in animal farm, initially assigned to the person(s) that created it. Selling the copyright (the work) to a publisher is one major way a creative person makes money from their work. Prices publishers pay for copyrighted works have to temperature, do with their marketability just like any business. A song by the Rolling Stones will bring more money than a song by the local high school rock band. A new book by types in animal J.K.

Rowling commands a bigger rate than, say, a book by you. No one I know is hip hop fashion, making money off of types in animal what you call the free stream. Yahoo. It gets a lot of ink from Internet types but no creative person is making money on it. Suggested donation? the day I can buy my groceries with a suggested donation is the of propaganda farm day I'll allow a suggested donation for my labor. Anyone else out there want to turn their paycheck into a suggested donation? how much have you made with your paypal donate button on this site??

I am not the RIAA, I am not a corporation. What you are describing here would take away my ability to who is enkidu, feed my family. Of Propaganda In Animal. And if you ever succeeded in postmodernism sociology, doing that you would soon see how fast your battle for copyright would become a personal one. I've made my living for about 15 years from the free stream. Submitted by types of propaganda farm Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2008-10-26 02:52. Obviously you are talking from of reaction temperature a very personal point of view and no-one would deny your right to feed your family but there must be better ways of types implementing copyright laws than the definition sociology way they are today. With the reach of the internet, they simply are not enforceable anyway. Anything you can get your hands on types in animal, in data form (words, code, music etc) you can get for free on the net and some countries do not respect the copyright of others so what are we to do?

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2010-01-18 06:16. copyright is not needed to protect from fraud. the best protection is knowing the reputation of those you work with just like all other businesses not protected by copyright. copyright will become obsolete as more authors and artists make their works of authorship(information) freely available on postmodernism definition sociology, the internet as an advertisement for the sale of a packaging(physical object) or service(presentation or website or concert) which embodies the information. with millions of types of propaganda farm creative works being published every single day, modern musicians or authors should fear obscurity. far more than piracy. authors who insist on being monopolists of information will eventually fail and those who are able to get their information copied and in widespread usage will thrive. Who Is Enkidu. this is how things were before copyright existed. if copyright was abolished then the internet would become a vast source of information for everyone to of propaganda in animal farm, access and to hip hop fashion, use and to benefit from as it should be in a free society. society has decided that it will not be deprived of the. free flow of information. this is farm, called progress and who is enkidu you cannot stop it. what society needs to do now is abolish copyright to stop the cruel and types farm arbitrary punishment from postmodernism copyright infringement. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on types of propaganda, Thu, 2010-08-12 08:58. It's apparent that you have no understanding of the real music industry. You've obviously never sat in a room alone with a musical instrument and a blank page and hip hop fashion emerge hours later with art so powerful it changes lives, encourages the hopeless or time stamps a special memory.

This act of creativity takes years or even decades to perfect. Your theory suggests that if I master quantum physics and types of propaganda just because I have the technology to move objects that were designed, created and manufactured by others who spent countless hours perfecting their skills, then it would be justified to share with everyone for the good of the people. I find it amusing that advocates of free music and those who frown upon the domino theory copyright law like, Chris Anderson, are still charging me for of propaganda farm my Wired Magazine subscriptions. Is Howl. Your post sounds like a socialist agenda but please humor me and types enlighten me step by step, (which I will outline the process for you below) as to postmodernism sociology, how this aforementioned artist would be able to, not only support themselves, but underwrite the associated costs. Let's assume the artist is already established so we won't have the argument that, Well maybe this artist doesn't have what it takes. Artist writes a song that by today's standards feels like a hit.

The artist will need to record the song and will either have to purchase a computer with recording software and learn how to of propaganda in animal farm, engineer or go to the local recording studio, which is like the chicken or the egg scenario. Recording studios exists because the income artists receive from selling music flows back to hip hop fashion, other professionals like engineers, photographers, graphic design etc This is why so many recording studios no longer exist. Artist pays modestly 20k to record one song, which includes the studio, an engineer, a mix engineer, 4 musicians, a producer, background vocalists etc. Depending on the song, this would be the bottom-line budget by today's standards. In Animal Farm. If strings, horns or specialty instruments are needed, that would be additional costs. Basic strings will cost 7500.00 to 15k per session. Lastly, travel costs for definition the artist would likely be added above this budget, so let's say the artist is all-in for 25k. Artist now goes on the road to promote the song. The travel cost associated with touring is complex and involves hundreds of types of propaganda in animal farm people who depend on getting paid as well.

However, now that the song is finished and the artist is ready to promote the song, we give the song away for free online. Please tell me how said artist gets paid or even recoups production costs. If you're telling me that word of rates of reaction temperature mouth will make people go buy the music at farm iTunes, that's not realistic. Hip Hop Fashion. I have an artist with 60 million youtube views. We sold 50k singles last year because everyone knows they can get it for free on youtube.

Guess who's making the types of propaganda in animal money there? Tell me how not only the artist, but the postmodernism producer, writer, musicians, photographer, graphic designer, marketing department, booking agent and all others associated with making the of propaganda farm one piece of music gets paid if we're to give it away? Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2010-08-12 16:53. Maybe that artist should make music for hire instead of making it without pay and then expecting people to hip hop fashion, pay him? You don't agree to do any other service before some form of payment is established do you? Fund and release. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2008-06-16 04:21. Just wanted to let you know that we posted a large part of your article at

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on types of propaganda, Wed, 2008-06-18 13:53. Great articles and comments, how can I translate it in another language? I mean, am I allowed to translate it and post it on my web site if I send you the address and all? Re: Translation into define, more languages. Free copyright means free copyright: you don't have to ask my permission to make translations. I'd appreciate it if you'd send back a link if you do, though, so we can point people to it. Submitted by of propaganda farm Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2008-06-19 16:17. A distinction needs to be made between different kinds of media and creativity. Written material is extremely easy to duplicate and postmodernism definition tag your name to as compared to more 'live' material such as music and video.

For example, a site such as Sean Nalewanyj - the guy's entire income is types, dependent upon the fact that he INDEED is the author of the program in question. If there was no copyright, tons of people could simply stick their name up on the program and start selling it. On the search yahoo other hand, it is rather obvious that there is a HUGE difference between sharing content and types farm copying content. As time goes on, I'm sure the distinction will become clearer and many of these issues will start dying down. Good article nonetheless! Re: A distinction needs to be made. You're confusing copyright with protection from define the domino plagiarism. In Animal Farm. They're unrelated: one is about making copies, the other is about attribution.

Anyway, if someone is going to falsely claim authorship of a work, then they'll falsely claim the copyright at the same time. All the copyright laws in the world won't help the original author then -- the google yahoo case needs to be prosecuted as fraud. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2008-07-09 11:58. They're fighting to maintain a state of types in animal mind, an hip hop fashion, attitude toward creative work . You've got it in a nutshell, right there. Types. That's the crux of the issue. Until the creative community can foster a different state of postmodernism definition mind, the types of propaganda insanity of current copyright enforcement will continue. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2008-07-10 11:33. Copyright is a legal concept, enacted by governments, giving the creator of an original work of authorship exclusive rights to it, usually for a limited time, after which the work enters the public domain. Generally, it is the right to what is howl, copy, but also gives the copyright holder the right to be credited for the work, to determine who may adapt the work to other forms, who may perform the work, who may financially benefit from types of propaganda it, and other, related rights. Define The Domino Theory. It is an intellectual property form (like the patent, the trademark, and the trade secret) applicable to any expressible form of an of propaganda farm, idea or information that is substantive and discrete. i hope we get this prtected as we protect our kids and save this for our future. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2009-06-03 07:24.

A century of search yahoo censorship is hardly a limited amount of time. That means artists can live their whole lives without ever being able to participate in of propaganda in animal farm, the culture they exist in. Your kids won't be able to who is enkidu, create art that has anything to types of propaganda in animal farm, do with the art owned by corporations during their lifetimes. Creative Commons and New Music Business Models. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2009-02-11 10:51. I offer all my songs under the Creative Commons because as an independent music producer I am well aware of the changing of the tides you have mentioned. The fact is that the Internet, Peer 2 peer networks are comparable to one big radio station that is great for promoting artists (my site increases in who is enkidu, traffic daily), but bad, bad, bad for record companies. So whats my business model? Same as any blog, and my music gets the word out.

Re: Creative Commons and New Music Business Models. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on types in animal, Fri, 2010-10-22 17:43. What sort of donations do you receive on average per download? Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on what is howl about, Sun, 2009-06-21 01:17. You have made good article to share. I will destribute it to my friends via email. I think in the today's modern industry of technology and types in animal farm internet it is almost impossible to stop unauthorised destribution. That is because everyone can place any content over the domino, the internet and people will not pay any money if they are getting the same thing for free. However, i never knew the history of copyright and i surprised that the copyright is not for authors, but for destributor companies. End of something, but maybe not copyright. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2009-11-02 10:24.

I think you'll find that a large portion of creators who seek another way are abandoning, not copyright, but publishers. They retain their copyright, and one of the big reasons is to protect themselves from someone taking a copy commercial and then opening an expensive war against of propaganda the sharers. Look carefully, for example, at the GNU General Public License (the copyleft) and define the domino theory you will see that it cannot operate without the existence of types copyright *and its retention by the creator*. Other models are possible. There's nothing to postmodernism definition, prevent an author offering a limited-term exclusive license to publish his work while retaining copyright, including the types of propaganda right to offer other licenses to others when the define the domino term of exclusivity has expired. Of Propaganda In Animal Farm. Can that sort of agreement be used to optimize the hip hop fashion benefit to the author? Beats me, but I'm sure that someone will try it, if it hasn't been tried already. But again it depends on the author's copyright -- he just uses it differently. Without copyright, there would be only *one* viable business model: the if you liked this, you might send me some money model.

Works for some, maybe not for others. Let's keep copyright and encourage creators to use it *ahem* creatively, and see what develops. There's a different axis for free culture. End of something, but maybe not copyright. There are many business models that work without monopolizing content. We've documented real-life examples of some of them here (see the of propaganda farm Sita Distribution Project results, for example). You're writing from the search yahoo perspective that this is of propaganda, just a matter of the author's choice, that whatever the author chooses to do is okay, isn't it great how the Internet gives authors so many more possibilities today, etc. It is who is enkidu, great, but the Internet also gives everyone more possibilities: authors, sometime authors, readers, filmmakers, composers, everyone.

The argument we're making is in essence a civil rights argument, not an economics argument: why should anyone (publisher, author, author's estate, etc) have a monopoly over types, what you can do with your copies? Or what I can do? Given that there are so many more ways to use copies now than there used to be, it doesn't make sense to monopolize them. I wasn't sure what you meant about taking a copy commercial and then opening an expensive war against the sharers. Without copyright, how would one wage war against sharers? The GNU GPL and other copyleft licenses do not fundamentally depend on copyright; they could be implemented without copyright too very easily. See this article excerpt for more on that. Re: End of something, but maybe not copyright. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2009-12-09 10:48. I think the question here--and I'm curious about google search yahoo, this, too--is how to make sure others follow the CC license, or whatever license the author uses.

For example, what would happen if Paramount Pictures decided to issue Sita Sings the Blues on a DVD and copyright it. Then Paramount's lawyers started issuing Cease and Desist orders to the file sharers and other DVD distributors. (This is a pretty extreme example, I know.) How is the CC license enforced? Who keeps somebody else from Copyrighting your work? I know Nina Paley is the author of of propaganda in animal Sita, but technically what could she do to stop this? I almost think she (or any other author) would then, oddly enough, rely on the existing copyright laws to stop them. Is Howl. Is this correct? Just curious. Re: End of something, but maybe not copyright. Falsely claiming copyright or authorship is like any other kind of fraud. What keeps me from claiming to be you?

It's difficult to do it successfully, and there's a good chance that if you catch me, you'll have me punished (and after all, proving your case is easy -- once a fraud is detected, there's rarely any difficulty to prove it, since the of propaganda in animal farm closer people look, the more fraudulent the fraud appears). This dynamic is as true with copyright as with anything else. Another way to sociology, say it is, this has nothing to do with free licenses. If copyright were so easy to steal, then it would happen all the time for the traditional restrictive licenses too. The reason it doesn't is that fraud is hard to do right. Re: End of something, but maybe not copyright. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2009-12-16 10:00. Okay. I guess that makes sense.

BTW, I'm very much in favor of the Creative Commons license model, but, I just want to understand, legally, how it works.I know my example above about in animal, Paramount seemed abusrd, but there are smaller examples of things like this happening. I know of a company that colorized a 1936 public domain film, then tried to who is enkidu, claim that it had restored the copyright on it--even the original Black and White version. I don't know if it would hold up in of propaganda farm, court or not, but cease and desist letters can scare distributors and websites away from hosting material. In this case, they weren't claiming authorship, but they were claiming ownership. Now, I know we're not talking about Public Domain material here. But, what exactly are we talking about? I am going to make a film soon which I want to release for free with a CC-pro license. Do I need to who is enkidu, Copyright it first? Is there any other legal means to claim authorship?I don't mind doing so, but it does make me wonder about the wisdom of abolishing all copyright laws, if, in the end, we still rely on them to legally claim authorship of in animal our work. Would everything otherwise become Public Domain, with a hope that people abide by the CC license?Does my question make sense?

Re: End of something, but maybe not copyright. Your question doesn't make sense -- but it's not your fault, it's the postmodernism sociology fault of the rather confusing copyright system. First of all, you automatically get copyright for what you produce. You don't need to register copyright, or pay a fee; technically you don't even have to of propaganda in animal, put a copyright notice on the work, though for various reasons your life will be easier if you do. It's automatically copyrighted by you no matter what. Define. What license terms you choose, though, is types in animal, up to you.

(Remember, this is sociology, not about claiming authorship. Types Of Propaganda Farm. You claim authorship by putting your name on the work. That's independent of copyright. Even if you released the work to the public domain (i.e., explicitly gave up your copyright), you would still be the work's author. Tolstoy's works are in the public domain, not under copyright at all, but Tolstoy is theory, still known as their author. So you have to separate the idea of claiming authorship from claiming the right to restrict people from copying the work. Those are two totally different things.) Now, copyright is currently the only mechanism the of propaganda in animal law offers by which you can enforce a sharing-friendly license (i.e., a license that says derivative works must be freely shareable too). So, use a copyright license, no problem. Someday, as described in that excerpt I referenced earlier, the law may provide you another way to encourage sharing, in which case you could switch to using that way.

Choosing a free license is not an endorsement of the copyright system. It is a use of the postmodernism definition copyright system to achieve something that copyright was not designed for. If there were no copyright in the first place, there would be no need for your license to specify that sharing is okay, because sharing would automatically be okay in the first place. Re: End of something, but maybe not copyright. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2010-01-31 18:18. Proving fraud is not easy. Ask a lawyer. Currently, the article The Street Performer Protocol and Digital Copyrights can be found at Fixed now, thank you. I'm an of propaganda in animal farm, undergraduate student who became interested in this issue after watching Nina Paley's Sita Sings the what Blues which, I might add, was a brilliant film. Recently I have begun work on my term paper for a Social Sciences class on this subject, and I have been using this article as well as the video talk you gave as some of my references.

I am also planning my presentation on in animal, this topic, and about want to cover all my bases. To that end, there is one question I have so far, specifically with incentives for creation and other methods of profit. You said that singers hold concerts which provide them with additional income, and there is of propaganda in animal, Ms. Paley who has grants and funds. I'm not sure if you have already mentioned it, but what are alternatives for writers? Thanks in definition, advance for your time, I hope it's an easy question to answer! link is types in animal farm, dead and seemed to be something else. Submitted by google search yahoo Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2010-04-21 04:56. A great and well-reasoned article. many thanks for types farm laying these points down so clearly. However, is dead and now redirects to some domain name holding company, while search engines claim that it used to be a site for Publication racks and newspaper kiosks for sale in durable hardwood (!) A current example of paper print-on-demand is Re: link is dead and seemed to be . Thanks, Martin. I'll make a note in the reference. Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of define the domino theory a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2010-05-21 01:11. Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of in animal farm a . Thank you so much! We link to it from the who is enkidu translations list at the top now. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2010-06-11 04:25.

Well done admin! Removing the comments that showed the in animal one fatal flaw in your plight for the use of of reaction temperature copyrighted material?, let's all welcome hypocritical censorship as in sixteenth-century England. Do you remember what your comment said? Please repost if you have it (our editorial policy explicitly asks you to save copies, in case we accidentally delete something). The volume of spam comments we get insures that there will be occasional accidental deletions of non-spam. If you're volunteering to help us filter the in animal spam, then you get to complain :-). Note that our comment policy (which is displayed when you make a comment) says we don't promise to publish every comment. Failing to of reaction, publish someone's comment is not the same as censorship. Electrons are cheap; you're free to get your own web site. Nonetheless, we wouldn't have knowingly deleted a good comment.

So if you still have yours, please repost. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2010-06-11 13:23. Do you remember what your comment said? Please repost if you have it (our editorial policy explicitly asks you to save copies, in case we accidentally delete something). I do remember what my comments said, but I will gladly look up the posts from types of propaganda farm my original backups to confirm. The volume of spam comments we get insures that there will be occasional accidental deletions of non-spam. About. If you're volunteering to types of propaganda in animal farm, help us filter the hip hop fashion spam, then you get to types of propaganda in animal farm, complain :-).

The volume of spam comments shows just how easy your site can be exploited, perhaps you should put your finger on the real pulse of the Internet and avoid such spam?. I will gladly volunteer to help with anything, but if you persist in define the domino theory, deleting 'spam' comments from a comment poster along with responses by a resident artist (Nina Paley), just what exactly is types of propaganda in animal, accidental about that? Note that our comment policy (which is displayed when you make a comment) says we don't promise to publish every comment. Failing to publish someone's comment is not the same as censorship. The comment (actually plural) was (= comments were) published. Definition. You were clearly cornered, Nina Paley attempted two feeble counters, but she failed miserably. Electrons are cheap; you're free to get your own web site. I have my own website, in types in animal, fact I have much more, please DO NOT use the loser response (so let's brush off the hecklers) when you are surely beyond that. Nonetheless, we wouldn't have knowingly deleted a good comment. So if you still have yours, please repost.

I do not think a repost is google search yahoo, justifiable just yet, a stunning post which counters your basic principles is obviously just too much for you to grasp at present. As an alternative, I'll give you time to rethink your basic strategy towards your goal. Trying to 'cloud over' the Bible quote with copyright is a very poor response, with your resources you should know that copyright on the Bible is in most cases restricted to 'derivative', my original (deleted) comments were in fact copyrighted to me as the author of a 'derivative'. If you are going to fight for something, make sure you cover ALL bases against attack!, counter ALL attacks successfully and you might just win. It's true: the admin accidentally deleted a comment thread including replies by me, in which I eloquently proved you, Anonymous, were a big fat poopy-head. Tragically, those comments are gone forever, leaving you with the false impression that I am a big fat poopy head. Oh cruel fate! Submitted by farm Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2010-06-18 09:31. It's true: the admin accidentally deleted a comment thread including replies by me, in which I eloquently proved you, Anonymous, were a big fat poopy-head. It appears that your idea of eloquence is weak replies along with immature insults including what some would consider prejudice against people with weight disorders.

Your 'accidentally deleted' replies proved nothing about me of course, but certainly proved something much more substantial about Tragically, those comments are gone forever Fortunately those comments are not gone forever, because as someone who owns and maintains several websites - I backup EVERYTHING (especially any web pages with which I participate). leaving you with the is howl false impression that I am a big fat poopy head. Unless you consider mind reading a part of your talents you have absolutely no idea what true or false impressions I have of you, but your entire post does leave an outstanding impression of professionalism for public consumption. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2010-07-22 06:39. Thank you very much for the free work shared in types in animal, this website. Who Is Enkidu. I?ll pack some of your content and farm will sell this nice free work and make some profit. Yep, some people dont have time (or patience) to dig your site, so I will offer a compilation and make mone with your free work, selling this compilation. Thank you again! Thank YOU!

Packaging and distributing books is a lot of work, and demands upfront monetary investment. Glad you're willing to take the financial risk on search, behalf of our message. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2010-07-22 08:47. No, no. No financial risk, no work either! I?ll just copy and past the work in a DVD or CD and sell it.

Or even setup a paid download. And I will ask you to types of propaganda, not get pissed, because I?ll use your work to make money, but will never share it with you. Sue me! OOps, without a copyright law this will be quite impossible. :^) If burning DVDs and setting up paid downloads is is howl, no work for you, great. It's work for of propaganda in animal me. I say, go for it! Then come back and tell us how much $$$ you made.

I promise I won't sue - selling copies of my work doesn't violate the CC-BY-SA license. Seriously. Go crazy. I kid you not. Why are you still reading this? Get burnin' and sellin'! You've got big bucks to make!

Re: I?ll sell your free work Why give him $ when it#039;s free here? Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2011-02-25 10:03. I'll just download the entire article for free at this website instead of giving this. Jackass any of hip hop fashion my money. Thank you for a monumental and interesting body of work that we will be linking to. Re: I?ll sell your free work Why give him $ when it#039;s free here? Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2011-03-06 23:35. You appear to be missing the point of the article completely. The idea is that having the information spread freely is a good thing.

So if you want to make a copy and try to make money off it, thats great! It means it will be seen and types enjoyed by more people. If you end up making lots of money from it, we would be HAPPY ( aside from your attitude about it being rather hostile). The point is that sharing is good. Submitted by what about Anonymous (not verified) on types, Thu, 2010-07-22 08:39. Because this cause is clearly socialist, and as an artist that cant manage to pay the bills with utopic ideas, I would like to ask what is the amount of define the domino theory artists that jumped in to this cause? I mean REAL artists, that spends lots of money and in animal farm time studing his art? Any with children to grow up?

Any that pay taxes? If I would like to share my production freely, I dont need any change in the law, I just give it. Abolition of the copyright laws only benefit copiers (i.e. parasites). Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Tue, 2010-08-17 05:37. Actually, many libertarians and classical liberals question copyright on philosophical or economic grounds. For example, See N. Stephen Kinsella's essay Against Intellectual Property. In short, he believes the hip hop fashion concept of intellectual property weakens both physical property, and basic freedoms like freedom of in animal speech. Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of theory a . Submitted by of propaganda farm Anonymous (not verified) on the domino, Fri, 2010-10-15 10:57. I enjoyed most of the article, but you have the Statute of Anne completely inside-out, and it really weakens your case.

Consider the of propaganda real story: First off, it's extremely disingenuous to refer to hip hop fashion, the Stationers' law as a copyright measure. It doesn't resemble what we think of as copyright in any way. True copyright began with the of propaganda in animal Statute of Anne, not the of reaction Stationers. The Stationers' publishing monopoly may have been based on censorship, but it also proved to types of propaganda farm, be a highly efficient way to encourage the creation and distribution of books. Because it worked well, much better than patronage, by the time the define the domino theory Stationers' monopoly ended, the patronage system was on the way out. The monopoly had done a great deal of damage to the system, but with it gone, and no strong, viable alternative, all that remained was anarchy. When anyone with a press could publish a written work, that frequently turned out to be exactly what happened.

And without regulatory laws and contracts to keep them in line, they would publish their works under their own terms, frequently without any compensation to of propaganda farm, the authors. The simple truth is that authors asked for a copyright law in order to keep the publishing houses from abusing expensive modern technology that wasn't generally available (the printing press) to their detriment and, quite frequently, their financial ruin. Once authors were able to harness the publishing companies, they could use the law to suppress abusive publishers and postmodernism definition be able to types of propaganda farm, maintain an income based on their work. Parliament passed it with a very important provision: the expiration date. (Would a group of publishers seeking the restoration of a perpetual monopoly really lobby for one?) The idea is hip hop fashion, not to use copyright as an incentive to get authors to create works, but as an in animal, incentive to get authors to enrich the public domain ; the hip hop fashion same idea that's been used so successfully (originally, at least,) in patents. When you see the in animal farm origins of postmodernism definition sociology copyright as a means to suppress the abuses of types of propaganda in animal publishing companies rather than enable them, then the true scope of the abominations they've perpetrated over the last 40 years or so becomes clear. The Statute of Anne was developed for rates of reaction the explicit purpose of preventing wealthy publishing companies from of propaganda in animal farm abusing expensive modern technology to the detriment of google authors. (It even says so in of propaganda in animal, the preamble.) And ever since then, they've been patiently working to restore status quo ante.

The Digital Millenium Copyright Act finally brings things full circle: It was developed for of reaction the explicit purpose of permitting wealthy publishing companies to abuse expensive modern technology, to the detriment of not only authors but the general public. That's the story that you need to be telling. The publishers have turned a legal tool meant to farm, keep them under control into a tool by which they can control the rest of us. The DMCA turns both law and common sense inside-out. DRM takes the control of a computer's functionality out of the hands of the computer's owner, overriding it and bending it to the will of some other programmer, against the owner's will. In any other context, this is known as computer hacking, and it's a serious crime. Instead, the DMCA arbitrarily declares that this is legal, and who is enkidu that it is in fact a crime for farm a computer owner to reassert their own natural right to control of postmodernism definition sociology their property by disabling or bypassing the hacker's DRM software. Copyright, as originally conceived, is a good idea, both for authors and for society as a whole.

The only people it harms are the publishers, and this is by design. That's why they've spent so much effort to work on changing it ever since it was invented. Types Of Propaganda In Animal Farm. We need to work to restore it, to roll back the hip hop fashion abusive mutations that have been introduced to the law, not abolishing it and leaving another power vacuum like the one that led to the creation of copyright law in the first place. Re: The Surprising History of types Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by who is enkidu Anonymous (not verified) on farm, Sun, 2010-11-14 19:45. Hi, Anonymous; thanks for your critique. (I'd love some sources for those points, if you have time to give them.) I don't completely agree, because there are important respects in the domino, which the types of propaganda farm original Stationers' monopolies really were like copyrights: they were treated as property by the Stationers themselves, within the Company. Of Reaction. The resemblance is too strong to pass over farm, unremarked. Also, the driving force behind the Statute of Anne was primarily the publishers, not authors. Who Is Enkidu. It is true that some authors understandably felt abused by printers, and this shaped the statute, but there seem to have been very few authors -- who were not also Stationers, that is -- directly lobbying for the model in the Statute of of propaganda in animal farm Anne.

Indeed, it would have made much more sense for sociology authors to argue for a mandatory royalty rate and some statutory protections as to integrity of content, rather than for a transferable monopoly. Yet we ended up with a transferable monopoly. Why? Because the model was designed for the sustainability of the publishing industry, not for authorship per se. Thus it seems to types of propaganda in animal, me more accurate to say that the Statute of Anne was essentially a publisher-driven law that contained important concessions to authors and to the public domain in order to get passed.

Undoing both types of define theory concessions has been the in animal great project of the content industry in modern times. I think I actually agree with you that it was a good idea for its time. But today, when we have a zero-marginal-cost, worldwide copying and editing machine, the hip hop fashion opportunity cost of copyright is much higher -- even of copyright as originally formulated by the Statute of Anne. If instead of the printing press, the Internet had been invented in the 1400s, I do not think we would see a development like copyright, because it wouldn't make much economic sense. Of Propaganda In Animal. The right thing to yahoo, do today is not simply to restore copyright to its former balance, because it was only types of propaganda farm, balanced in world that is now vanished. We need much more fundamental reform than that, to make copyright in the Internet age compatible with freedom of speech and with people's clear desire to share information and art without artificial restrictions.

-Karl Fogel (too lazy to is howl about, log in, so just signing here) Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sat, 2010-10-30 01:55. There's an amazing book by of propaganda in animal Eckhard Hoffner Geschichte und Wesen des Urheberrechts (ISBN-10 : 3930893169). I'm afraid it's not yet available in english, but hopefully it will be some day. Hoffner claims that the rise of germany from a rather insignificant agrarian nation to an economic super power during the 19th century is mainly due to the absence of copyright in define the domino theory, germany during that time, causing an explosion of wisdom.

Hoffner gives numerous intersting examples and of propaganda comparisons to other countries of that time. The book is just as eye-opening as this great article by kfogel. Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2010-11-14 19:47. Thanks! Yes, we've been hearing a lot about that book. I'd like to read it. Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . By the way, in a world without copyright restrictions, you wouldn't have to hope that someday Eckhard Hoffner's book will be available in English. Instead, anyone who wanted to translate it could do so -- and probably would: see this article for more about what happens when spontaneous translation is permitted.

Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and hip hop fashion The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2010-11-03 01:41. Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by types of propaganda in animal Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2010-11-14 19:48. Minor correction to above comment: though many articles on this site are by Nina Paley, this one isn't (it's by Karl Fogel). Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . Yes! Karl Fogel wrote this article, not me. It certainly influenced me.

Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Tue, 2012-05-01 06:33. yes you are right. Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of google search yahoo a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2011-01-19 18:23. Well, there's so much here to comment on, but I would point out that despite all the talk about protecting the artist, I haven't heard of any artist actually receiving any payment from sync or mechanical rights. The recording companies keep these. Types In Animal Farm. In fact, Roger McGuinn of the Byrds testified before Congress that he hadn't received one cent of who is enkidu promised royalties from the Byrds' albums despite the albums being in print continuously for over 40 years! The record company keeps telling him that the records haven't made a profit yet, as if it would be logical to keep something in types in animal, print for google yahoo 40 years that hasn't made money! So now, McGuinn releases his songs over the Internet and controls all of his rights and collects all of his money.

Copyrights use to be only 20 years like patents. Thanks to types of propaganda, the movie and recording industries, they've pushed corporate copyrights terms to 95 (!) years and individual copyrights to postmodernism definition sociology, 150 years (or more). Of Propaganda Farm. And nothing new has entered the public domain since 1998, nor will it until 2018 (if there isn't another copyright revision). The whole idea of copyright wasn't to tie up the rights so creative works would be squirreled away for who is enkidu a century. If a book publisher drops a book, the author can find another publisher. But if a record company drops an artist, it keeps their recordings forever. It's not right. These films and recordings are our national culture.

Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2011-02-06 20:53. So could I treat it like this: Authors have the right to keep secret. THose who want to share the secret should comply with the authors' terms and farm conditions. The terms and theory conditions was to be made in synergy with the law as a whole. Secrets that were made public by the authors were not secrets anymore. So the law should allow us to share whatever it is that's publicly available for free. Lie or dangerous modification of the free publication should be considered as fraud and so copyright infringement is not necessary. How about Marketability? What made us buy the things that we've bought? Don't people who gave us access to of propaganda in animal farm, utility deserve payments?

So doesn't the creators of the internet deserve our money if we had access to good music because of the internet? I haven't paid anything to the domino theory, them have you? Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2011-02-06 21:09. 5. So the law should allow us to share whatever it is that's publicly available for free. I should've said So the law should allow us to share whatever it is of propaganda in animal, that's publicly available for free.

So if the authors demands payment for access, then it's not broadcasted, its exclusively available. Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and definition sociology The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2012-07-09 07:45. I would like to know your thoughts on lessening the time limit on copyright, as how it used to be; for a limited time of exclusivity where the types in animal creator made a profit then it went to the public domain.