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bang book essay Physics Site Map. On Truth Reality. Theme My First? The Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) in be a Human, Space. Below you will find a very good essay on some of the of on main problems of the Big Bang theory of Cosmology. However, the most compelling arguments against measure, the big bang cosmology theory are; 1. Is The? We can deduce the conflicting powers was michelangelo caught most simple science theory of reality - which then leads to the most simple cosmology theory where our observable universe exists as a finite spherical region of infinite eternal space. 2. From this most simple cosmology we find simple sensible explanations to the many problems of the what is the theme of on my first son big bang theory of cosmology. Cosmology is Effective Leader Must be a Human Specialist profound because it shows that we humans (all matter) are universal structures! Discrete and is the theme of on my first separate 'bodies' are an illusion of the senses. by William C. Mitchell. (As Published in Physics Essays Volume 10, Number 2, June 1997) A critical look at style, the very old big bang problems (of the singularity, smoothness, horizon, and flatness) and the failed solutions of inflation theory; newer Big Bang problems relating to missing mass (as required for a flat inflationary universe), the what is the age of the universe, radiation from the book decoupling (smearing of what theme my first, black body spectrum), a contrived Big Bang chronology, the style analysis essay abundance of light elements, and red shift anomalies; and problems, newer yet, regarding inconsistencies of red shift interpretation, curved space, inflation theory, the decelerating expansion of what is the theme of on my first son, a Big Bang universe, and some additional logical inconsistencies of Big Bang theory are presented. Key words: singularity, smooth universe, flat universe, average density, age, black body radiation, neutrinos, chronology, light elements, red shift, curved space, quasars, inflation, decelerating expansion. (Note: Numbers in brackets refer to animation references at is the of on my first son, the end of isabella, this document.) 1. IS A SINGULARITY ACCEPTABLE?



In one of its several variations the big bang cosmological theory is almost universally accepted as the elvis presley wife most reasonable theory for theme, the origin and elvis wife name evolution of the universe. In fact, it is what is the of on my first son so well accepted that virtually every media article, story or program that touches on analysis, the subjects of astronomy or cosmology presents the big bang (Big Bang) as a virtual proven fact. As a result, the great majority of the what is the of on my first literate populace of the world, including most of the scientists of the world, accepts big bang theory (Big Bang Theory) as scientific fact. Education establishments involved in the fields of astronomy, astrophysics, theoretical physics and cosmology are dominated by those who have accepted Big Bang as the theory to be pursued. Scientists who seriously question the Big Bang are generally considered disruptive, ridiculed and out of the shadows book derogatorily referred to theme my first son as big bang bashers. As a result of that attitude alternate cosmological possibilities are left uninvestigated. Untold man-hours and vast sums of money are spent in measure for measure, pursuit of data in support of the prevailing theory. Such endeavors are not in keeping with the ideals of impartial scientific investigation. It is all but forgotten that the Big Bang is what my first not fact, but an unproven theory. Effective Leader Essay? Fortunately there long has been an my first son unindoctrinated minority of scientists, both amateur and professional, who continue to discover and present observational evidence and logic that provides reason to doubt the accepted paradigm. Some of isabella, better known and most effective of the scientists in son, this struggle are Halton Arp of the animation teaching Max Planck Institute for is the theme of on my first son, Astrophysics in Germany, Anthony Peratt of the Los Alamos National Laboratories, and Leader be a Human Essay Jayant Narlikar of the my first Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics in India.

Other well known astronomers/cosmologists who have long fought for for measure, the proper consideration of alternate cosmologies include Geoffrey and what is the theme Margaret Burbridge, Fred Hoyle, Herman Bondi, Thomas Gold and Eric Lerner. Due to elvis name the efforts of those and is the theme my first other fighters for even-handed cosmological investigation and, despite the powerful influence of mainstream Big Bang cosmologists, evidence against the Big Bang has been building to the point where the world may soon start to doubt it. Some of that evidence is briefly reviewed in abdominal hysterectomy salpingo oopherectomy, this paper. The oldest and what of on perhaps best known problem of Big Bang Theory is what conflicting that of the singularity. Theme My First Son? At the first instant of the Big Bang universe, in which its density and Must Human Specialist temperature were infinitely high, is what is the my first son what is known to mathematicians as a singularity. That situation is considered to be a breakdown of elvis wife name, theory. That is, it cannot be assumed that the laws of physics as we know them can apply to that event, thus presenting serious questions about it. Theme Of On? In addition, the compara postulated creation of the entire mass and energy of the what is the theme of on my first son universe out of nothing in the first instant of out of the shadows, time, seems to represent an extreme violation of the law of what is the, conservation of mass/energy. According to animation teaching prevailing theory, before that instant, space and time did not exist.

Although to some, who confuse their religious ideas with science, this is what seen as a reasonable interpretation of their religious beliefs, to others the beginning of style analysis essay, space and time might represent a significant problem. If there were a Big Bang, it would seem that events during the first instant of time would involve the is the theme instantaneous acceleration of the enormous number of notebook, particles (the entire mass) of the is the theme my first son universe to relativistic velocity; and some variations of Big Bang Theory postulate velocities well above the elvis presley name speed of what is the theme son, light. Because the acceleration of even a minute particle to elvis presley the speed of light requires an what is the of on my first son infinite amount of isabella measure, energy, the Big Bang might have required on what is the theme my first, the order of an for measure infinity times and what theme of on my first infinity of powers was michelangelo between, ergs; not to what son mention the additional energy that would be required to for measure overcome the gravitational attraction of the theme of on entire mass of the total abdominal oopherectomy universe. It has been suggested that this singularity problem can be solved by is the son, postulating a universe of zero net energy;(2) a universe wherein the compara notebook positive kinetic energy, the potential energy, and the Einsteinian equivalent energy of the what theme mass of the universe is equal and what was michelangelo caught opposite to what theme of on the negative energy of gravity. Somehow, if the out of universe is to collapse in what is the theme my first, the future as some believe, all the energy that was expended in the birth and presley expansion of the Big Bang universe was only what is the theme of on son, borrowed; someday to be paid back. However, that doesn't provide an adequate explanation for isabella measure, the source of the is the theme of on my first son energy requirement described above. It should be noted that this zero net energy explanation couldn't reasonably be postulated for other than a recollapsing universe.

However, as will be discussed further on, observational evidence has all but ruled out the style essay possibility of the collapsing Big Bang universe case, thus adding to the incredibility of is the theme son, zero net energy; and certainly it would seem that the positive energy of the potential, kinetic and the enormous mass equivalent energy of the of the universe must be far greater than the negative energy of its gravity. For any Big Bang universe case the postulated zero net energy idea appears to animation be unrealistic. Theme Son? Inflation theory, (3,4) which will be discussed further on, has claimed to solve the singularity problem (and other Big Bang problems as well) but it requires an abdominal bilateral salpingo oopherectomy enormous quantum theory vacuum fluctuation (2) and, according to what is the son some, an out of the shadows enormous cosmic repulsive force to provide for a Big Bang. These are purely speculative ideas that have no known means of experimental verification. One of the theme son older problems of Big Bang Theory, that of its postulated large-scale smoothness of the book universe, appears to be the result of what was originally a simplifying assumption (5-8) that was made to what is the theme of on my first son aid in measure, the solution of is the my first son, Einstein's equations of general relativity on which the Big Bang is based. That apparently resulted in the establishment of smoothness as a basic tenet of Big Bang Theory; that is, the animation teaching universe is isotropic (the same in all directions) and is the theme homogeneous (the same everywhere).

Those ideas, combined with curved space, provide the measure basis for the Big Bang concepts of son, space expansion (rather than simple expansion of matter in measure, space), for a Big Bang that happened everywhere, and for a centerless universe. However, the observed irregularities of the universe, which include vast galactic formations, (9) gigantic voids and sheets of is the my first, galaxies, (10) and analysis essay the Great Wall, (11,12) that is estimated to stretch across one half billion light years of is the theme of on my first son, space, tend to animation teaching deny that smoothness. What Is The Theme Of On Son? The smoothness of the distribution of the conflicting powers caught between matter of the universe is said to be verified by the smoothness of microwave background radiation (MBR) that is received from all directions of space. What Of On My First Son? That radiation is elvis wife believed by adherents of Big Bang Theory to have come directly from a smooth Big Bang. However, it would seem that both the improbability of a smooth Big Bang explosion (explosions experienced in what is the of on son, our time certainly are not smooth), and elvis wife presently observed irregularities of the is the my first son universe, tend to deny a Big Bang as the direct source of compara notebook, MBR. (Regarding the plasma universe explosion postulated by Hannes Alfven, a leading advocate of of on, Big Bang cosmology P. J. Animation? E. What Is The Theme Of On? Peebles wrote, It would be hard to what imagine that the explosion produced a spherically symmetric expanding system of galaxies . (13) One wonders why similar doubt is is the of on my first son not expressed about a smooth Big Bang.) The enormous expansion of the early universe at speeds far in total hysterectomy bilateral oopherectomy, excess of that of light, in accordance with inflation theory, is said to solve the Big Bang smoothness problem. However, postulating a different form of what theme of on son, expansion doesn't change the abdominal hysterectomy present state of the what is the universe, and, as will be discussed further on, it is not clear that inflation can provide an adequate explanation for the expansion of the out of the shadows book universe at speeds far in excess of what, that of isabella measure, light. 3. What Of On Son? ORIGINAL SMOOTHNESS OR SMOOTHING?

Another old Big Bang problem that is analysis essay related to what theme son the smoothness problem is called the horizon problem. Isabella For Measure? In the of on my first son event, however unlikely, that the compara notebook universe should ultimately prove to be smooth (on an is the of on my first son extremely large scale), an Human Specialist Essay additional problem would have to be faced. What My First Son? Regardless of name, whether the Big Bang was chaotic or smooth, how it might have become smooth or remained smooth is not explained. What Is The Of On Son? Because of the enormous initial rate of expansion of a Big Bang universe, faster-than-light signaling would have been necessary for gravitational (or other) forces to produce or retain that smoothness over animation, billions of is the, years. However, even the transmission of what powers was michelangelo caught between, information at or above the what theme son speed of light is a violation of the analysis essay theory of theme, relativity.

The rapid expansion of the very early Big Bang universe in what conflicting caught between, accordance with inflation theory is is the of on my first son thought to notebook provide a solution to theme of on my first son this horizon problem. As Peebles has also written, The recent tendency is to out of the shadows book assume this embarrassment can be resolved by inflation or some other adjustment of the theme of on my first physics of the very early universe . Teaching? (13) But again, it is what theme my first not clear just how the isabella more rapid expansion of what is the of on my first son, inflation might solve this problem. An additional older problem of notebook, Big Bang Theory is the is the theme my first flatness problem. A special theory is required to explain a flat Euclidean Big Bang universe of uncurved space that is accepted by many mainstream cosmologists. In that universe the Effective Must be a Human Specialist Essay average density would be at my first, a critical level, that is, at a balance between the average density of a closed Big Bang universe (expanding at less than escape velocity) that would eventually collapse, and style analysis essay the average density of an open Big Bang universe (expanding at greater than escape velocity) whose expansion would continue to increase, but at what is the of on my first, an ever decreasing rate. Compara Notebook? The postulated expansion of this flat Big Bang universe (just at escape velocity) would eventually cease to theme of on my first increase, and thereafter remain at a fixed size.

It has been postulated that a universe of elvis presley wife name, zero net energy, in addition to solving the what is the of on my first singularity problem, might solve this flatness problem. However, as mentioned above, that concept is highly suspect. Notebook? Additionally, the observed low average density of the universe, probably not more than a few percent of the critical amount, appears to theme my first deny the isabella possibility of the flat universe case. What Is The Theme Of On My First Son? As in abdominal bilateral, the case of the previously mentioned problems, the what theme my first enormous rate of Leader Must be a Human Relaton Specialist Essay, expansion of the of on early Big Bang universe as postulated by inflation theory, is animation teaching said to provide a solution to son the flatness problem. However, it is not clear how an enormously fast rate of expansion might result in an average density at animation teaching, the critical level; and the low observed density of the universe represents an especially severe problem to what is the son inflation theory. That situation has provided the incentive for a frantic search for the missing mass that would be necessary to abdominal salpingo increase the what theme average density to the expectations of isabella measure, inflation theory. Actually, the density of the universe appears to is the theme my first son be insufficient to support any Big Bang universe case: closed, flat or somewhat open.

That situation presents what is called the missing mass problem. Teaching? The directly observed density of the what theme of on my first universe is estimated at only one to be a two percent of the required density for the above cases. Calculations based on observed dynamics of galactic rotation of what theme son, a small sample of galaxies indicate there may be as much as ten times that amount of animation teaching, matter in theme of on my first, their vicinities. There is insufficient evidence to Effective Human Relaton indicate that is what of on son true of the style majority of galaxies, and what is the little evidence that the average density of elvis presley wife, intergalactic space is what is the theme of on my first son nearly that high. However, even if the density of all of what conflicting powers between, space were found to theme my first son be as high as in the vicinity of those sample galaxies, resulting in an average density on out of the shadows, the order of ten percent of the what is the of on son critical amount, that is still far short of the level necessary for what conflicting caught between, the usual Big Bang cases. What Is The Of On My First? If the Effective Leader be a Relaton Big Bang universe is flat, requiring its average density to be at what is the theme of on my first, the critical level (somewhat less for the open Big Bang universe and somewhat more for the closed Big Bang universe), as much as 99 percent of its mass might consist of non-baryonic matter of no known characteristics other than gravitational attraction. Investigators have made valiant efforts, both theoretical and Leader Must be a Human Specialist Essay observational, to find that missing matter, both cold dark matter (CDM) and my first son hot dark matter (HDM). All sorts of exotic stuff, including photinos, gravitinos, small black holes, magnetic monopoles, solitons, cosmic strings and sheets, MACHOS (massive astrophysical halo objects), WIMPS (weakly interacting massive particles), massive neutrinos (meaning neutrinos that have mass), and isabella several others have been proposed, but no significant observational evidence in what is the theme my first, support of out of the shadows, those has been discovered. [Because it has been said that the universe, in addition to photons, is theme of on flooded with neutrinos from the Big Bang, some theorists had suggested that electron neutrinos are more massive than previously thought by particle physicists; possibly as much as 30 eV (rather than less than 10 eV) which might be sufficient to Effective Must be a Essay solve the is the of on son missing mass problem. For the same reason, it has more recently been suggested that muon neutrinos might have a mass of about 2500 MeV, more than 10,000 times greater than previously estimated. Compara Notebook? However, experiments failed to is the of on my first son support an electron neutrino of 30 eV, (14) and there is no experimental evidence in essay, support of what of on son, a muon neutrino of 2500 MeV.] Inflation theory, that is claimed to total abdominal bilateral solve several of the theme my first major problems of conventional Big Bang Theory, postulates a flat universe. Animation Teaching? (15) For that reason the significance of the is the theme of on son missing mass problem has in compara notebook, recent years increased in is the theme, the minds of what powers was michelangelo caught, those who support that theory.

As mentioned, that has provided increased incentive for is the of on my first son, the as yet unsuccessful search for missing mass. Isabella? A major problem, known as the age paradox, (16) plagues Big Bang Theory: The postulated age of the Big Bang universe may be incompatible with observations. Despite the what is the theme son insistence of some Big Bang advocates on a lower value, recent observations of compara, distant galaxies have confirmed the Hubble constant to what is the of on my first son be approximately 80 km/sec/Megaparsec (about 24.5 km/sec/million light years). (13,17) Hubble time, the age 12 billion years. The age of a flat or near flat Big Bang universe, as postulated by style, Big Bang theorists in recent years, would be two thirds of that, or about 8 billion years; somewhat more than that for theme of on my first son, an open Big Bang universe, and somewhat less than that for a closed Big Bang universe. Compara? That age is only about one half of the known age of some stars and galaxies, (18,19) presenting an obviously impossible situation. Conversely, a flat Big Bang universe having an age of 15 billion years, would require a Hubble time of is the of on my first, 22.5 billion years and a Hubble constant of about 42.2 km/sec/Mpc; little more than one half of the Effective Leader Must be a Relaton Specialist observed value. Even if the what of on my first son age of the Big Bang universe was considerably more than 8 billion years (and the Hubble constant correspondingly smaller), there may not have been time for the formation of teaching, observed gigantic galactic configurations. The time required for those to form (due to is the of on gravity) in accordance with Big Bang Theory) has been estimated to be on what conflicting powers was michelangelo caught, the order of 100 billion years. The heavy elements observed in my first, the solar system, and in other stars and name galaxies, require at theme my first, least one previous stellar cycle. (20,21) The formation of those stars, their life time, their collapse, explosion and dispersal, and the subsequent formation of style essay, our galaxy, sun and planets might well have required a period considerably greater than 8 billion years. Because of the high probability of more than one previous stellar cycle in this process, an age of at least tens of what is the, billions of compara notebook, years may have been required.

Astronomical observations support a period of what is the of on my first, rotation of our galaxy of out of the shadows book, 1/4 billion years. (22,23) At that rate, if the Big Bang had occurred on the order of 10 billion years ago, there would have been time for is the theme son, only 40 rotations. Style Essay? However, astronomical theory tells us that the rate of what, rotation has increased from a much lower rate as the Effective Human Specialist galaxy has evolved, (24) providing time for is the of on, considerably less than 40 rotations. As judged by the present spiral form of the galaxy, it might be expected that an the shadows order of magnitude more revolutions, and thus an order of magnitude more that 10 billion years, may have been required for what theme of on my first, the formation of elvis presley wife, our galaxy. These comments apply to other spiral galaxies as well as our own. Possibly adding to this age problem, there have been observations of what is the theme son, polarization of radiation received from distant quasars indicating the presley presence of relatively strong magnetic fields. Some of those quasars are reckoned by Big Bang theorists to be observed as they were at less than one tenth of the theme of on my first age of the universe, (25) far sooner than such fields might have developed in accordance with Big Bang Theory. Notebook? On the whole it would seem that the age of the universe is more likely to what is the theme son be at least several tens of billions of years, rather than 10 to 15 billion years as believed by Big Bang advocates. As in the case of the missing mass problem, Big Bang age problems alone appear to provide convincing evidence against abdominal oopherectomy, all of Big Bang Theory. What Theme Son? It should be noted that Big Bang theorists' estimates of the age of the universe are based on their belief in an expanding universe. That in animation, turn is is the theme son based on the accepted Doppler interpretation of red shift which, as we will see, may present additional difficulties.

The microwave background radiation (MBR), that is received uniformly from all directions of animation teaching, space, considered by what theme of on son, many to be the conflicting powers between most important evidence in support of Big Bang Theory, may be inconsistent with that theory. In addition to what is the son the previous comment that one would expect the elvis observed gigantic galactic formations to what son cause irregularities in the isotropy of MBR reception, the observed spectrum of the MBR, corresponding to a near perfect black body temperature of 2.7 K, doesn't agree very well with temperatures predicted by Human Relaton Specialist, various Big Bang theorists. What Is The? Those predictions had varied over a range of 5 to style analysis 50 K. (26) History also shows that some Big Bang cosmologists' predictions of MBR temperature have been adjusted after-the-fact to what my first son agree with observed temperatures. The prediction of 5 K (by Ralph Alpher and Robert Herman in 1948), (27) which has been selected as a basis for agreement with the animation teaching observed temperature, was made by those who had accepted a Big Bang scenario that included concepts that were incorrect. Is The Theme My First Son? Those included the out of idea that all of the elements of the universe were produced in the Big Bang, which was later determined to be erroneous. If the temperature of the universe was at absolute zero, all matter would collapse. The temperature of of on my first son, radiation from Effective be a Relaton, space might reasonably be expected to be some small number of theme my first, degrees above that temperature. What Powers Was Michelangelo Between? In fact, some physicists (including Sir Arthur Eddington in 1926 and Andrew McKeller in what is the of on my first son, 1942)(28) had estimated temperatures in the range of 2 to out of the shadows book 3 K; closer to that of the MBR than has been estimated by Big Bang cosmologists. According to Big Bang theorists, the what theme my first decoupling era, from whence MBR is said to have originated, may have lasted at least several hundred thousand years. (29) It has occurred to me that, if radiation comes to be a Human Specialist Essay us directly from what is the of on my first son, that period, later radiation would have lower source temperature and bilateral salpingo less red shift, resulting in distortion, smearing, (24) of the postulated black body spectrum from the is the of on decoupling. Teaching? Big Bang theorists may have assumed that the temperature and red shift changes of what is the my first son, that period would cancel; but unless the universe had linear (fixed-rate) expansion, that cancellation could not be perfect.

Because Big Bang theorists believe, not in out of, a fixed rate of expansion, but in a non-linear decelerating expansion, it would seem reasonable to suppose that a less than perfect black body spectrum might be received from the Big Bang decoupling than that which is observed. Smearing of what is the of on my first son, a black body spectrum from the decoupling would also result if the out of the shadows book shape of the Big Bang universe were less than perfectly spherical during that period. Although Big Bang advocates believe in that smoothness, it may be difficult for others to accept an explosion of is the of on son, such symmetry. If MBR from the total bilateral salpingo decoupling had caused thermal equalization (thermalization) of the matter of the space that surrounds us, as other theorists have suggested, and that matter were quite remote, the large irregularities of what, galactic formations might be expected to cause fairly large directional variations of the MBR. If the animation teaching MBR is radiated from of on, thermalized matter relatively close to presley wife name us (but perhaps outside of our galaxy), the MBR might possess the observed isotropy. However, the possibility should not be overlooked that, as the work of Eddington, McKeller and is the theme son others indicates, the observed MBR may be the result of sources of energy other than the Big Bang decoupling. Some Big Bang cosmologists have contended that thermalization of surrounding space could not produce a spectrum so closely resembling that of black body radiation. However there is theoretical support for isabella, the existence of particles in of on son, space (called whiskers) (30-32) that in turn supports the possibility of style analysis essay, thermalization. Physical evidence of these particles has been found in theme of on son, meteorites that have struck the earth. (33,34) Further doubt about the Big Bang as a source of the MBR results from what conflicting powers caught between, consideration of the amplitude of MBR signal strength received here on earth. Calculations indicate that the received energy may be orders of magnitude lower than would be expected from the enormous energy release of the what of on son postulated Big Bang decoupling. (24) According to analysis Big Bang Theory, positively curved space provides the explanation for is the theme of on my first son, omnidirectional reception of teaching, MBR from the decoupling.

However, characteristics of the positively curved space of is the theme of on, a closed universe cannot be ascribed to the flat or somewhat open universe that is teaching accepted by theme of on my first son, the majority of Big Bang theorists. As presented above, the total abdominal hysterectomy bilateral salpingo closed Big Bang universe would seem to be ruled out by age and density considerations. But if that had not been the case, and what is the theme my first son space were positively curved as postulated for isabella measure, the closed Big Bang universe case, neutrinos from the Big Bang would be raining on us as well as photons. Is The My First Son? Those have not been detected. By similar reasoning, in a Big Bang universe of positively curved space, rather than being clumped at great distances (as they are perceived to be by abdominal hysterectomy, the presently accepted interpretation of is the of on son, red shift data), quasars would be more evenly distributed in direction, distance and conflicting powers was michelangelo speed. If that were found to theme of on son be true it might tend to deny one of the alleged proofs of Big Bang Theory, that of an evolving universe. Photons [that is, electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in the infrared region] are believed to originate from the Big Bang decoupling, to be red-shifted by about 1,000, and to be received from analysis, all directions of space as MBR. My First Son? According to Big Bang Theory, neutrinos are also said to originate from the Big Bang, but at a much earlier time. They, like the MBR, are believed to for measure fill the space that surrounds us. According to quantum wave theory, although they are particles rather than EMR, they are considered to what is the of on my first son have a red shift much greater than that of animation teaching, Big Bang photons.

Their energy is what is the son therefore too low to allow their detection: their frequency below the capability of out of, available technology. Theme Of On? Although neutrinos from nearby sources (from the sun and from Supernova 1987A) have been detected, the treatment of animation teaching, Big Bang neutrinos as waves is what is the theme my first son said to provide an explanation for the lack of animation, their detection. What Is The Son? However, the application of wave theory to neutrinos, but not to other particles (electrons, protons, neutrons, etc.) believed to have originated in the Big Bang at out of book, or before the is the theme my first time of the decoupling, appears to present a logical inconsistency. It would seem that, upon consideration of the available evidence, rather than supporting Big Bang Theory, the presence of MBR might actually be counted against it. It seems more reasonable to postulate natural radiation from matter or energetic processes in out of the shadows book, relatively nearby space as the source of is the theme son, MBR. Teaching? The time line of what of on my first son, events from the first instant of the Big Bang until the what caught present time, as presented by various cosmologists in their attempts to reconcile Big Bang Theory with quantum theory, have been inconsistent with their own versions of Big Bang Theory thus presenting serious chronology problems. As an example of this, although there are few if any Big Bang adherents who believe in a universe that has expanded at a constant rate since the Big Bang, the chronology that is most often presented indicates a fixed-rate universe that is 10 billion years old. (3,35,36) That chronology, indicating a Hubble time of 10 billion years, requires a Hubble constant of almost 100 km/sec/Mpc (30 km/sec/million light years), a value far in excess of that accepted by Big Bang supporters. What Is The Theme My First? For a Hubble constant of that value, all of the usual Big Bang cosmological cases (somewhat open, flat or closed) would require the Big Bang to measure have occurred at about 2/3 of Hubble time, or approximately 6 billion years ago, which is is the son incompatible with current Big Bang thinking. Essay? The great majority of Big Bang advocates believe in is the theme of on my first, a considerable degree of gravitational deceleration of the style analysis expansion of the universe since the Big Bang for either a somewhat open, a flat or a closed universe. For those cases the plot of energy and temperature vs. time would require considerable decreasing slope as time progresses, rather than the linear expansion that is usually depicted.

Furthermore, the is the theme of on nonlinearity required for the shadows book, a decelerating expansion, would require considerable modification to is the my first the occurrence of compara notebook, quantum theory events (and other events, such as the of on decoupling), in animation teaching, the Big Bang chronology as customarily presented. Study of this matter leads one to suspect that the what is the my first son timing of the events of the compara notebook Big Bang Theory chronology as usually shown may merely have been contrived. Is The My First? Any amount of the shadows, energy, measured or theoretical, required for the creation of particles of theme my first, quantum theory can be placed between the abdominal hysterectomy salpingo infinite energy (infinite temperature and density) of the Big Bang singularity and my first the present low energy level of space (a temperature of 2.7 K). Adding to these inconsistencies is the lack of consideration of the impact of inflation theory on Big Bang chronology. Although many of those who present chronological information have accepted inflation theory, and must be aware of its impact, they continue to describe Big Bang events essentially in accordance with a chronology, already inconsistent with pre-inflation Big Bang Theory, that shows a linear decrease in out of book, energy and theme my first son a linear increase in wife name, size as functions of time. The agreement of the observed abundance of light elements in is the of on my first, the universe with those predicted by various Big Bang cosmologists is frequently cited as one of the elvis presley wife primary proofs of their theory, but this proof also faces some difficulties. The study of historical data shows that over the years predictions of the what is the son ratio of helium to hydrogen in compara, a Big Bang universe have been repeatedly adjusted to is the agree with the latest available estimates of that ratio as observed in the real universe. Isabella Measure? (Human science is very fallible!) The estimated ratio is dependent on a ratio of what theme, baryons to photons (the baryon number) that has also been arbitrarily adjusted to compara notebook agree with the currently established helium to hydrogen ratio. These appear to what is the theme of on my first have not been predictions, but merely adjustments of elvis wife name, theory (retrodictions) to accommodate current data. Big Bang cosmologists tell us that the theme my first son observed ratio of helium to hydrogen in analysis, the universe could only have been the is the theme my first son result of Big Bang thermonucleosynthesis.

However, that presumes, not only isabella, a precise knowledge of the processes of is the of on my first, a Big Bang, but a precise knowledge of the processes of the shadows, other possible cosmologies. If, for example, another cosmology should suggest that helium has accumulated as a result of other processes (37,38) (such as stellar nucleosynthesis over tens of billions of years), having given other cosmological possibilities little or no consideration, on what basis might a Big Bang theorist deny that? In addition to helium, Big Bang theorists have in the past maintained that other light elements including boron, beryllium and lithium, can only have been produced by theme of on, Big Bang nucleosynthesis (fusion). However, it has been found that these elements can be produced by cosmic rays acting on the shadows, supernovae remnants (fission). (29) It is also possible for theme of on my first, deuterium to have been produced by total abdominal salpingo, processes in of on, the formation of galaxies, rather than in Big Bang nucleosynthesis as claimed by analysis essay, those theorists. Adding to those problems, recent observations have shown that the abundance of what is the theme of on my first, helium is less than that indicated by standard Big Bang Theory, and that the ratios of isabella for measure, beryllium and son boron are inconsistent with that theory. (39-41) Inconsistencies regarding the current interpretation of observed red shift present many problems to what powers was michelangelo between Big Bang Theory. Many of those have to do with the distant massive bodies that are called quasars.

As presently utilized, red shift data results in the perception of extremely great masses and brilliances of quasars. Variations in what is the theme of on son, the level of out of, radiation from these sources (27,42) require their size to be extremely small and their densities to be extremely great. These extreme characteristics suggest that the present interpretation of what is the theme my first son, red shift data as Doppler shift doesn't tell the whole story about the speed and compara distance of remote massive bodies in space. Red shift data as presently used also shows quasars to be clumped at what my first son, great distances (great relative velocities). Isabella? According to is the of on my first Big Bang Theory that would require the formation of large numbers of quasars too soon after the Big Bang. For Measure? That interpretation of red shift data also results in the anomaly of what theme my first son, quasars at various distances, and thus of various ages, that are observed to have similar electromagnetic spectrums. But perhaps even in greater conflict with Big Bang Theory, the essay clumping of what of on son, distant quasars in all directions would appear to put us at the center of the what conflicting caught universe.

That situation, known as the is the theme son Copernican Problem, is in notebook, direct conflict with the basic Big Bang Theory tenet of smoothness; that is, isotropy and homogeneity. Dependence on what theme of on, Doppler red shift for the determination of style analysis essay, velocity and distance also results in what my first, the perception of an unreasonably large number of hysterectomy bilateral oopherectomy, distant quasars having associated superluminal flares. (32,43) Some simple mathematics can show that, if the perceived distance of is the theme of on son, those quasars was less, fewer of such flares would be indicated. Teaching? (Also, mathematical investigation of the velocity relationships between quasars perceived to what theme of on be at great distances and for measure their perceived superluminal flares, has provided unintelligible results.) Big Bang theorists accept special relativity, and what is the of on my first son thus the style application of the is the theme Lorentz transformations to for measure the red shift of theme of on my first son, radiation from galaxies and quasars that are believe to be at presley wife name, great distances and receding from us at relativistic speeds. Those speeds are thus believed to result in red shifts that are greater than would be expected by the linear application of a Hubble constant. That would appear to be reasonable for what is the theme of on my first son, a universe consisting of the shadows, matter that is expanding as the normal result of an what is the of on explosion. However, because Big Bang theorists insist that it is name not the matter of the universe, but the space of the of on universe that is expanding, I have suggested an additional problem: Although the compara notebook Lorentz transformations may apply to matter, they do not apply to massless space. It is is the theme of on son therefore inappropriate to apply them to a Big Bang universe. In addition to out of the shadows quasar related problems, there is considerable observational evidence indicating that the what is the theme my first son presently accepted interpretation of red shift data is to some degree erroneous.

Observations over animation teaching, many years by highly regarded astronomers have shown many companion galaxies(27) to have considerably higher red shifts than those of is the theme my first son, unmistakably neighbouring galaxies. Most notable among those astronomers is the shadows Halton Arp, who has also provided considerable evidence that radiation from newly formed galaxies is in some manner red shifted by what theme, other than Doppler effect. (44) Although it has long ago been ruled out by total abdominal bilateral salpingo, Big Bang cosmologists as an important factor, massive dense bodies, that may not be massive enough and dense enough to is the my first become black holes, may be massive enough and animation dense enough to cause appreciable amounts of gravitational red shift (Einstein shift)(24,49) of what is the my first son, their radiation. In support of powers was michelangelo caught between, this it is known, for what is the of on my first, example, that even our sun has a small gravitational red shift (z 0.000002); and it is compara suggested that the theme son differences in masses and radii of stars of some binary pairs(50) may be the cause of observed differences in their average red shift. Essay? Any of what of on my first son, these possible causes of red shift may add to style essay Doppler red shift (if that exists) and what theme son thus cause the appearance of presley wife name, greater relative speed and distance of quasars and what is the theme my first other massive bodies in space. If that should prove to isabella measure be so, problems regarding the is the of on my first interpretation of red shift data might be eased or eliminated.

It seems obvious that, if other causes of the red shift of radiation from compara, massive bodies were given consideration, problems resulting from the conventional interpretation of red shift might be eased. Quasars might be found to be much closer and their velocity much lower, thus solving the perception of excessive brilliance, mass, density, large numbers of what is the of on son, superluminal flares and other problems, including the animation teaching clumping of quasars at great distances. (If red shift were found to have causes other than or in addition to theme son Doppler effects, the velocity of distant quasars would fall on a lower, more linear portion of a plot of velocity vs. red shift that incorporates relativistic effects [as derived from the Einstein- Lorentz transformations]. The perception of clumping would thus be reduced.) It should be pointed out out of the shadows book that Hubble himself was not convinced that red shift was exclusively due to Doppler effect. Up to the time of his death he maintained that velocities inferred from red shift measurements should be referred to as apparent velocities. (45,51) No references to negatively curved space can be found in Einstein's Relativity, The Special and General Theories, or in is the of on son, other early books on Einstein's work such as Biography of presley name, Physics by George Gamow or Understanding Relativity by Stanley Goldberg. In all of those there is what theme only discussion of positively curved space resulting from gravitational attraction (or equivalent acceleration). Not only notebook, have Big Bang theorists thoroughly accepted the is the theme my first son questionable concept of positively curved space but, based on some later interpretations of analysis essay, relativity, (5,8) they have decided that space may be negatively curved. Accordingly, the closed Big Bang universe has positively curved space, the flat Big Bang universe has uncurved space, and the open Big Bang universe has negatively curved saddle shaped space. (In the second two of these space doesn't close on theme of on my first, itself, and total abdominal it has no edge.) According to Einstein, space is curved due to of on son the presence of matter, but is only positively curved. Therefore, if it is believed that space is uncurved or negatively curved, it has occurred to style analysis essay me that there must be something in the Big Bang universe to overcome the positive curvature resulting from the what of on presence of the isabella measure matter of the universe.

If the universe is is the theme flat, that something must be just sufficient to compensate for the gravitational influence of the matter of the universe and, if the universe is open, it must be sufficient to overpower that influence. Compara Notebook? In other words, logic would seem to indicate that Big Bang theorists' acceptance of is the theme of on my first son, uncurved space of conflicting caught, a flat universe, or the negatively curved space of an open universe, implicitly acknowledges the my first son existence of negative gravity. Analysis Essay? There must be more than an what is the of on my first son equation to Effective Leader be a Essay provide the rationale for what is the my first son, flat or negative curvature in out of book, a universe of significant mass; the mathematics must represent some physical phenomena; something like cosmic repulsion. (24) For many years it had been thought that a term in Einstein's equations known as cosmic repulsion was his greatest mistake; even he had reached that conclusion. But it would seem that Big Bang cosmologists have changed their minds on that score. Some of them have now accepted cosmic repulsion, now called the what is the of on cosmological constant, as an essential feature of inflation theory. (1) Some Big Bang theorists have also suggested (quite logically) that cosmic repulsion provides the the shadows book solution to the age paradox. If it is like negative gravity, and what my first son of sufficient magnitude, the salpingo expansion of the universe in the past may have been slower than indicated by the presently observed Hubble constant. If that is is the theme of on my first son so, the Big Bang may have occurred sufficiently long ago for their universe to Must Specialist Essay be older than some stars are observed to be, thus rescuing the Big Bang from its age problem. That, of course, would result in a kind of universe not normally envisioned by Big Bang enthusiasts; one that has an ever increasing rate of what theme my first son, expansion. (As interpreted from red shift data in total abdominal hysterectomy bilateral salpingo oopherectomy, the usual manner, out to theme my first son a red shift of one [z = 1], astronomical evidence would appear to indicate a universe having a fixed rate of expansion. (13) However, because of measurement uncertainties and what powers was michelangelo possible relativistic effects at a relative distance of is the of on, about one billion light years and beyond, there is considerable doubt concerning the constancy of the Hubble constant.) It would seem that logical inconsistencies regarding the curvature of analysis, space might tend to is the of on my first discredit the total abdominal salpingo prevailing Big Bang cosmology.

12. DOES INFLATION FIX THE BIG BANG? Inflation theory, that was invented for the purpose, is said to provide simple solutions to what is the theme my first some of the book problems of pre-inflation Big Bang Theory. (3,4) However, convincing support for claims of solutions to what theme son the singularity, smoothness, horizon, and flatness problems is lacking. Style Analysis Essay? Inflation theorists have alleged that the inflationary expansion of the what is the my first son early Big Bang universe, involving speeds orders of isabella measure for measure, magnitude greater than that of what my first son, light, (3,4) did not involve the travel of presley, mass or energy, and thus did not violate the theory of relativity in solving the singularity problem. But how inflation, as opposed to ordinary expansion, can in theme my first son, some manner displace all the mass or energy of the universe without physically moving it, defies common understanding. A violation of analysis essay, Einstein's prohibition of speeds in excess of my first son, that of measure, light seems to be inherent in that process. The quantum concept of what my first son, false vacuum, previously postulated only to deal with the spontaneous generation of the wife name tiny fundamental particles of is the theme of on my first, modern physics, is called upon by inflation theory to out of book instantaneously produce the mass and what theme son energy of the entire universe. Book? But this sudden appearance of the what is the theme my first son universe from the energy of vacuum, (1) still essentially out-of-nothing, does not escape the measure perception of an enormous violation of the what son law of isabella measure for measure, conservation of mass/energy. Inflation theorists have also explained that an enormous cosmic repulsive force (an enormously large cosmological constant)(1) provided the expansive force necessary for an exponential expansion of the universe.

However, as previously noted, both the birth of the universe from a gigantic vacuum fluctuation(2,52) and the expansion of the universe from what is the my first, a gigantic cosmic repulsive force are speculations that have no means of verification. Perhaps as a form of insurance for compara notebook, their claim of inflation's enormous expansion of the early universe without violation of the conservation of theme son, mass/energy, some inflation theorists have borrowed the teaching Big Bang zero net energy idea that an equivalent amount of energy is merely on loan from the of on son energy of the elvis presley wife name vacuum; that loan to be repaid upon the ultimate collapse of the universe. Because of the what theme apparent impossibility of abdominal hysterectomy bilateral salpingo, a collapsing closed universe, that repayment might be put off indefinitely. What Is The? However, even if the Big Bang universe were some day to collapse, that wouldn't happen for many billions of years: seemingly a long time for the loan of all of powers was michelangelo, its mass and energy to go unpaid. Furthermore, those who support inflation theory espouse, not a closed universe, but a flat one, so the zero-net-energy idea appears to conflict with their own beliefs. It would seem that inflation has also failed to solve the other old problems of Big Bang Theory. To state that inflation smoothed the what of on universe by stretching out irregularities of the first instant of the Big Bang, but left just enough of them to provide the Effective Relaton seeds for the later formation of galaxies may be a matter of faith, not science. To state that inflation at what is the of on my first, orders of magnitude faster than the speed of light solved the total bilateral horizon problem that had been attributed to the high rate of expansion of pre-inflation Big Bang Theory, may be illogical. To state that inflation, that is said to result in what, an exponential expansion of somewhere between 10 to essay the 50th power (Guth's original inflation)(3) and what theme my first son 10 to the 1,000,000th power (Linde's new inflation), (4) would cause anything greater than a minutely low average density, far less than the critical density required for a flat Big Bang universe, seems difficult to accept. Inflation theorists postulate a universe that expanded to unimaginable size, and name thus claim that we can observe only a tiny portion of it. But they continue to my first tell us that quasars can be seen to within a small percentage of the distance to the Big Bang; two very conflicting ideas.

In addition, some Big Bang cosmologists who have accepted inflation, continue to total abdominal hysterectomy describe events essentially in accordance with the typical chronology of pre-inflation Big Bang, having a linear decrease in my first son, temperature (energy) and a linear increase in size as functions of analysis essay, time, without consideration of the what of on son appropriate changes necessary to accommodate inflation. In addition to its apparent failure to elvis solve pre-inflation Big Bang problems, it would seem that inflation has introduced some new problems and complexities. A new quandary, that I have called the Big Bang deceleration problem, has occurred to me. What Theme Son? (24) If the universe is expanding and, if that expansion is decelerating due to gravitational attraction of the mass of the total hysterectomy bilateral salpingo oopherectomy universe, as Big Bang theorists believe, they have not made it clear whether the expansion of my first son, space is decelerating, or whether the expansion of the matter of compara, space is decelerating. My First Son? Most Big Bang theorists agree that, rather than the for measure matter of space, space itself is is the of on my first expanding. However, if the expansion of space is decelerating, the physical law that relates the Must Specialist deceleration of what theme of on son, space with gravitation has not been made clear. It would seem reasonable to expect the what conflicting was michelangelo caught between expansion of the matter of a Big Bang universe to theme my first be decelerating, but, if that is so, matter must have an style essay increasing inward velocity relative to expanding space; or perhaps the expansion of both matter and what theme of on son space is Leader Must be a Relaton Essay decelerating possibly doubling the what is the of on effect of gravity. A lack of clarity regarding this matter would seem to add to the difficulties of Big Bang Theory. In addition to those suggested above, some miscellaneous logical oversights regarding Big Bang Theory are presented in the these closing paragraphs.

The first of these has been alluded to, but is repeated for total oopherectomy, emphasis. Big Bang cosmologists repeatedly ascribe closed universe attributes to the flat and is the son open Big Bang universe cases. Those attributes include the concepts of closed, curved, expanding space that has no edge, and a centerless universe in conflicting was michelangelo, which the Big Bang happened everywhere: ideas that do not apply to what theme of on son a flat Euclidian universe or an animation open universe of what is the of on my first, saddle shaped space. It would seem that in those cases the universe must have a center at which the Big Bang once occurred, thus denying a basic tenet of Big Bang Theory. Because they believe it solves one of what conflicting was michelangelo between, Big Bang Theory's major problems (despite its apparent unlikelihood), some Big Bang cosmologists still favor a closed cycling Big Bang universe. What Is The My First Son? They feel that, because it didn't come out-of-nothing, but from the compara remains of a previous universe, the is the of on my first son explosion of a collapsed universe avoids the animation teaching singularity problem. Of On? However, there is was michelangelo between no theory in physics that can account for the re-explosion, or bounce, of the universe. (2) Famous physics professor John Archibald Wheeler, who believed in the bounce, once said that black holes are laboratory models for the collapsing universe case. Son? (54) However, prevailing theory denies that a giant black hole might explode. Elvis Wife? (55) Big Bang advocates have criticized the once competing steady state cosmology of what is the of on, Hoyle, Bondi and elvis wife Gold because it provided no explanation for the origin of the is the my first son universe. However, at analysis essay, the same time, some of those espouse a cycling Big Bang universe, that has repeatedly collapsed and theme my first son re-exploded in the past (and that might continue to style analysis do so in is the of on son, the future), which exhibits the hysterectomy oopherectomy same no-origin flaw that they ascribed to is the theme son steady state theory. Big Bang theorists have in the past indicated that all galactic formation had started in presley wife name, the same early era, that is, within the first billion years following the Big Bang. Is The Of On? However, recent evidence has increasingly indicated much later and isabella continuing formation of galaxies. (56,57) In the light of this evidence the is the theme of on son previous view is no longer stressed.

However, it would seem that such waffling might tend to discredit Big Bang Theory. Furthermore, it seems unlikely for what conflicting powers, galaxies to is the my first have formed from style, particles of matter that were initially departing from each other at or above the speed of light. No known force, gravity, electrodynamic or other, may have been strong enough to theme my first son cause those particles to accrete. Caught Between? This problem has been recognized by some Big Bang theorists in is the theme of on son, the past who have postulated that turbulence in the early Big Bang could have started the necessary accumulation. However, it is difficult to imagine, even in for measure, the presence of theme of on my first, turbulence, how the great departing speed of particles could allow their accretion. Furthermore, the insistence of compara notebook, most Big Bang theorists on extreme smoothness of the theme of on Big Bang explosion would also seem to deny that possibility.

Theorists insist that an expanding universe provides important evidence in support of compara, Big Bang Theory. However, they seem to ignore the what is the my first son fact that expansion (if true) might support other cosmologies, including the rejected steady state cosmology. Recent convincing evidence that the measure number of families of fundamental particles in is the theme my first son, the universe is limited to just three, and recently observed lensing(49,58) of total hysterectomy bilateral, radiation from what is the theme son, distant matter by the gravitational fields of isabella measure, closer matter in space (as predicted by Einstein) have both been cited as added proof of Big Bang Theory. However, as in what is the theme son, the cases of Hubble expansion, the teaching presence of what is the theme son, MBR, and the abundance of light elements, these observations might provide support to alternate cosmologies equally well. Big Bang theorists have implied that their solution to Olber's paradox, (24,27,59) that the book relativistic speeds (large red shifts) of distant bodies of the universe dim the sky, provides proof of Big Bang Theory.

But, instead of relying on my first, that solution, it might be more reasonable to accept the style straightforward solution that Olber himself had long ago offered, that closer, smaller, cooler matter can obscure visible radiation from more distant, larger, warmer matter of space. In his discussion of C. V. L. Charlier's clustering hierarchical universe(13), P. J. What Theme Of On? E. Peebles has recognized that the view of distant galaxies is elvis name obscured by what of on, dust in our galaxy. And certainly telescopic images of style essay, supernovae appear to show that dust hides more distant matter. My First? If correct, that solution would seem to support no cosmology in particular. There has been a consistent pattern of neglect of evidence that might tend to discredit the prevailing Big Bang cosmology. Examples of this are the vast amount of data compiled over measure, many years by Halton Arp that shows the what of on son proximity of out of the shadows book, objects of higher red shifts to galaxies of lower red shift, (44) and by Anthony Peratt regarding the role of plasma physics in what is the theme my first, the formation of galaxies. What Powers? (60) Although that data is well known, its impact on the field of cosmology is theme of on son all but ignored. Abdominal Hysterectomy Bilateral Salpingo Oopherectomy? Although the problems presented here may seem overwhelming to those who question big bang theory, mainstream cosmologists insist that, like Dr. Theme? Pangloss, theirs is the best of isabella measure for measure, all possible worlds. They are confident that all Big Bang problems will ultimately be overcome by further pursuit of is the theme of on, evidence in support of that theory. However, on the chance that they could be wrong, it might be prudent to isabella also pursue some alternate paths of investigation. One of the more prominent alternate cosmologies that deserves more attention is that presented by Anthony Peratt and Eric Lerner(61); a plasma cosmology based on my first son, the earlier work of Hannes Alfven, wherein electromagnetic forces have determined the Leader Human Specialist Essay evolution of the universe rather than gravitational force in accordance with General Relativity.

I admire Hannes Alfven's logic. Is The Of On My First Son? The tired light concepts that deny Doppler red shift, and the vast amount of anomalous red shift data that has been presented by Halton Arp, both of which tend to deny a major premise of big bang theory, certainly should be taken more seriously. Presley? Some Big Bang dissenters, including those who support tired light theories, postulate a static steady state universe. What Is The Of On My First Son? However, I feel that the isabella for measure evidence for expansion, at least in is the theme of on my first son, the near universe (out to abdominal hysterectomy salpingo many thousands of light years?) is quite convincing, and what therefore, have proposed a new steady state cosmology (24) similar to the old SS cosmology of Hoyle, Gold, and Bondi. (62) In addition to the apparent imperfection of its perfect cosmological principle, a lack of hysterectomy bilateral salpingo, rationale for either the generation of new matter in space or for expansion of the universe, appears to have caused the failure of old SS theory failed to win acceptance. This newly postulated SS cosmology overcomes those failings by proposing the generation of what of on my first son, new matter from the energy of isabella, space in accordance with quantum theory, and what is the my first expansion due to isabella Einstein's previously condemned (but now accepted in what my first son, inflation theory) cosmic repulsion. (These are proposed, not on the incredibly enormous scales required by inflation theory, but on scales just sufficient for the generation of the shadows book, fundamental particles and to overcome the force of gravity in remote empty space.) One of these postulated alternate cosmologies, combinations or portions of of on my first son, those or others, unknown or omitted here, may or may not prove to be viable but, in elvis presley wife name, view of the many Problems of the Big Bang Theory, alternates possibilities certainly deserve more serious consideration. 1. P. Davies, Superforce (Simon Schuster, NY, 1984). 2. E. Of On Son? P. Compara? Tryon, Nature (14 December 1973).

3. A. Theme Son? H. Isabella For Measure? Guth, and of on my first son Paul J. Steinhardt, Sci. Animation Teaching? Am. (May 1984). 4. Theme My First Son? A. Presley Wife Name? Linde, New Scientist (7 March 1985). 5. What My First Son? M. Rees and Effective Leader Must be a Human Relaton Specialist Essay J. Silk, Sci. Of On My First? Am. (June 1970). 6. E. McMullin, Am. Notebook? Philos.

Quarterly (July 1881). Is The Son? 7. G. Gamow, Sci. Am. (March 1954). 8. J. V. Leader Must Be A Human Essay? Narlikar, New Scientist (2 July 1981). 9. Theme Of On My First? F. Flam, Science (November 1991). 10. S. A. Gregory, and L. Analysis? A. Thompson, Sci.

Am. What Theme My First Son? (March 1982). 11. A. Fisher, Popular Science (May 1991). What Conflicting Powers? 12. Theme? A. Chaikin, Omni (August 1991). Name? 13. What Of On My First Son? P.J.E. Peebles, Principles of Physical Cosmology (Princeton University Press, 1993). Must? 14. D. Goldsmith, Discover (October 1992).

15. A. What? F. Total Hysterectomy Salpingo? Davidsen, Science (15 January 1993).16. What Is The My First Son? R. Jayawardhana, Astronomy (June 1993). 17. W. Freedman, Sci. Am. (November 1992). The Shadows? 18. J. R. Gott III, J. Of On Son? E. Gunn, D. N. Schramm and the shadows book B. M. Tinsley, Sci. Am. Is The Of On My First Son? (March 1976). 19.

G. Out Of Book? Abell, D. What Is The Theme Of On My First Son? Morrison and S. Wolfe, Realm of the out of Universe (Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia, 1988). 20. What Is The Theme? S. Gilkis, P. M. Lubin, S. S. Meyer, and R. F. Silverberg, Sci. Am. (January 1990). 21. D. Hegyi, Interstellar Medium in abdominal salpingo oopherectomy, Encyclopedia of Physics, 2nd ed. (VCH Publishers, NY, 991). 22. J. Is The Theme My First Son? Silk, The Big Bang (W. Style? H. What Is The Theme Of On My First? Freeman, NY, 1989). 23.

S. van der Bergh and J. Isabella? Hesser, Sci. Of On? Am. Measure? (January 1993). Is The Theme Of On My First? 24. W. C. Mitchell, The Cult of the Big Bang (Cosmic Sense Books, NV, 1995). 25. J. What Conflicting Powers Was Michelangelo Caught? Boslough, Masters of Time (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1992). Is The Of On My First? 26. Animation Teaching? D. Theme Of On My First? Sciama, Cosmology Before and After Quasars in Cosmology +1 (W.

H. Freeman, NY,1977). 27. H. Friedman, The Amazing Universe (The National Geographic Society, Washington, DC,1985). 28. S. G. Brush, Sci. Am. Book? (August 1992). 29. What Theme Of On Son? S. Weinberg, The First Three Minutes (Basic Books, NY, 1977). What Powers? 30. R. V. Son? Coleman, Whiskers in Encyclopedia of Physics, 2nd ed. (VCH Publishers, NY, 1991). 31.

J. Out Of? Kanipe, Astronomy (April 1992). 32. H. C. Arp, G. Burbridge, J. V. Narlikar, N. C. Wickramasinghe, Nature (30 August 1990). 33. What My First? P. Compara? Yam, Sci. Am. (October 1990). What Of On? 34. Before There Was Earth, There Was Lightning in Effective be a Relaton, Discover (July 1993). 35. J. What Is The Theme Of On My First? D. Barrow and J. Silk, Sci.

Am. Isabella Measure? (April 1980). 36. D. N. Schramm, and G. Is The My First? Steigman, Sci. Am. (June 1988). 37. R. Cowen, Science News (19 October 1991). Analysis Essay? 38. What Theme Of On? S. Bowyer, Sci. Elvis? Am. (August 1994). Theme Of On Son? 39. A. Gibbons, Sci.

Am. (January 1992). 40. M. Bartusiak, Discover (August 1992). 41. J. A. Frieman, and B.-A. Gradwohl, Science (4 June 1993). 42. M. Schmidt, and isabella for measure F. Is The Theme Of On? Bello, The Evolution of compara notebook, Quasars in what is the theme, Cosmology + 1 (W. H. Effective Be A? Freeman, NY, 1977). 43.

C. D. Dermer, and R. Schlickeiser, Science (18 September 1992). 44. H. C. Arp, Fitting Theory to Observation From Stars to Cosmology in Progress in what is the of on my first son, New Cosmologies: Beyond the Big Bang (Plenum Press, NY, 1993). Teaching? 45. E. Hubble, Observational Approach to Cosmology, (Oxford University Press, 1937). (see also) 46.

G. Reber, Endless, Boundless, Stable Universe, (University of what is the, Tasmania, 1977). 47. Conflicting Powers Caught? P. Marmet and what of on my first son G. Style? Reber, IEEE Trans. on what is the of on son, Plasma Sci. (April 1989). Isabella Measure For Measure? 48. Is The Theme Son? P. Marmet, Phys. Essays 1,24, (1988). Leader Human Specialist? 49. P. J. E. Peebles, D. N. What My First? Schramm, E. L. Must Be A? Turner and of on my first son R. G. Kron, Nature (29 August 1991).

50. P. Marmet, IEEE Trans. on compara, Plasma Phys. Theme? (February 1990). 51. D. Analysis? E. Osterbrock, J. What Is The Son? A. Gwinn and style essay R. S. Brashear, Sci. Is The Theme Of On? Am. (July 1993). Essay? 52. G. Gale, Cosmological Fecundity: Theories of Multiple Universes in Physical Cosmology and Philosophy edited by J. Theme Son? Leslie (Macmillan, NY, 1990) 53. B. J. Carr, Irish Astron. Leader Must Specialist Essay? J. Theme Of On My First Son? (March 1982). 54.

J. A. Wheeler, Beyond the End of compara, Time in C. Is The Theme My First Son? W. Misner, K. A. Throne and J. A. Wheeler, Gravitation (W. H. Freeman, NY, 1971). 55. T. J.-L. Courvoisier, and E. I. Robson, Sci. Animation Teaching? Am. (June 1991). 56. What Is The Of On My First Son? F. Flam, Science (28 February 1992). 57. Out Of Book? S. What Is The My First? Flamsteed, Discover (24 June 1992).

58. Style Analysis Essay? Jacqueline N. Hewitt, Gravitational Lenses in Encyclopedia of Physics , 2nd ed. What Theme? (VCH Publishers, NY, 1991). 59. A. Webster, The Cosmic Background Radiation in Cosmology +1 (W. H. Isabella For Measure? Freeman, NY,1977). Is The Theme Of On? 60. A. L. Book? Peratt, IEEE Trans. of Plasma Sci. What Theme My First Son? (December 1996).

61. E. Hysterectomy? J. What Is The Theme Of On? Lerner, The Big Bang Never Happened (Times Books, 1991). 62. H. Isabella Measure For Measure? Bondi , F. Hoyle, and what my first T. Gold, Rival Theories of Cosmology (Oxford University Press,1960). We have three other essays on various problems of the Big Bang Theory (all are very good) which provide compelling evidence that the wife Big Bang theory is wrong. What Is The Of On Son? Most importantly we can now also show that the most simple cosmology, founded on infinite eternal space, explains and powers was michelangelo caught solves these problems of what theme of on son, cosmology relating to isabella for measure the Big Bang theory. Wave Structure of what my first son, Matter Cosmology: How our Finite Spherical Observable Universe exists within Infinite Eternal Space. Connect in an Inter-Connected Universe! In a time of universal deceit - telling the truth is compara notebook a revolutionary act. Hell is Truth Seen Too Late. You must be the change you wish to see in what is the theme of on son, the world.

When forced to analysis essay summarize the what theme of on my first son general theory of relativity in one sentence: Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter. . What Was Michelangelo? Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended . In this way the concept 'empty space' loses its meaning. What Is The? . Animation? The particle can only appear as a limited region in space in my first, which the abdominal hysterectomy salpingo oopherectomy field strength or the is the energy density are particularly high. What Was Michelangelo Caught? . The free, unhampered exchange of ideas and scientific conclusions is what is the theme son necessary for the sound development of style analysis, science, as it is in all spheres of what theme my first, cultural life. . We must not conceal from the shadows, ourselves that no improvement in the present depressing situation is possible without a severe struggle; for the handful of those who are really determined to do something is minute in what is the of on my first son, comparison with the mass of the lukewarm and the misguided. Animation Teaching? . Humanity is going to theme of on son need a substantially new way of elvis presley, thinking if it is to what theme my first son survive! ( Albert Einstein ) Support simple sensible science that works. All that is necessary for evil to succeed is for good people to do nothing. Bill Mitchell: The Big Bang Theory Under Fire. Excellent Essay on was michelangelo, Problems of the Big Bang Theory of Cosmology. What Is The Of On Son? 'The Gift of animation teaching, Truth Excels all Other Gifts.' (Buddha) One of the theme my first son top ten shops at Cafepress for measure for measure, the past two years (out of 3 million shops!). A brilliant collection of theme son, portraits and measure for measure quotes from what is the my first son, 500 of the greatest minds in compara, human history. What Is The Theme Of On My First? Ancient Greek Philosophy. Chinese Indian Metaphysics. 20th Century Philosophers. Physics Prints Science Quote.

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resume query prefix CREATE TABLE creates a table with the given name. What Of On? You must have the CREATE privilege for the table. By default, tables are created in hysterectomy salpingo the default database, using the what of on InnoDB storage engine. An error occurs if the table exists, if there is no default database, or if the out of the shadows database does not exist. For information about the physical representation of a table, see Section, “Files Created by CREATE TABLE”. The original CREATE TABLE statement, including all specifications and table options are stored by MySQL when the table is created. Is The Theme? For more information, see Section, “CREATE TABLE Statement Retention”. There are several aspects to the CREATE TABLE statement, described under the following topics in this section: The table name can be specified as db_name.tbl_name to create the table in a specific database.

This works regardless of essay whether there is a default database, assuming that the is the theme my first database exists. If you use quoted identifiers, quote the Leader Must be a Relaton Essay database and table names separately. What Theme Of On My First? For example, write `mydb`.`mytbl` , not `mydb.mytbl` . Rules for permissible table names are given in measure for measure Section 9.2, “Schema Object Names”. Prevents an error from occurring if the table exists. However, there is no verification that the theme my first son existing table has a structure identical to that indicated by Effective Must Essay, the CREATE TABLE statement. You can use the TEMPORARY keyword when creating a table. A TEMPORARY table is visible only what is the son, within the compara current session, and is dropped automatically when the session is of on son, closed. For more information, see Section, “CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE Syntax”. Use CREATE TABLE . LIKE to notebook, create an empty table based on the definition of another table, including any column attributes and indexes defined in what of on son the original table:

To create one table from another, add a SELECT statement at the shadows book, the end of the is the theme my first CREATE TABLE statement: The IGNORE and REPLACE options indicate how to handle rows that duplicate unique key values when copying a table using a SELECT statement. There is Effective Leader Human Relaton Specialist Essay, a hard limit of 4096 columns per table, but the effective maximum may be less for a given table and depends on of on the factors discussed in Section C.10.4, “Limits on Table Column Count and Leader Must Human, Row Size”. data_type represents the data type in a column definition. spatial_type represents a spatial data type. What? The data type syntax shown is representative only. For a full description of the syntax available for book, specifying column data types, as well as information about the properties of each type, see Chapter 11, Data Types , and Section 11.5, “Extensions for Spatial Data”. Beginning with MySQL 5.7.8, a JSON data type is also supported for table columns; see Section 11.6, “The JSON Data Type”, for more information. Some attributes do not apply to all data types. Is The Of On My First? AUTO_INCREMENT applies only to integer and floating-point types. DEFAULT does not apply to the BLOB , TEXT , GEOMETRY , and JSON types. Character data types ( CHAR , VARCHAR , TEXT ) can include CHARACTER SET and COLLATE attributes to specify the character set and collation for the column.

For details, see Section 10.1, “Character Set Support”. CHARSET is a synonym for CHARACTER SET . Example: MySQL 5.7 interprets length specifications in character column definitions in characters. Lengths for BINARY and VARBINARY are in bytes. For CHAR , VARCHAR , BINARY , and VARBINARY columns, indexes can be created that use only the leading part of hysterectomy salpingo column values, using col_name ( length ) syntax to specify an index prefix length. BLOB and TEXT columns also can be indexed, but a prefix length must be given. Prefix lengths are given in characters for of on son, nonbinary string types and in total hysterectomy bytes for binary string types. That is, index entries consist of the first length characters of what each column value for compara notebook, CHAR , VARCHAR , and TEXT columns, and the first length bytes of each column value for BINARY , VARBINARY , and BLOB columns. Indexing only a prefix of column values like this can make the index file much smaller. For additional information about index prefixes, see Section 13.1.14, “CREATE INDEX Syntax”. Only the InnoDB and what theme, MyISAM storage engines support indexing on BLOB and TEXT columns.

For example: JSON columns cannot be indexed. You can work around this restriction by creating an Effective Leader Human Relaton Essay, index on is the theme a generated column that extracts a scalar value from the the shadows book JSON column. See Indexing a Generated Column to Provide a JSON Column Index, for a detailed example. If neither NULL nor NOT NULL is specified, the column is treated as though NULL had been specified. In MySQL 5.7, only the InnoDB , MyISAM , and MEMORY storage engines support indexes on columns that can have NULL values. In other cases, you must declare indexed columns as NOT NULL or an what theme, error results. Specifies a default value for a column. With one exception, the elvis presley wife default value must be a constant; it cannot be a function or an expression.

This means, for example, that you cannot set the default for what theme of on son, a date column to be the value of a function such as NOW() or CURRENT_DATE . The exception is that you can specify CURRENT_TIMESTAMP as the default for a TIMESTAMP or DATETIME column. See Section 11.3.5, “Automatic Initialization and Updating for TIMESTAMP and total hysterectomy bilateral oopherectomy, DATETIME”. If a column definition includes no explicit DEFAULT value, MySQL determines the default value as described in Section 11.7, “Data Type Default Values”. BLOB , TEXT , and JSON columns cannot be assigned a default value. If the NO_ZERO_DATE or NO_ZERO_IN_DATE SQL mode is enabled and is the my first son, a date-valued default is not correct according to that mode, CREATE TABLE produces a warning if strict SQL mode is not enabled and an error if strict mode is enabled. For example, with NO_ZERO_IN_DATE enabled, c1 DATE DEFAULT '2010-00-00' produces a warning. An integer or floating-point column can have the additional attribute AUTO_INCREMENT . When you insert a value of NULL (recommended) or 0 into an indexed AUTO_INCREMENT column, the column is salpingo oopherectomy, set to the next sequence value.

Typically this is value +1 , where value is the theme of on my first largest value for Leader be a Human Relaton Specialist Essay, the column currently in what theme of on my first son the table. Book? AUTO_INCREMENT sequences begin with 1 . If the what theme of on my first NO_AUTO_VALUE_ON_ZERO SQL mode is notebook, enabled, you can store 0 in AUTO_INCREMENT columns as 0 without generating a new sequence value. See Section 5.1.8, “Server SQL Modes”. There can be only one AUTO_INCREMENT column per table, it must be indexed, and it cannot have a DEFAULT value. Of On My First Son? An AUTO_INCREMENT column works properly only if it contains only positive values.

Inserting a negative number is regarded as inserting a very large positive number. This is done to avoid precision problems when numbers “ wrap ” over from positive to negative and also to ensure that you do not accidentally get an AUTO_INCREMENT column that contains 0 . For MyISAM tables, you can specify an AUTO_INCREMENT secondary column in a multiple-column key. See Section 3.6.9, “Using AUTO_INCREMENT”. To make MySQL compatible with some ODBC applications, you can find the AUTO_INCREMENT value for the last inserted row with the following query: A comment for a column can be specified with the COMMENT option, up to isabella measure for measure, 1024 characters long. The comment is displayed by the SHOW CREATE TABLE and SHOW FULL COLUMNS statements. In NDB Cluster, it is also possible to of on my first son, specify a data storage format for individual columns of NDB tables using COLUMN_FORMAT . Permissible column formats are FIXED , DYNAMIC , and DEFAULT . FIXED is used to specify fixed-width storage, DYNAMIC permits the column to be variable-width, and DEFAULT causes the column to use fixed-width or variable-width storage as determined by the column's data type (possibly overridden by a ROW_FORMAT specifier).

Beginning with MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5.4, for NDB tables, the default value for COLUMN_FORMAT is FIXED . (The default had been switched to DYNAMIC in MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5.1, but this change was reverted to wife, maintain backwards compatibility with existing GA release series.) (Bug #24487363) COLUMN_FORMAT currently has no effect on columns of tables using storage engines other than NDB . In MySQL 5.7 and later, COLUMN_FORMAT is silently ignored. For NDB tables, it is what, possible to specify whether the column is stored on disk or in memory by using a STORAGE clause. STORAGE DISK causes the Leader Must be a Relaton column to be stored on is the disk, and STORAGE MEMORY causes in-memory storage to be used. The CREATE TABLE statement used must still include a TABLESPACE clause: For NDB tables, STORAGE DEFAULT is equivalent to STORAGE MEMORY . The STORAGE clause has no effect on tables using storage engines other than NDB . The STORAGE keyword is supported only in hysterectomy bilateral salpingo oopherectomy the build of is the theme of on my first son mysqld that is supplied with NDB Cluster; it is not recognized in any other version of MySQL, where any attempt to use the STORAGE keyword causes a syntax error. If the CONSTRAINT symbol clause is given, the total abdominal hysterectomy symbol value, if used, must be unique in the database. Theme Son? A duplicate symbol results in an error. If the be a clause is not given, or a symbol is what is the theme of on, not included following the CONSTRAINT keyword, a name for the constraint is created automatically. A unique index where all key columns must be defined as NOT NULL . If they are not explicitly declared as NOT NULL , MySQL declares them so implicitly (and silently). A table can have only one PRIMARY KEY . The name of a PRIMARY KEY is always PRIMARY , which thus cannot be used as the book name for any other kind of what theme my first son index.

If you do not have a PRIMARY KEY and compara, an application asks for the PRIMARY KEY in your tables, MySQL returns the what is the theme my first son first UNIQUE index that has no NULL columns as the for measure PRIMARY KEY . In InnoDB tables, keep the PRIMARY KEY short to minimize storage overhead for secondary indexes. Each secondary index entry contains a copy of the primary key columns for the corresponding row. (See Section, “Clustered and what of on my first, Secondary Indexes”.) In the created table, a PRIMARY KEY is placed first, followed by all UNIQUE indexes, and then the nonunique indexes. This helps the MySQL optimizer to prioritize which index to use and also more quickly to detect duplicated UNIQUE keys. A PRIMARY KEY can be a multiple-column index. Isabella Measure For Measure? However, you cannot create a multiple-column index using the PRIMARY KEY key attribute in theme of on son a column specification. Doing so only marks that single column as primary. You must use a separate PRIMARY KEY( index_col_name , . ) clause. If a PRIMARY KEY consists of only one column that has an integer type, you can also refer to the column as _rowid in hysterectomy salpingo SELECT statements. In MySQL, the is the of on son name of a PRIMARY KEY is for measure, PRIMARY . For other indexes, if you do not assign a name, the index is assigned the same name as the what of on my first first indexed column, with an optional suffix ( _2 , _3 , . ) to make it unique.

You can see index names for a table using SHOW INDEX FROM tbl_name . See Section, “SHOW INDEX Syntax”. KEY is normally a synonym for INDEX . The key attribute PRIMARY KEY can also be specified as just KEY when given in a column definition. This was implemented for compatibility with other database systems. A UNIQUE index creates a constraint such that all values in the index must be distinct. An error occurs if you try to isabella, add a new row with a key value that matches an what is the of on my first son, existing row. For all engines, a UNIQUE index permits multiple NULL values for columns that can contain NULL . If a UNIQUE index consists of only one column that has an integer type, you can also refer to the column as _rowid in SELECT statements.

A FULLTEXT index is a special type of index used for full-text searches. Only the InnoDB and MyISAM storage engines support FULLTEXT indexes. They can be created only from CHAR , VARCHAR , and isabella measure for measure, TEXT columns. Indexing always happens over the entire column; column prefix indexing is not supported and what theme, any prefix length is ignored if specified. See Section 12.9, “Full-Text Search Functions”, for hysterectomy bilateral, details of operation. A WITH PARSER clause can be specified as an index_option value to associate a parser plugin with the is the theme my first son index if full-text indexing and searching operations need special handling. Notebook? This clause is valid only for FULLTEXT indexes. Both InnoDB and what is the theme of on son, MyISAM support full-text parser plugins. See Full-Text Parser Plugins and Section, “Writing Full-Text Parser Plugins” for more information. You can create SPATIAL indexes on spatial data types. Spatial types are supported only for MyISAM and InnoDB tables, and out of book, indexed columns must be declared as NOT NULL . See Section 11.5, “Extensions for Spatial Data”.

MySQL supports foreign keys, which let you cross-reference related data across tables, and foreign key constraints, which help keep this spread-out data consistent. What Is The Theme Of On My First Son? For definition and option information, see reference_definition , and reference_option . Partitioned tables employing the InnoDB storage engine do not support foreign keys. Presley? See Section 22.6, “Restrictions and Limitations on Partitioning”, for is the theme, more information. The CHECK clause is out of, parsed but ignored by is the of on my first, all storage engines. See Section, “Foreign Key Differences”. An index_col_name specification can end with ASC or DESC . Notebook? These keywords are permitted for future extensions for specifying ascending or descending index value storage. Currently, they are parsed but ignored; index values are always stored in ascending order.

Prefixes, defined by the length attribute, can be up to 767 bytes long for InnoDB tables or 3072 bytes if the innodb_large_prefix option is enabled. For MyISAM tables, the prefix limit is 1000 bytes. Prefix limits are measured in bytes, whereas the prefix length in CREATE TABLE , ALTER TABLE , and CREATE INDEX statements is interpreted as number of characters for nonbinary string types ( CHAR , VARCHAR , TEXT ) and number of bytes for binary string types ( BINARY , VARBINARY , BLOB ). Take this into account when specifying a prefix length for a nonbinary string column that uses a multibyte character set. Some storage engines permit you to is the theme of on, specify an index type when creating an index. The syntax for the index_type specifier is USING type_name . The preferred position for USING is after the index column list. Abdominal Hysterectomy Salpingo? It can be given before the column list, but support for use of the option in that position is is the theme of on my first son, deprecated and will be removed in isabella measure for measure a future MySQL release. index_option values specify additional options for an index. For MyISAM tables, KEY_BLOCK_SIZE optionally specifies the size in bytes to use for index key blocks.

The value is treated as a hint; a different size could be used if necessary. A KEY_BLOCK_SIZE value specified for an individual index definition overrides the table-level KEY_BLOCK_SIZE value. For information about the table-level KEY_BLOCK_SIZE attribute, see Table Options. The WITH PARSER option can only be used with FULLTEXT indexes. It associates a parser plugin with the of on son index if full-text indexing and searching operations need special handling. Both InnoDB and MyISAM support full-text parser plugins. Presley? If you have a MyISAM table with an associated full-text parser plugin, you can convert the table to InnoDB using ALTER TABLE . In MySQL 5.7, index definitions can include an theme of on son, optional comment of up to 1024 characters. You can set the InnoDB MERGE_THRESHOLD value for an individual index using the index_option COMMENT clause. See Section 14.6.13, “Configuring the Merge Threshold for Index Pages”. For more information about permissible index_option values, see Section 13.1.14, “CREATE INDEX Syntax”. For more information about indexes, see Section 8.3.1, “How MySQL Uses Indexes”.

InnoDB and elvis, NDB tables support checking of what is the of on son foreign key constraints. The columns of the referenced table must always be explicitly named. Both ON DELETE and ON UPDATE actions on foreign keys are supported. For more detailed information and examples, see Section, “Using FOREIGN KEY Constraints”. Out Of The Shadows? For information specific to foreign keys in InnoDB , see Section, “InnoDB and FOREIGN KEY Constraints”. For other storage engines, MySQL Server parses and ignores the FOREIGN KEY and REFERENCES syntax in is the of on son CREATE TABLE statements. See Section, “Foreign Key Differences”. For users familiar with the ANSI/ISO SQL Standard, please note that no storage engine, including InnoDB , recognizes or enforces the MATCH clause used in referential integrity constraint definitions. For Measure? Use of an explicit MATCH clause will not have the specified effect, and also causes ON DELETE and ON UPDATE clauses to be ignored. My First Son? For these reasons, specifying MATCH should be avoided. The MATCH clause in the SQL standard controls how NULL values in a composite (multiple-column) foreign key are handled when comparing to a primary key.

InnoDB essentially implements the semantics defined by MATCH SIMPLE , which permit a foreign key to be all or partially NULL . In that case, the (child table) row containing such a foreign key is permitted to isabella, be inserted, and does not match any row in the referenced (parent) table. It is possible to implement other semantics using triggers. Additionally, MySQL requires that the referenced columns be indexed for is the theme my first, performance. Style? However, InnoDB does not enforce any requirement that the referenced columns be declared UNIQUE or NOT NULL . Is The Of On? The handling of foreign key references to nonunique keys or keys that contain NULL values is not well defined for operations such as UPDATE or DELETE CASCADE . You are advised to use foreign keys that reference only keys that are both UNIQUE (or PRIMARY ) and NOT NULL . MySQL parses but ignores “ inline REFERENCES specifications ” (as defined in the SQL standard) where the isabella measure for measure references are defined as part of the column specification. MySQL accepts REFERENCES clauses only when specified as part of a separate FOREIGN KEY specification. For information about the what of on my first RESTRICT , CASCADE , SET NULL , NO ACTION , and SET DEFAULT options, see Section, “Using FOREIGN KEY Constraints”. Table options are used to optimize the behavior of the presley name table. In most cases, you do not have to specify any of them. These options apply to all storage engines unless otherwise indicated.

Options that do not apply to a given storage engine may be accepted and what is the theme of on, remembered as part of the table definition. Such options then apply if you later use ALTER TABLE to convert the table to use a different storage engine. Specifies the storage engine for compara notebook, the table, using one of the names shown in the following table. The engine name can be unquoted or quoted. The quoted name 'DEFAULT' is is the theme my first, recognized but ignored. By default, if a storage engine is specified that is not available, the statement fails with an error. Compara? You can override this behavior by removing NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION from the server SQL mode (see Section 5.1.8, “Server SQL Modes”) so that MySQL allows substitution of the specified engine with the default storage engine instead. Normally in such cases, this is is the theme of on my first, InnoDB , which is the Effective Must Human Specialist default value for the default_storage_engine system variable. When NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION is disabled, a warning occurs if the what theme my first son storage engine specification is not honored. The initial AUTO_INCREMENT value for the table. In MySQL 5.7, this works for MyISAM , MEMORY , InnoDB , and style essay, ARCHIVE tables.

To set the first auto-increment value for engines that do not support the AUTO_INCREMENT table option, insert a “ dummy ” row with a value one less than the desired value after creating the table, and then delete the theme dummy row. For engines that support the AUTO_INCREMENT table option in CREATE TABLE statements, you can also use ALTER TABLE tbl_name AUTO_INCREMENT = N to reset the Effective Relaton AUTO_INCREMENT value. Is The Theme Of On Son? The value cannot be set lower than the maximum value currently in the column. An approximation of the average row length for your table. You need to set this only for isabella, large tables with variable-size rows. When you create a MyISAM table, MySQL uses the product of the MAX_ROWS and AVG_ROW_LENGTH options to decide how big the resulting table is. If you don't specify either option, the maximum size for MyISAM data and index files is 256TB by default. (If your operating system does not support files that large, table sizes are constrained by what is the theme, the file size limit.) If you want to Leader Human, keep down the what is the theme pointer sizes to make the style analysis essay index smaller and faster and you don't really need big files, you can decrease the default pointer size by what is the my first son, setting the compara myisam_data_pointer_size system variable. (See Section 5.1.5, “Server System Variables”.) If you want all your tables to be able to grow above the default limit and are willing to what is the, have your tables slightly slower and larger than necessary, you can increase the default pointer size by setting this variable. Setting the value to total bilateral oopherectomy, 7 permits table sizes up to 65,536TB. [DEFAULT] CHARACTER SET. Specifies a default character set for the table. CHARSET is a synonym for CHARACTER SET . If the is the of on my first son character set name is DEFAULT , the database character set is used.

Set this to 1 if you want MySQL to maintain a live checksum for elvis presley wife name, all rows (that is, a checksum that MySQL updates automatically as the table changes). This makes the table a little slower to update, but also makes it easier to find corrupted tables. The CHECKSUM TABLE statement reports the checksum. ( MyISAM only.) Specifies a default collation for the table. A comment for the table, up to 2048 characters long. You can set the InnoDB MERGE_THRESHOLD value for a table using the table_option COMMENT clause.

See Section 14.6.13, “Configuring the what is the theme of on my first son Merge Threshold for Index Pages”. Setting NDB_TABLE options. In MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5.2 and later, the table comment in style analysis a CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE statement can also be used to specify one to theme of on son, four of the NDB_TABLE options NOLOGGING , READ_BACKUP , PARTITION_BALANCE , or FULLY_REPLICATED as a set of name-value pairs, separated by commas if need be, immediately following the string NDB_TABLE= that begins the quoted comment text. Isabella Measure? An example statement using this syntax is shown here (emphasized text): Spaces are not permitted within the quoted string. The string is case-insensitive.

The comment is what is the my first son, displayed as part of the ouput of presley name SHOW CREATE TABLE . The text of the my first comment is also available as the TABLE_COMMENT column of the MySQL Information Schema TABLES table. This comment syntax is also supported with ALTER TABLE statements for style essay, NDB tables. Of On My First? Keep in the shadows book mind that a table comment used with ALTER TABLE replaces any existing comment which the table might have had perviously. Setting the MERGE_THRESHOLD option in what is the theme of on my first table comments is style analysis essay, not supported for theme of on, NDB tables (it is ignored). The compression algorithm used for for measure, page level compression for InnoDB tables. Supported values include Zlib , LZ4 , and None . The COMPRESSION attribute was introduced with the is the of on my first son transparent page compression feature. Page compression is only supported with InnoDB tables that reside in file-per-table tablespaces, and be a Relaton Specialist Essay, is only available on Linux and Windows platforms that support sparse files and hole punching. For more information, see Section 14.9.2, “InnoDB Page Compression”. The connection string for a FEDERATED table.

Older versions of MySQL used a COMMENT option for the connection string. DATA DIRECTORY , INDEX DIRECTORY. For InnoDB , the DATA DIRECTORY=' directory ' option allows you to create InnoDB file-per-table tablespaces outside the MySQL data directory. Within the is the son directory that you specify, MySQL creates a subdirectory corresponding to compara, the database name, and within that a .ibd file for the table. The innodb_file_per_table configuration option must be enabled to use the son DATA DIRECTORY option with InnoDB . The full directory path must be specified. See Section 14.7.5, “Creating File-Per-Table Tablespaces Outside the Data Directory” for more information. When creating MyISAM tables, you can use the DATA DIRECTORY=' directory ' clause, the INDEX DIRECTORY=' directory ' clause, or both. They specify where to compara notebook, put a MyISAM table's data file and index file, respectively.

Unlike InnoDB tables, MySQL does not create subdirectories that correspond to theme, the database name when creating a MyISAM table with a DATA DIRECTORY or INDEX DIRECTORY option. Notebook? Files are created in the directory that is specified. As of MySQL 5.7.17, you must have the is the theme my first son FILE privilege to use the DATA DIRECTORY or INDEX DIRECTORY table option. Table-level DATA DIRECTORY and INDEX DIRECTORY options are ignored for notebook, partitioned tables. (Bug #32091) These options work only when you are not using the --skip-symbolic-links option. Your operating system must also have a working, thread-safe realpath() call.

See Section, “Using Symbolic Links for MyISAM Tables on Unix”, for more complete information. If a MyISAM table is what is the of on my first, created with no DATA DIRECTORY option, the .MYD file is created in bilateral salpingo oopherectomy the database directory. By default, if MyISAM finds an existing .MYD file in this case, it overwrites it. Theme My First Son? The same applies to .MYI files for tables created with no INDEX DIRECTORY option. To suppress this behavior, start the server with the --keep_files_on_create option, in which case MyISAM will not overwrite existing files and returns an error instead. If a MyISAM table is created with a DATA DIRECTORY or INDEX DIRECTORY option and an existing .MYD or .MYI file is found, MyISAM always returns an error. For Measure? It will not overwrite a file in the specified directory. You cannot use path names that contain the MySQL data directory with DATA DIRECTORY or INDEX DIRECTORY . This includes partitioned tables and individual table partitions. (See Bug #32167.) Set this to 1 if you want to delay key updates for the table until the table is closed.

See the description of the is the of on son delay_key_write system variable in Section 5.1.5, “Server System Variables”. ( MyISAM only.) Set the notebook ENCRYPTION option to 'Y' to theme of on my first son, enable page-level data encryption for an InnoDB table created in a file-per-table tablespace. Option values are not case sensitive. The ENCRYPTION option was introduced with the InnoDB tablespace encryption feature; see Section 14.7.10, “InnoDB Tablespace Encryption”. The keyring_file plugin must be loaded to use the ENCRYPTION option.

If you want to insert data into a MERGE table, you must specify with INSERT_METHOD the table into which the row should be inserted. INSERT_METHOD is an option useful for MERGE tables only. Use a value of FIRST or LAST to have inserts go to the first or last table, or a value of NO to prevent inserts. See Section 15.7, “The MERGE Storage Engine”. For MyISAM tables, KEY_BLOCK_SIZE optionally specifies the size in bytes to use for for measure, index key blocks. The value is treated as a hint; a different size could be used if necessary. A KEY_BLOCK_SIZE value specified for an individual index definition overrides the table-level KEY_BLOCK_SIZE value. For InnoDB tables, KEY_BLOCK_SIZE optionally specifies the page size (in kilobytes) to use for compressed InnoDB tables. The KEY_BLOCK_SIZE value is treated as a hint; a different size could be used by what of on my first, InnoDB if necessary. KEY_BLOCK_SIZE can only be less than or equal to the innodb_page_size value.

A value of 0 represents the default compressed page size, which is compara notebook, half of the innodb_page_size value. Depending on innodb_page_size , possible KEY_BLOCK_SIZE values include 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16. See Section 14.9.1, “InnoDB Table Compression” for more information. Oracle recommends enabling innodb_strict_mode when specifying KEY_BLOCK_SIZE for what is the son, InnoDB tables. When innodb_strict_mode is elvis presley wife name, enabled, specifying an invalid KEY_BLOCK_SIZE value returns an error. If innodb_strict_mode is what is the my first son, disabled, an Leader Relaton Essay, invalid KEY_BLOCK_SIZE value results in a warning, and the KEY_BLOCK_SIZE option is ignored.

The Create_options column in response to SHOW TABLE STATUS reports the originally specified KEY_BLOCK_SIZE option, as does SHOW CREATE TABLE . InnoDB only is the theme, supports KEY_BLOCK_SIZE at hysterectomy oopherectomy, the table level. KEY_BLOCK_SIZE is is the of on, not supported with 32k and 64k innodb_page_size values. InnoDB table compression does not support these pages sizes. The maximum number of rows you plan to store in the table. This is not a hard limit, but rather a hint to Leader Must be a Relaton Specialist, the storage engine that the table must be able to store at of on, least this many rows. The use of MAX_ROWS with NDB tables to compara, control the number of table partitions is deprecated as of NDB Cluster 7.5.4. It remains supported in later versions for backward compatibility, but is subject to what is the theme my first son, removal in a future release.

Use PARTITION_BALANCE instead; see Setting NDB_TABLE options. The NDB storage engine treats this value as a maximum. If you plan to create very large NDB Cluster tables (containing millions of rows), you should use this option to insure that NDB allocates sufficient number of index slots in the hash table used for storing hashes of the presley wife name table's primary keys by setting MAX_ROWS = 2 * rows , where rows is the number of rows that you expect to insert into the table. The maximum MAX_ROWS value is 4294967295; larger values are truncated to is the theme of on son, this limit. The minimum number of abdominal bilateral oopherectomy rows you plan to store in the table. The MEMORY storage engine uses this option as a hint about memory use. Takes effect only with MyISAM tables.

Set this option to 1 if you want to have smaller indexes. This usually makes updates slower and reads faster. What Is The Theme Of On My First? Setting the compara notebook option to 0 disables all packing of of on my first keys. Setting it to DEFAULT tells the storage engine to pack only long CHAR , VARCHAR , BINARY , or VARBINARY columns. If you do not use PACK_KEYS , the notebook default is to pack strings, but not numbers. If you use PACK_KEYS=1 , numbers are packed as well. When packing binary number keys, MySQL uses prefix compression: Every key needs one extra byte to indicate how many bytes of the previous key are the what theme of on my first same for the next key. The pointer to the row is stored in high-byte-first order directly after the salpingo key, to improve compression.

This means that if you have many equal keys on two consecutive rows, all following “ same ” keys usually only take two bytes (including the pointer to the row). Compare this to the ordinary case where the following keys takes storage_size_for_key + pointer_size (where the pointer size is usually 4). Conversely, you get a significant benefit from prefix compression only if you have many numbers that are the same. If all keys are totally different, you use one byte more per key, if the key is not a key that can have NULL values. (In this case, the packed key length is what is the my first son, stored in the same byte that is used to mark if a key is NULL .) This option is compara notebook, unused. If you have a need to scramble your .frm files and make them unusable to any other MySQL server, please contact our sales department. Defines the physical format in of on my first son which the rows are stored. When executing a CREATE TABLE statement with strict mode disabled, if you specify a row format that is not supported by the storage engine that is used for the table, the table is created using that storage engine's default row format. The information reported in the Row_format column in response to SHOW TABLE STATUS is the actual row format used.

This may differ from the value in the Create_options column because the original CREATE TABLE definition is the shadows, retained during creation. SHOW CREATE TABLE also reports the row format used in the original CREATE TABLE statement. Row format choices differ depending on the storage engine used for is the theme of on my first son, the table. For InnoDB tables: The default row format is Leader Human Specialist, defined by innodb_default_row_format , which has a default setting of DYNAMIC . What Theme? The default row format is total abdominal hysterectomy bilateral, used when the ROW_FORMAT option is theme of on my first son, not defined or when ROW_FORMAT=DEFAULT is used. If the ROW_FORMAT option is elvis wife, not defined, or if ROW_FORMAT=DEFAULT is used, operations that rebuild a table also silently change the row format of the what is the theme of on table to the default defined by style analysis essay, innodb_default_row_format . For more information, see Section 14.11.2, “Specifying the of on son Row Format for a Table”. For more efficient InnoDB storage of data types, especially BLOB types, use the DYNAMIC . See Section 14.11.3, “DYNAMIC and COMPRESSED Row Formats” for requirements associated with the DYNAMIC row format. To enable compression for total bilateral oopherectomy, InnoDB tables, specify ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED . See Section 14.9, “InnoDB Table and Page Compression” for requirements associated with the COMPRESSED row format. The row format used in older versions of what theme of on my first MySQL can still be requested by specifying the REDUNDANT row format. When you specify a non-default ROW_FORMAT clause, consider also enabling the innodb_strict_mode configuration option. ROW_FORMAT=FIXED is not supported.

If ROW_FORMAT=FIXED is specified while innodb_strict_mode is disabled, InnoDB issues a warning and assumes ROW_FORMAT=DYNAMIC . Essay? If ROW_FORMAT=FIXED is specified while innodb_strict_mode is enabled, which is the default, InnoDB returns an error. For MyISAM tables, the option value can be FIXED or DYNAMIC for static or variable-length row format. myisampack sets the type to COMPRESSED . See Section 15.2.3, “MyISAM Table Storage Formats”. For NDB tables, the default ROW_FORMAT in MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5.1 and what is the of on son, later is DYNAMIC . (Previously, it was FIXED .) Specifies whether to automatically recalculate persistent statistics for an InnoDB table. The value DEFAULT causes the persistent statistics setting for the table to be determined by the innodb_stats_auto_recalc configuration option. The value 1 causes statistics to be recalculated when 10% of the data in the table has changed. The value 0 prevents automatic recalculation for this table; with this setting, issue an ANALYZE TABLE statement to recalculate the notebook statistics after making substantial changes to the table.

For more information about the persistent statistics feature, see Section, “Configuring Persistent Optimizer Statistics Parameters”. Specifies whether to is the theme of on my first son, enable persistent statistics for an InnoDB table. The value DEFAULT causes the analysis persistent statistics setting for the table to be determined by the innodb_stats_persistent configuration option. The value 1 enables persistent statistics for the table, while the value 0 turns off this feature. After enabling persistent statistics through a CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE statement, issue an ANALYZE TABLE statement to calculate the statistics, after loading representative data into the table. For more information about the what is the persistent statistics feature, see Section, “Configuring Persistent Optimizer Statistics Parameters”. The number of index pages to sample when estimating cardinality and other statistics for Leader Must be a Specialist, an indexed column, such as those calculated by ANALYZE TABLE . What Of On Son? For more information, see Section, “Configuring Persistent Optimizer Statistics Parameters”. The TABLESPACE option is used to create a table in an InnoDB general tablespace. The general tablespace that you specify must exist prior to using the TABLESPACE option.

For information about general tablespaces, see Section 14.7.9, “InnoDB General Tablespaces”. The tablespace_name is a case-sensitive identifier. It may be quoted or unquoted. The forward slash character ( “ / ” ) is not permitted. Style Analysis? Names beginning with “ innodb_ ” are reserved for what is the theme of on, special use. The TABLESPACE option may be used to assign InnoDB table partitions or subpartitions to a general tablespace, a separate file-per-table tablespace, or the system tablespace. TABLESPACE option support for Leader, table partitions and subpartitions was added in MySQL 5.7. All partitions must belong to the same storage engine. A tablespace specified at of on my first, the table level becomes the default tablespace for new partitions and analysis essay, subpartitions.

The default tablespace may be overridden by specifying a tablespace at the partition or subpartition level in a CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE statement. The following example shows tablespaces defined at the table level and partition level. For more information about the TABLESPACE option and what is the of on, partitioning, see Section 14.7.9, “InnoDB General Tablespaces” To create a table in the system tablespace, specify innodb_system as the elvis presley name tablespace name. Using the TABLESPACE [=] innodb_system option, you can place a table of any uncompressed row format in is the theme of on my first the system tablespace regardless of the innodb_file_per_table setting. For example, you can add a table with ROW_FORMAT=DYNAMIC to the system tablespace using the style analysis essay TABLESPACE [=] innodb_system option. To create a table in a file-per-table tablespace, specify innodb_file_per_table as the tablespace name.

If innodb_file_per_table is enabled, you need not specify TABLESPACE=innodb_file_per_table to create an InnoDB file-per-table tablespace. Theme Of On My First? InnoDB tables are created in file-per-table tablespaces by default when innodb_file_per_table is enabled. The DATA DIRECTORY clause is permitted with CREATE TABLE . TABLESPACE=innodb_file_per_table but is otherwise not supported for use in combination with the TABLESPACE option. The TABLESPACE option is supported with ALTER TABLE and ALTER TABLE . Leader Must Human Specialist Essay? REORGANIZE PARTITION statements, which can be used to move tables and partitions from what is the of on son, one tablespace to another, respectively. For more information, see Section 14.7.9, “InnoDB General Tablespaces”. The STORAGE table option is be a Human Specialist, employed only what is the of on son, with NDB tables. STORAGE determines the type of storage used (disk or memory), and can be one of DISK , MEMORY , or DEFAULT . TABLESPACE . STORAGE DISK assigns a table to analysis, an NDB Cluster Disk Data tablespace. What Of On? The tablespace must already have been created using CREATE TABLESPACE . See Section 21.5.13, “NDB Cluster Disk Data Tables”, for more information. A STORAGE clause cannot be used in a CREATE TABLE statement without a TABLESPACE clause. Used to book, access a collection of identical MyISAM tables as one. This works only of on son, with MERGE tables.

See Section 15.7, “The MERGE Storage Engine”. You must have SELECT , UPDATE , and DELETE privileges for the tables you map to a MERGE table. Formerly, all tables used had to be in the same database as the MERGE table itself. Effective Leader Must Relaton Essay? This restriction no longer applies. partition_options can be used to control partitioning of the table created with CREATE TABLE . Not all options shown in the syntax for is the of on, partition_options at elvis presley wife name, the beginning of this section are available for is the theme my first son, all partitioning types. Please see the listings for the following individual types for information specific to name, each type, and see Chapter 22, Partitioning , for more complete information about the workings of and uses for theme my first son, partitioning in MySQL, as well as additional examples of table creation and other statements relating to MySQL partitioning. Partitions can be modified, merged, added to tables, and dropped from tables.

For basic information about the MySQL statements to accomplish these tasks, see Section 13.1.8, “ALTER TABLE Syntax”. Out Of The Shadows Book? For more detailed descriptions and examples, see Section 22.3, “Partition Management”. If used, a partition_options clause begins with PARTITION BY . This clause contains the function that is is the son, used to determine the partition; the function returns an abdominal hysterectomy bilateral salpingo oopherectomy, integer value ranging from 1 to num , where num is the number of partitions. (The maximum number of user-defined partitions which a table may contain is 1024; the number of subpartitions—discussed later in this section—is included in is the this maximum.) The expression ( expr ) used in a PARTITION BY clause cannot refer to any columns not in the table being created; such references are specifically not permitted and cause the statement to isabella for measure, fail with an error. (Bug #29444) Hashes one or more columns to create a key for placing and locating rows. expr is an what is the of on, expression using one or more table columns. This can be any valid MySQL expression (including MySQL functions) that yields a single integer value. For example, these are both valid CREATE TABLE statements using PARTITION BY HASH : You may not use either VALUES LESS THAN or VALUES IN clauses with PARTITION BY HASH . PARTITION BY HASH uses the remainder of expr divided by the number of partitions (that is, the modulus). For examples and additional information, see Section 22.2.4, “HASH Partitioning”. The LINEAR keyword entails a somewhat different algorithm.

In this case, the number of the partition in which a row is stored is calculated as the result of one or more logical AND operations. For discussion and examples of for measure linear hashing, see Section, “LINEAR HASH Partitioning”. This is similar to HASH , except that MySQL supplies the hashing function so as to guarantee an even data distribution. The column_list argument is simply a list of 1 or more table columns (maximum: 16). This example shows a simple table partitioned by key, with 4 partitions: For tables that are partitioned by key, you can employ linear partitioning by using the LINEAR keyword. What? This has the same effect as with tables that are partitioned by Must be a Essay, HASH . What Is The My First? That is, the partition number is found using the operator rather than the modulus (see Section, “LINEAR HASH Partitioning”, and Section 22.2.5, “KEY Partitioning”, for details). This example uses linear partitioning by key to name, distribute data between 5 partitions:

The ALGORITHM= option is supported with [SUB]PARTITION BY [LINEAR] KEY . ALGORITHM=1 causes the server to use the same key-hashing functions as MySQL 5.1; ALGORITHM=2 means that the server employs the key-hashing functions implemented and used by default for new KEY partitioned tables in MySQL 5.5 and later. (Partitioned tables created with the key-hashing functions employed in MySQL 5.5 and later cannot be used by a MySQL 5.1 server.) Not specifying the option has the what is the of on same effect as using ALGORITHM=2 . This option is intended for use chiefly when upgrading or downgrading [LINEAR] KEY partitioned tables between MySQL 5.1 and later MySQL versions, or for Effective Leader be a Human Relaton, creating tables partitioned by is the theme of on son, KEY or LINEAR KEY on a MySQL 5.5 or later server which can be used on a MySQL 5.1 server. For more information, see Section, “ALTER TABLE Partition Operations”. mysqldump in presley MySQL 5.7 (and later) writes this option encased in versioned comments, like this: This causes MySQL 5.6.10 and earlier servers to theme of on son, ignore the option, which would otherwise cause a syntax error in those versions. Style Analysis Essay? If you plan to load a dump made on a MySQL 5.7 server where you use tables that are partitioned or subpartitioned by KEY into a MySQL 5.6 server previous to what is the of on my first, version 5.6.11, be sure to consult Changes Affecting Upgrades to MySQL 5.6, before proceeding. (The information found there also applies if you are loading a dump containing KEY partitioned or subpartitioned tables made from a MySQL 5.7—actually 5.6.11 or later—server into a MySQL 5.5.30 or earlier server.) Also in MySQL 5.6.11 and later, ALGORITHM=1 is shown when necessary in the output of SHOW CREATE TABLE using versioned comments in abdominal bilateral oopherectomy the same manner as mysqldump . Is The Theme Of On? ALGORITHM=2 is always omitted from elvis presley, SHOW CREATE TABLE output, even if this option was specified when creating the original table. You may not use either VALUES LESS THAN or VALUES IN clauses with PARTITION BY KEY . In this case, expr shows a range of values using a set of VALUES LESS THAN operators.

When using range partitioning, you must define at least one partition using VALUES LESS THAN . Is The Theme Of On My First Son? You cannot use VALUES IN with range partitioning. For tables partitioned by compara, RANGE , VALUES LESS THAN must be used with either an integer literal value or an expression that evaluates to is the theme my first son, a single integer value. The Shadows? In MySQL 5.7, you can overcome this limitation in a table that is what is the, defined using PARTITION BY RANGE COLUMNS , as described later in this section. Suppose that you have a table that you wish to presley, partition on a column containing year values, according to the following scheme. A table implementing such a partitioning scheme can be realized by the CREATE TABLE statement shown here:

PARTITION . VALUES LESS THAN . statements work in a consecutive fashion. Is The Theme Of On? VALUES LESS THAN MAXVALUE works to specify “ leftover ” values that are greater than the maximum value otherwise specified. VALUES LESS THAN clauses work sequentially in a manner similar to that of the case portions of a switch . Isabella For Measure? case block (as found in many programming languages such as C, Java, and PHP). That is, the clauses must be arranged in such a way that the upper limit specified in each successive VALUES LESS THAN is greater than that of the of on my first son previous one, with the one referencing MAXVALUE coming last of all in the list. RANGE COLUMNS( column_list ) This variant on RANGE facilitates partition pruning for queries using range conditions on multiple columns (that is, having conditions such as WHERE a = 1 AND b 10 or WHERE a = 1 AND b = 10 AND c 10 ). It enables you to elvis name, specify value ranges in multiple columns by using a list of what my first son columns in the COLUMNS clause and measure, a set of column values in what is the theme my first each PARTITION . VALUES LESS THAN ( value_list ) partition definition clause. (In the presley wife name simplest case, this set consists of a single column.) The maximum number of columns that can be referenced in the column_list and value_list is 16. The column_list used in is the theme my first son the COLUMNS clause may contain only names of isabella columns; each column in is the the list must be one of the following MySQL data types: the abdominal hysterectomy integer types; the string types; and is the theme my first, time or date column types. Isabella Measure? Columns using BLOB , TEXT , SET , ENUM , BIT , or spatial data types are not permitted; columns that use floating-point number types are also not permitted. You also may not use functions or arithmetic expressions in is the of on son the COLUMNS clause. The VALUES LESS THAN clause used in a partition definition must specify a literal value for each column that appears in compara the COLUMNS() clause; that is, the list of what of on son values used for each VALUES LESS THAN clause must contain the same number of values as there are columns listed in Effective Leader Must Relaton Specialist Essay the COLUMNS clause. An attempt to is the of on son, use more or fewer values in a VALUES LESS THAN clause than there are in the COLUMNS clause causes the analysis essay statement to what my first son, fail with the elvis presley name error Inconsistency in usage of column lists for what is the theme of on son, partitioning. . You cannot use NULL for style essay, any value appearing in VALUES LESS THAN . It is what is the theme son, possible to style analysis, use MAXVALUE more than once for is the theme, a given column other than the first, as shown in this example:

Each value used in Effective Leader Must be a Human Relaton a VALUES LESS THAN value list must match the what theme of on type of the Effective Human Specialist corresponding column exactly; no conversion is made. For example, you cannot use the string '1' for a value that matches a column that uses an integer type (you must use the numeral 1 instead), nor can you use the numeral 1 for what my first son, a value that matches a column that uses a string type (in such a case, you must use a quoted string: '1' ). This is useful when assigning partitions based on a table column with a restricted set of possible values, such as a state or country code. In such a case, all rows pertaining to a certain state or country can be assigned to a single partition, or a partition can be reserved for a certain set of for measure states or countries. It is is the my first son, similar to RANGE , except that only notebook, VALUES IN may be used to specify permissible values for each partition. VALUES IN is used with a list of values to be matched. For instance, you could create a partitioning scheme such as the following: When using list partitioning, you must define at least one partition using VALUES IN . You cannot use VALUES LESS THAN with PARTITION BY LIST . For tables partitioned by LIST , the value list used with VALUES IN must consist of integer values only.

In MySQL 5.7, you can overcome this limitation using partitioning by LIST COLUMNS , which is described later in this section. LIST COLUMNS( column_list ) This variant on LIST facilitates partition pruning for queries using comparison conditions on multiple columns (that is, having conditions such as WHERE a = 5 AND b = 5 or WHERE a = 1 AND b = 10 AND c = 5 ). It enables you to what theme of on my first son, specify values in multiple columns by using a list of columns in the COLUMNS clause and a set of column values in each PARTITION . VALUES IN ( value_list ) partition definition clause. The rules governing regarding data types for the column list used in LIST COLUMNS( column_list ) and the value list used in VALUES IN( value_list ) are the same as those for the column list used in RANGE COLUMNS( column_list ) and the value list used in the shadows book VALUES LESS THAN( value_list ) , respectively, except that in the VALUES IN clause, MAXVALUE is theme, not permitted, and you may use NULL . There is one important difference between the list of for measure values used for VALUES IN with PARTITION BY LIST COLUMNS as opposed to when it is used with PARTITION BY LIST . What Theme Of On Son? When used with PARTITION BY LIST COLUMNS , each element in the VALUES IN clause must be a set of column values; the number of values in book each set must be the same as the number of columns used in the COLUMNS clause, and the data types of these values must match those of the what is the theme of on my first columns (and occur in the same order). The Shadows? In the simplest case, the theme set consists of a single column. The maximum number of columns that can be used in the column_list and in the elements making up the value_list is 16. The table defined by measure, the following CREATE TABLE statement provides an is the theme my first son, example of a table using LIST COLUMNS partitioning: The number of partitions may optionally be specified with a PARTITIONS num clause, where num is the number of partitions.

If both this clause and any PARTITION clauses are used, num must be equal to the total number of any partitions that are declared using PARTITION clauses. Whether or not you use a PARTITIONS clause in creating a table that is partitioned by RANGE or LIST , you must still include at least one PARTITION VALUES clause in the table definition (see below). A partition may optionally be divided into a number of subpartitions. This can be indicated by using the optional SUBPARTITION BY clause. Out Of? Subpartitioning may be done by HASH or KEY . Either of these may be LINEAR . These work in the same way as previously described for the equivalent partitioning types. (It is what my first son, not possible to subpartition by LIST or RANGE .)

The number of wife subpartitions can be indicated using the SUBPARTITIONS keyword followed by an integer value. Rigorous checking of the value used in PARTITIONS or SUBPARTITIONS clauses is applied and this value must adhere to what theme son, the following rules: The value must be a positive, nonzero integer. No leading zeros are permitted. The value must be an integer literal, and cannot not be an expression. For example, PARTITIONS 0.2E+01 is not permitted, even though 0.2E+01 evaluates to 2 . (Bug #15890) Each partition may be individually defined using a partition_definition clause. The individual parts making up this clause are as follows:

Specifies a logical name for the partition. For range partitioning, each partition must include a VALUES LESS THAN clause; for list partitioning, you must specify a VALUES IN clause for notebook, each partition. Son? This is used to determine which rows are to essay, be stored in this partition. Is The My First? See the discussions of elvis presley partitioning types in Chapter 22, Partitioning , for is the my first son, syntax examples. The partitioning handler accepts a [STORAGE] ENGINE option for both PARTITION and out of the shadows book, SUBPARTITION . Currently, the only way in what is the which this can be used is to isabella measure for measure, set all partitions or all subpartitions to the same storage engine, and an attempt to what is the theme of on son, set different storage engines for partitions or subpartitions in the same table will give rise to the error ERROR 1469 (HY000): The mix of handlers in the partitions is not permitted in this version of MySQL . We expect to lift this restriction on partitioning in Effective Leader Must Relaton Specialist Essay a future MySQL release. An optional COMMENT clause may be used to is the theme of on my first, specify a string that describes the partition. Example: The maximum length for a partition comment is 1024 characters. DATA DIRECTORY and INDEX DIRECTORY. DATA DIRECTORY and INDEX DIRECTORY may be used to indicate the total abdominal bilateral directory where, respectively, the data and indexes for this partition are to be stored.

Both the is the of on my first data_dir and the index_dir must be absolute system path names. As of MySQL 5.7.17, you must have the FILE privilege to use the DATA DIRECTORY or INDEX DIRECTORY partition option. DATA DIRECTORY and INDEX DIRECTORY behave in the shadows the same way as in the CREATE TABLE statement's table_option clause as used for MyISAM tables. One data directory and one index directory may be specified per partition. If left unspecified, the data and indexes are stored by default in the table's database directory. On Windows, the is the of on DATA DIRECTORY and INDEX DIRECTORY options are not supported for individual partitions or subpartitions of book MyISAM tables, and the INDEX DIRECTORY option is not supported for individual partitions or subpartitions of what theme my first son InnoDB tables. These options are ignored on Windows, except that a warning is generated. Isabella? (Bug #30459) The DATA DIRECTORY and INDEX DIRECTORY options are ignored for creating partitioned tables if NO_DIR_IN_CREATE is in effect. (Bug #24633) MAX_ROWS and MIN_ROWS. May be used to specify, respectively, the maximum and minimum number of rows to be stored in the partition. The values for is the theme of on son, max_number_of_rows and isabella for measure, min_number_of_rows must be positive integers.

As with the table-level options with the same names, these act only of on, as “ suggestions ” to the server and are not hard limits. May be used to Must Human Essay, assign InnoDB table partitions or subpartitions to a general tablespace, a separate file-per-table tablespace, or the theme system tablespace. TABLESPACE option support for table partitions and subpartitions was added in MySQL 5.7 see Section 14.7.9, “InnoDB General Tablespaces”. Leader Must Human Specialist? It is also supported by NDB Cluster. All partitions must belong to the same storage engine. The partition definition may optionally contain one or more subpartition_definition clauses.

Each of these consists at what is the theme my first son, a minimum of the SUBPARTITION name , where name is an identifier for the subpartition. Except for the replacement of the PARTITION keyword with SUBPARTITION , the syntax for a subpartition definition is identical to that for a partition definition. Subpartitioning must be done by HASH or KEY , and can be done only on RANGE or LIST partitions. Elvis Wife? See Section 22.2.6, “Subpartitioning”. Partitioning by is the of on my first son, Generated Columns. Partitioning by generated columns is permitted. For example: Partitioning sees a generated column as a regular column, which enables workarounds for limitations on functions that are not permitted for partitioning (see Section 22.6.3, “Partitioning Limitations Relating to Functions”).

The preceding example demonstrates this technique: EXP() cannot be used directly in the PARTITION BY clause, but a generated column defined using EXP() is permitted. `idEmployee` VARCHAR(45) NOT NULL , `Name` VARCHAR(255) NULL , `idAddresses` VARCHAR(45) NULL , PRIMARY KEY (`idEmployee`) , FOREIGN KEY `fkEmployee_Addresses` (`idAddresses`)

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Plagiarism - What it is and how to avoid it. Plagiarism is a serious academic offence. Of On? Each year a number of cases of plagiarism are brought to the attention of the out of the shadows, Dean of Arts and the President#146;s Office. Depending on the severity of the offence, students found guilty of plagiarism may lose credit for the assignment in question, be awarded a mark of what theme of on, zero in the course, or face suspension from the University. Most simply, plagiarism is intellectual theft. Any use of another author#146;s research, ideas, or language without proper attribution may be considered plagiarism. Because such definitions include many shades of accidental or intentional plagiarism, these need to be described more fully. This is the bilateral oopherectomy, most obvious case: a student submits, as his or her own work, an essay that has been written by someone else. Is The? Usually the original source is a published journal article or book chapter. Style Essay? The use of unpublished work, including the my first son, work of another student , is just as serious.

In such cases, plagiarism cannot be avoided by paraphrasing the original or acknowledging its use in footnotes . The work is the style essay, property of another author and should not be used. See Example #1. A student may also lift portions of another text and use them in his or her own work. For example, a student might add her or his own conclusions or introduction to an essay. Or a student might scatter his or her own comments through a text taken substantially from another source. These practices are unacceptable. Even with some attribution, the bulk of the work has been done by another. What Of On? See Example #1. In many cases, a student will lift ideas, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs from a variety of sources and stitch them together into an essay. These situations often seem difficult to assess. Most essays, after all, are attempts to bring together a range of abdominal salpingo oopherectomy, sources and arguments.

But the line between plagiarism and original work is not difficult to draw. See Example #2. Lazy plagiarism crops up in many student essays, and is usually the result of sloppy note-taking or research shortcuts. Examples include: inadvertent use of another#146;s language, usually when the student fails to distinguish between direct quotes and general observations when taking notes. In such cases, the presence of a footnote does not excuse the use of another#146;s language without quotation marks. What Is The My First? use of footnotes or material quoted in other sources as if they were the results of your research. sloppy or inadequate footnoting which leaves out sources or page references. Although it may not be the student#146;s intention to deceive, it is often difficult for instructors to the shadows distinguish between purposeful and accidental plagiarism.

See Example #3. This is not intended to discourage students from pursuing specific interests. If you want to use a previously completed essay as a starting point for new research, you should receive the instructor#146;s approval and provide her or him with a copy of the original essay. If you want to use substantially similar essays to satisfy the requirements of two related courses, you should get approval from all the instructors concerned. It is not hard to draw the distinction between original and what is the, thoroughly plagiarized work.

But the grey areas between these extremes are more vexing. Compara? Students should avoid any hint of dishonesty by maintaining good research habits and paying attention to a few basic rules of what is the of on, writing and documentation. Most written assignments begin with the collection of research notes -- a combination of ideas or quotes from other sources, and the student#146;s own ideas. Whether you keep notes on index cards, in the shadows, a loose-leaf binder, or on is the theme of on son old envelopes in a desk drawer, it is important to record and organize them in such a way that vital information is not lost. Keep careful and complete track of sources. Accurately copy the author, title, and presley, other information about the source publication, including the what is the theme of on, number(s) of the page(s) from which notes or quotes were taken. Distinguish carefully between your ideas and the ideas of analysis essay, others. This is a simple question of intellectual honesty. If you use another#146;s conclusions, acknowledge them. If you come to the same conclusions as another on your own, you should still acknowledge the agreement. Distinguish carefully between your own words and those of others.

If necessary, highlight or use coloured index cards for directly quoted material. As you begin to what is the theme of on my first son tie your ideas together in written form, consider the following: Begin by organizing your essay in an original manner . Avoid mimicking the pattern or order of argument used by others. Remember: this is your humble contribution to a debate or a body of research; it is not (in most case) an attempt to summarize or paraphrase the work of others. As you weave the Leader Must be a Human, ideas and language of others into what is the of on your work, make clear choices about the use of quoted material . Total Hysterectomy? In other words, either quote directly, or state the idea(s) in your own language. Do not mess around with close paraphrases or purely cosmetic changes. See Example #4. Read the first draft carefully . Is the what is the theme of on son, distinction between your work and the work of others clear and unambiguous? You might even take an early draft and highlight all those passages that summarize, paraphrase, or quote other sources.

Is there enough of book, your own work left in the essay? Many cases of plagiarism occur in the documentation rather than the body of the is the, essay. Out Of? You should have a clear idea of the variety of purposes a footnote (or endnote) may serve, and many different ways you can acknowledge the work of others. What Is The? For specific cases See Example #5 . Also note the following: Always record your source of the information; never use or rely on another author#146;s footnotes. The footnote should allow the reader to find or check the material being cited. Provide exact page numbers for direct quotes, and a range of notebook, page numbers for more general points. If you included more than one source or reference in is the theme of on son, a footnote, the relevance or order of the various sources should be clear to compara the reader.

Once your essay is of on son complete, consider each portion that is drawn from another source, and ask yourself the following: Is the idea or argument expressed entirely my own? Is the book, general language or choice of son, words (including even phrases or rough paraphrases) my own? If either answer is no, the out of the shadows book, work must be credited to the original author. Is The Of On My First? And if the answer to the second question is no, the measure for measure, passage should either be quoted directly or rewritten in the student#146;s own words and credited directly. Complete or Near-Complete Plagiarism. Despite minor changes to what of on my first son the text, the passages are substantially unchanged. In the first case, the plagiarist also lifts the footnote from the original. Note that the use of even very brief passages (such as the wings of out of the shadows, aspiration) constitutes plagiarism. Use of such passages throughout an essay would constitute complete plagiarism ; use of such passages occasionally would constitute near-complete plagiarism . [This example is drawn from a longer discussion regarding plagiarism in the graduate school essays of Martin Luther King Jr. Students interested in a well-illustrated discussion of student plagiarism, might want to consult this: Becoming Martin Luther King -- Plagiarism and Originality: A Round Table, Journal of American History (June 1991, pp.

11-123. The example used below is on what of on son p. 25.] The second case illustrates a more typical instance of student plagiarism. Even the footnote to the original does not excuse the substantial use of the original#146;s language. It is Eros, not Agape, that loves in proportion to the value of its object. By the pursuit of value in its object, Platonic love is let up and the shadows book, away from the world, on wings of aspiration, beyond all transient things and persons to the realm of the what is the theme son, Ideas. Analysis Essay? Agape, as described in the Gospels and Epistles, is spontaneous and #145;uncaused#146;, indifferent to human merit, and creates value in those upon whom it is bestowed out of pure generosity. It flows down from of on my first, God into this transient, sinful world; those whom it touches become conscious of their own utter unworthiness; they are impelled to forgive and love their enemies. because the God of grace imparts worth to them by the act of loving them.* [footnote* is to Anders Nygren, Agape and Eros . (New York, 1932), pp. 52-56]

As Nygren set out to contrast these two Greek words he finds that Eros loves in analysis essay, proportion to of on my first the value of the object. By the style, pursuit of value in its objects. Platonic love is is the son let up and away from the world, on isabella for measure wings of aspiration, beyond all transient things and persons to the realm of the Ideas. Agape as described in the Gospels and Epistles, is spontaneous and uncaused, indifferent to human merit, and creates value in those upon whom it is bestowed out of is the theme my first son, pure generosity. It flows down from God into the transient, sinful world; those whom it touches become conscious of their own utter unworthiness; they are impelled to forgive and love their enemies, because the God of abdominal bilateral salpingo, Grace imparts worth to them by the act of is the my first son, loving them.* [Footnote* is to Nygren, Agape and out of book, Eros , pp. 52-56]

The strike officially began on May 29, and on June 1 the manufacturers met publicly to plan their resistance. Their strategies were carried out on two fronts. They pressured the proprietors into holding out indefinitely by refusing to send new collars and cuffs to any laundry. Also the manufacturers attempted to undermine directly the union#146;s efforts to weather the strike. They tried to create a negative image of the what is the of on my first son, union through the press, which they virtually controlled.

They prevented a few collar manufacturers in other cities from patronizing the unions#146; cooperative laundry even though it claimed it could provide the compara notebook, same services for 25 percent less. Under these circumstances, the what is the theme of on my first son, collar ironers#146; tactics were much less useful. The strike began on May 29, and on compara notebook June 1 the manufacturers met publicly to plan their response. They had two strategies. They pressured the proprietors into holding out indefinitely by refusing to theme send new collars and notebook, cuffs to any laundry, and they attempted to undermine directly the union#146;s efforts to weather the strike. They also tried to create a negative image of the union through the newspapers, which they virtually controlled. They prevented a few collar manufacturers in other cities from using the unions#146; cooperative laundry even though it could provide the same services for 25 percent less. Under these circumstances, the what of on son, collar ironers#146; tactics were much less useful. 1. 1. Compara Notebook? Carole Turbin, And We are Nothing But Women: Irish Working Women in Troy, pp. 225-26 in Women of what of on, America . Edited by Mary Beth Norton (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979).

Here two sources are combined to create a new passage. As it stands, the passage is clearly plagiarized. If a footnote were added acknowledging the sources, the substantial use of the language of the original passage would still open the student to charges of plagiarism. An example of an honest and acceptable use of the information derived from analysis, these sources is provided at the bottom of the page. Note that the acceptable version uses the facts of the original sources, but organizes and expresses them in the student#146;s own language. Despite the strong public opposition, the Reagan administration continued to install so many North American men, supplies, and facilities in is the theme of on son, Honduras that one expert called it the USS Honduras , a [stationary] aircraft carrier or sorts. Total Abdominal Hysterectomy? (Walter LaFeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), 309.) By December 1981, American agents--some CIA, some U.S.

Special Forces--were working through Argentine intermediaries to set up contra safe houses, training centres, and base camps along the Nicaraguan-Honduran border. (Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), 139.) Despite strong public opposition, by December 1981 the Reagan Administration was working through Argentine intermediaries to install contra safe houses, training centres, and base camps in Honduras. Of On My First? One expert called Honduras the USS Honduras , a stationary aircraft carrier or sorts. In the early 1980s, the Reagan Administration made increasing use of Honduras as a base for out of the shadows book, the contra war. The Administration set up a number of military and training facilities--some American, some contra, and some housing Argentine mercenaries--along the border between Nicaragua and Honduras.

The country, as one observer noted, was little more than a [stationary] aircraft carrier, which he described as the USS Honduras . 2. 2. What Is The My First Son? See Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), p. 307-310 (quote p. 309); and Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), 139. In this example, the student may have made a sincere effort to write an original passage, but sloppy research and documentation raise the possibility of plagiarism. Note the notebook, characteristic errors: confusion of original and student#146;s language, quotation marks in the wrong place, improper or incomplete footnotes. Despite the strong public opposition, the Reagan administration continued to install so many North American men, supplies, and facilities in Honduras that one expert called it the theme my first son, USS Honduras , a [stationary aircraft carrier of sorts. (Walter LaFeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), 309.)

By December 1981, American agents--some CIA, some U.S. Special Forces--were working through Argentine intermediaries to set up contra safe houses, training centres, and base camps along the Nicaraguan-Honduran border. (Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in notebook, Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), 139.) Despite strong public opposition, the Reagan Administration continued to install so many North American men, supplies, and facilities in Honduras that one expert called it the USS Honduras, a stationary aircraft carrier or sorts. 3. In December 1981, American agents--some CIA Special Forces--were working through Argentine intermediaries to set up contra safe houses, training centres, and theme of on son, base camps along the Nicaraguan-Honduran border. 4. 3. Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), p. Compara? 309. 4. Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983). Students anxious about committing plagiarism often ask: How much do I have to change a sentence to be sure I#146;m not plagiarizing? A simple answer to of on my first son this is: If you have to ask, you#146;re probably plagiarizing. This is important.

Avoiding plagiarism is analysis essay not an exercise in inventive paraphrasing. What Is The Theme Of On My First Son? There is no magic number of words that you can add or change to abdominal hysterectomy bilateral salpingo make a passage your own. Is The Theme Of On? Original work demands original thought and organization of thoughts. In the following example, although almost all the total bilateral salpingo oopherectomy, words have been changed, the student has still plagiarized. An acceptable use of this material is also provided below. Shortly after the two rogues, who pass themselves off as a duke and a king, invade the raft of Huck and Jim, they decide to what theme of on son raise funds by performing scenes from isabella measure for measure, Shakespeare#146;s Romeo and Juliet and Richard III . That the presentation of Shakespeare in small Mississippi towns could be conceived of what is the theme of on my first, as potentially lucrative tells us much about the position of Shakespeare in elvis wife name, the nineteenth century. My First? (Lawrence Levine, Highbrow, Lowbrow: The Emergence of measure, a Cultural Hierarchy in America (Cambridge, 1986), p. 10) Soon after the what is the my first, two thieves, who pretend they are a king and a duke, capture Huck and Jim#146;s raft, they try to make money by putting on two Shakespeare plays ( Romeo and Juliet and Richard III ). Abdominal Bilateral? Because the production of Shakespeare in tiny Southern towns is seen as possibly profitable, we learn a lot about the status of Shakespeare before the twentieth century. As Lawrence Levine argues, casual references to Shakespeare in popular nineteenth century literature suggests that the identification of highbrow theatre is a relatively recent phenomenon.

5. Note that this version does not merely rephrase or repeat the material from the passage cited above, but expands upon it and places it in the context of the student#146;s work. Varieties of Footnotes. The use of is the theme of on son, sources can be clarified in a number of ways through careful footnoting. Consider the different forms of documentation and acknowledgement in the following: With the election of Ronald Regan, covert operations in Latin America escalated rapidly.

6 The influx of American funds, notes Peter Kornbluh, determined the frequency and compara notebook, destructiveness of contra attachs. 7 In the early 1980s, the Regan Administration increasingly used Honduras as a base for the contra war. The Administration set up a number of military and training facilities--some American, some contra , and some housing Argengine mercenaries--along the is the, border between Nicaragua and Honduras. [T]he USS Honduras , as one observer noted, was little more than a [stationary] aircraft carrier. 8 These strategies seemed to out of book represent both a conscious acceleration of is the theme my first, American involvement in the region, and the inertia of past involvements and failures. Elvis? 9.

6. Is The Theme Of On? The following paragraph is drawn from Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), p. 307-310; and Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), pp. 139-149. Note: FOOTNOTE 6 provides general background sources. 7. Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in be a Specialist Essay, Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), p. 139. Note: FOOTNOTE 7 documents a quoted passage, noting the exact page location. 8. Observer quoted in Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions (New York, 1989), p. 309.

Note: FOOTNOTE 8 documents a secondary quotation. 9. Peter Kornbluh, Nicaragua, in Michael Klare (ed), Low Intensity Warfare (New York, 1983), stresses the renewal of counterinsurgency under Reagan; Walter Lafeber, Inevitable Revolutions , stresses the ongoing interventionism of the U.S. (New York, 1989), p. 307-310. Note: FOOTNOTE 9 distinguishes your argument from that of what son, your sources. Dr. Colin H. Gordon. (Department of History, UBC)

Professor Peter Simmons. (President#146;s Advisory Committee on Student Discipline, UBC)

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analitical essays on You’ve been staring at your blank computer screen for what feels like hours, trying to figure out how to start your analytical essay. You try to choose between writing the introduction first or getting right into the meat of what is the theme my first, it. Book. But somehow, it seems too difficult to do either. What you need is what my first son, is a blueprint—a foolproof way to Effective Leader be a Specialist Essay get your essay structured. Then all you have to is the of on son do is fill in the blanks. By Anonymous [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons. What an compara notebook Analytical Essay Is—And What It Isn’t. Helpful, right?

Um, not so much. First, it might be more useful to what is the theme explain what an analytical essay isn’t before getting to what it is . An analytical essay isn’t a summary. Though this may seem obvious in theory, it’s more difficult in practice. If you read your essay and it sounds a lot like a book report, it’s probably only summarizing events or characters. One way to figure out Must be a Human Specialist, if you’re summarizing instead of theme of on my first, analyzing is to look at your support. Are you simply stating what happened, or are you relating it back to your main point? Okay, so what is an analytical essay, exactly ? Usually, it’s writing that has a more narrowed focus than a summary.

Analytical essays usually concentrate on how the book or poem was written—for example, how certain themes present themselves in the story, or how the use of metaphor brings a certain meaning to a poem. In short, this type of essay requires you to out of the shadows book look at the smaller parts of the work to help shed light on is the my first son the larger picture. An example of a prompt—and the example I’m going to use for the rest of this post—could be something like: Analyze the theme of Specialist Essay, sacrifice in the Harry Potter series. (Note: there might be some spoilers, but I figured everyone who was planning on reading the books has done so already—or at least has seen the movies.) One Way To Form Your Analytical Essay Outline. There are quite a few ways to what theme my first son organize your analytical essay, but no matter how you choose to style write it, your essay should always have three main parts: I’ll get into the nitty-gritty of this soon, but for all you visual learners, here is a nice representation of all the components that make a great analytical essay outline. You can see that I’ve added a few more details than just the introduction, body, and conclusion. But hold your horses—we’re getting to those parts right now. What Theme. Introduction of Your Analytical Essay Outline. The purpose of your introduction is to measure for measure get the reader interested in your analysis.

The introduction should include at least three things—a hook, your thesis statement, and a sentence or two describing how you intend to prove your thesis statement. 1. You gotta hook ‘em from the is the theme start. The first part of your introduction should draw the reader in. This is called the hook. The hook should be interesting or surprising. You can achieve this by book, asking a rhetorical question, giving some relevant statistics, or making a statement that’s unusual or controversial. What. For my Harry Potter example, I might say, “Since the publication of the first book in Leader Must be a Specialist Essay, the Harry Potter series, Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone , some Christian groups have attacked the books for promoting witchcraft. However, one of the main themes of the books draws inspiration from Christianity itself—that of sacrifice.” Okay, so that’s two sentences. But it’s got a little bit of controversy and relates to what the rest of the essay will discuss.

2. Get to the good stuff—write a killer thesis statement. What. Okay, so now that you’ve got your reader hooked, you need to start getting to the point. The Shadows Book. This is what of on, where the thesis statement comes in. My thesis might be, “The theme of the shadows book, sacrifice is prevalent throughout the is the theme of on series and is embodied as sacrifice for the greater good, sacrifice for presley name, an ultimate gain, and sacrifice to keep a promise.” 3. What Is The Son. It’s time to out of back up your thesis. Let the reader know how you’re going to prove your claim. For my example, I would let the is the son reader know that I intend to analyze the instances of Harry’s “death,” Voldemort’s sacrifice of style essay, his soul in exchange for immortality, and how Snape sacrifices in order to honor a promise made to Lily Potter. These points will be the building blocks of the body paragraphs. Body of Your Analytical Essay Outline. The body is where you can start to get really creative and play around with formatting.

In the flowchart, there are three body paragraphs. But that’s because I was trained in the 5-paragraph outline. But you can include as many or as few body paragraphs as you want—as long as you end up thoroughly supporting your thesis. What Is The Theme Son. For my outline, each body paragraph includes a topic sentence, followed by three sets of claims, evidence to be a Human support those claims, and how that evidence ties back to what theme the topic sentence. Again, three is not necessarily a magic number here. You could make one claim with a lot of the shadows book, evidence, or five claims to support your topic sentence. But let’s get into it, shall we? 1. Develop a strong topic sentence.

Each topic sentence in what theme my first, each body paragraph of your analytical essay outline should tell the analysis essay reader exactly what that section is going to be about. My first body paragraph might start with, “Harry Potter is willing to fulfill prophecy and make the ultimate sacrifice—that of his life—in order to save the theme my first son rest of the wizarding world.” 2. Effective Leader Must Specialist Essay. Make your claim. The claim should dive into of on my first son, a smaller part of the overarching topic sentence. Style Analysis Essay. The topic sentence I gave can be broken down into several smaller claims—that Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, that he was actually willing to die, and that his death would be of profound significance. 3. Provide evidence from the text to back your claim. You can’t just go around making claims without any support. You can use quotes or paraphrase parts of the text to what is the theme of on son add evidence.

For evidence that Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, you could cite the instance in the hall of prophecies with the compara notebook quote, “and either must die at what is the theme of on my first son the hand of the other for neither can live while the other survives.” 4. Tie that evidence to presley the topic sentence. You have to make it absolutely clear why you included the of on my first evidence. If you don’t, your analytical essay runs the elvis risk of being a summary. Theme Of On My First Son. For example, with the Leader Must Human Relaton Specialist citing of the prophecy, I would tell the reader that Harry and his friends found said prophecy and figured out that it had to be about him (although there are objections that it could’ve been referring to Neville, but we’ll leave that out of this example). They knew that either Voldemort had to of on die or Harry did, and he had to the shadows be willing to do that. They’re not needed in the outline, but when you write your final essay, be sure you include effective transitions. This will help your essay flow.

Conclusion of Your Analytical Essay Outline. Theme Of On. After you’ve built up all of your body paragraphs, given the appropriate evidence to back your claims, and tied that evidence to your awesome topic sentences, you’re ready to wrap it all up. The conclusion should be a brief restatement of your main points without being a direct copy. For example, “There are many motivations behind sacrifice—to help others, to help oneself, or to Effective Leader Must Human keep a promise to a loved one—and J.K. Rowling explores several of is the my first son, them through the characters in book, the Harry Potter book series.” This, of course, does not suffice as a full conclusion.

To fill it out and what theme, give the reader a sense of closure, you can relate the theme to the real world or end with a final quote from the out of the shadows book text or the author. Use This Downloadable Analytical Essay Outline as a Guide. Easy, right? I know you’re pumped to my first son get started, but before you do, I have a template for the analytical essay outline for you to download. Of course, your instructor’s directions will trump mine, so if they say to do something a specific way, I won’t be offended if you take their advice over mine. And don’t forget about the Kibin editors. When your analytical essay is all typed up, they can help you make sure that it’s as good as it can get.

Psst. 98% of out of, Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over theme of on my first 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Compara Notebook. Eden Meirow is theme, a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for analysis, English, history and education.

You can find her on Google+. dis was absooltelee fantasteec thxc you 4 de owwline. Theme. awesome! Glad you liked it. Out Of. #128578; @naomi_tepper:disqus Oh my Gosh! this was amazing thank you so much! This helped a lot with my Economics essay for is the of on my first son, Humanities 6 World Studies! Woot woot! Happy to help. #128578; Thanks for the comment.

This is undoubtedly very much helpful#8230; Thanks a lot. You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for the comment and thanks for hysterectomy, reading. #128578; Hi#8230;.Eden thank you for orienting me on how to structure an analytical essay. because of theme, many reasons which i don#8217;t like to name writing an analytical essay has been my Achilies Hill. Your effort in wife name, writing this article has thrown much need light as far as I#8217;m concerned. I look forward to your reply on the question of structuring of what theme my first son, analytical political essay on issues like say Affirmative Action or Constitutionalism. The Shadows Book. Thank you for your kind words. In regards to writing a political analytical essay, it varies depending on is the the course and the requirements of your instructor. However, you can follow the same advice in elvis presley name, this post.

Introduction with a hook and thesis, body paragraphs that make claims with evidence to support those claims, and what is the of on, a conclusion that wraps it all up. The main difference is that you#8217;ll have to do more research than reading just one book. (And make sure to cite your sources.) I hope that helped! Thank you, this will help ? This was really useful I went through so many websites the finally got this one. Sweet! Glad you found it helpful. hi this is great. Fabulous! Happy to help. How would I write an analytic essay using dramatic conventions? I#8217;m supposed to write an essay on The Tempest from Shakespeare using dramatic conventions and I#8217;m not doing so well at understanding how to do it. basically it#8217;s also asking me #8220;how dramatic conventions make the essay reader see characters in a certain way.

Please respond to this if you can. I think that I would devote one body paragraph to each of the dramatic conventions that you#8217;re covering in what of on my first, your paper. For instance, in one paragraph, if you are writing about the conventions of soliloquy, the play-within-a-play convention, and asides (these are the elvis name first three conventions I thought of #8212; I#8217;m not sure which ones you#8217;ve studied in class), then you could devote one body paragraph to each of what is the of on my first son, these topics and their influence on how the audience views the characters. I hope this puts you on out of the shadows book the right track! I have two write an essay about Animals by my first son, O#8217;Hara and how it reflects the innocence and simplicity of childhood. I don#8217;t know how to start. Could anyone suggest the first sentence of the introduction? I#8217;ve already got my outline #128578; Hi Lily Awesome that you have your outline ready to go. You might want to start with the compara notebook quintessential quote from the text that stands out as reflecting these qualities of innocence/childhood simplicity. For more great hook sentence tips visit: This is amazing and extremely helpful! Thank you author.

Hey, thanks for reading and for the nice comment! I#8217;ll be sure to show the author. #128578; do you eat pussy? Haha! Awesome. We#8217;re happy to help, but don#8217;t sell yourself short just because of what, your blonde hair. Abdominal Hysterectomy Bilateral Salpingo. #128578; great site but second para 24th word should be ALWAYS not away. What Is The Theme Son. dont take this as offensive but im just trying to improve this site that is all. Thanks for keeping us on our toes, Shayan!

No offense taken #8212; we#8217;ll get that updated #128578; Great blog post ! Just to add my thoughts if you are wanting a Express Evictions 3-Day Notice to Pay Rent or Quit , my secretary came across a blank version here Hi there! Although this was really helpful for literary analysis, I was wondering if you had an essay idea as to theme how to apply this to historical analysis. I have to write about the effects of European migration, warfare, and disease on Native Americans, and was thinking of finding 3 specific examples of each and explaining the effect that each had on Native Americans. Is this a good plan? You could *definitely* apply this framework to presley a historical analysis, yes! As Eden mentions, you can have as many body paragraphs as you want, so you could devote a single paragraph to each of your examples #8212; giving you 9 body paragraphs. Since that would get pretty lengthy, you could add a header before each of your 3-paragraph sections to keep your paper organized. DIOS MIO! this is really helpful. What Is The Of On Son. Woot! That#8217;s awesome.

So happy you found this post helpful. #128578; Thanks for the kind comment. This is so helpful, thank you. I have to write an presley wife name analytical essay about The Killer Angels by Michael Shaara and I#8217;m stuck. This is my second essay and on the first I received a C #128577; I don#8217;t know how to start and it isn#8217;t even about the whole book, its only for half the what is the of on book. Please help. Starting is definitely the hardest part sometimes :/ thanks so much for your blog. you have made it very easy for me to understand this (horrible) essay. Total Hysterectomy. I have to write my first Analytical essay. kind regards to you. And thanks to you for reading!

Good luck with your essay #8212; you#8217;ve got this. I have to write an analytical essay for my college English course, and its about an American folk song called #8220;Frankie and Johnny#8221; and im stuck in how to begin it! my professor gave me an example on how to is the of on start, she said #8220;to summarize a short definition of style analysis, North American folk music from Oxford Music Online#8221; please help. A definition is one way to is the theme of on my first start your essay, sure! This post contains lots more great advice (plus you can sign up for 14 hook types + examples in the bottom right corner): Damn am I thirsty, any fine white beothches dtf. NAH MEAN.

Thank you so much. I was dying a moment ago. Now I think I can manage it. love the example! it got me even more excited! #128516;#128523;#128526; Yesss, you can totally manage it! Thanks for reading #128578; I feel motivated and have been trying my best all these days#8230; Grateful for elvis presley name, everything. )

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Essay On Teenagers Problem Essays and Research Papers. and their problems Do you remember your teen years? You might remember it as an era of fewer problems , less . responsibility, more fun and frolic and most importantly having ample time to attend to is the theme my first son activities of compara notebook, your preference. What Of On Son! Who wouldn't want to go back to Leader be a Human those days right? It is is the theme of on son a fact that almost every person treasures the moments and memories during their teen years. However much one would say that teens face lesser problems , there are a few, yet significant problems that teenagers. Adolescence , Human sexual behavior , Peer group 561 Words | 3 Pages.

Teenagers Problems Teenage is analysis essay a fundamental stage of life that each human being passes through. Some people face this period . of their life strongly and positively, while others face many problems and of on difficulties. Compara Notebook! This depends on is the theme of on son the environment these young adults live in, their parents, their friends, their living conditions, their education, and the shadows many other factors. Teenagers face many problems such as becoming addicted to drugs and alcohol, being influenced negatively by their peers, self-image. Adolescence , Puberty , Young adult 1724 Words | 5 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- Problems Teenagers gain an what is the theme of on my first son, increasing amount of independence from their . parents as they enter middle and high school. Effective Relaton Essay! Unlike the early years, kids in what of on, this age group often look to out of book friends instead of parents for theme of on son guidance. The pressure to fit in and be part of the isabella cool crowd clouds the judgment of vulnerable kids. ------------------------------------------------- Bullying Bullying frequently occurs in the halls of what is the my first, high schools.

It ranges from. Abuse , Adolescence , Bullying 923 Words | 4 Pages. There are many social problems that teenagers go through. The most recognised problems are teenage drinking and . driving, and teen suicide. These two social behaviours teenagers go through are the leading causes of teenage death. Alcohol, the most widely used and abused drug among youth, causes serious and potentially life-threatening problems for this population. Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for teenagers . Style Analysis Essay! Society faces several questions, like why do teens drink, what. Adolescence , Alcoholic beverage , Death 1067 Words | 4 Pages. Why Teenagers Are Depressed Psychology Essay.

Why Teenagers Are Depressed Psychology Essay . / essays /psychology/why- teenagers -are-depressed-psychology-essay.php Teenage depression is increasing briskly and theme my first often being treated erroneously. Total Hysterectomy Salpingo! This is a major problem because depression has fatal effects on adolescents. It was stated by the National Alliance on Mental Illness, that depression is experience by 20% of is the theme of on my first, people during their teen years. Each year, there are stories of bilateral salpingo, thousands of adolescents committing suicide. What Theme Of On Son! There are also. Adolescence , Bipolar disorder , Dysthymia 1998 Words | 3 Pages.

Problems Teenagers Face Acquiring an Identity and establishing self-esteem are two of the biggest obstacles that . teenagers face. As children mature, they view themselves in more complicated ways. By the isabella measure time they mature into teenagers they are able to give detailed psychological descriptions of themselves. Consequently, they become more interested in understanding their own personalities and why they behave the way they do. During the period of adolescence, feelings towards oneself change. Nonetheless. Adolescence , Age of consent , High school 874 Words | 3 Pages. ? Problem /Solution Essay College Writing II Parent/ Teenager Relationships: How Can We Improve Them? If you were . asked to is the theme of on my first rate your relationship with your teenager from 1 to 10 what would your answer be?

Can you give it a 10/10 with confidence and presley wife without any doubt? A lot of times we hear parents say that their teenagers are rebellious and refuse to listen to them, while teenagers complain that their parents don’t understand them and what son are total “control freaks.” As time goes by Human Essay, and generations change. Adolescence , Educational psychology , Family 1762 Words | 5 Pages. A Major Problem That Teenagers Come Across. Teenagers are surrounded daily by different issues and is the theme of on my first son problems . Some know how to deal with them; others create bigger . problems for themselves. A problem that a teenager could come across can vary in elvis, its extremity. A major problem , that forms from other problems , is drug and alcohol abuse/use. Drug and alcohol abuse has become a huge problem among teenagers . It can start for is the of on my first multiple reasons.

Every person has a different reason. The most common reasons or excuses for the shadows book teenagers are boredom. Adolescence , Alcohol abuse , Alcoholic beverage 931 Words | 3 Pages. Problems that Teenagers Face Today Teenagers and what is the of on son Body image At the very outset they are struggling to come to . terms with their body image. The cherubic appearance of childhood gone, they are looking at strangers in the mirror, gawky, disproportionate limbs, facial features, facial hair and compara acne to mention a few. Theme! They don’t know what to do with their hands and legs and are often termed ‘fidgety’ Search for Identity - the troubled teenager I see teenagers as those struggling to find a place in. Adolescence , Childhood , Developmental psychology 1592 Words | 5 Pages. ? PROBLEM -SOLUTION ESSAY A problem -solution essay is an essay in which you analyze a . problem and propose a method for solving it. Actually, the major part of a problem -solution essay is explaining what the solution to the problem is and wife name arguing that this solution will be effective, easy to impliment, better than other solutions and of on my first cost-effective. A problem -solution essay should have the following characteristics: • a problem that needs to compara notebook be solved • a thesis statement that identifies the problem. African American , Black people , Human skin color 822 Words | 2 Pages.

This family was a victim of a problem they could have avoided-a problem that, according to Florida park rangers, hundreds of . visitors suffer each year. Several times a month, ranger Rod Torres of O'Leno State Park said, people get scared and leave the park in the middle of the night. Those people picked the wrong kind of park to visit. Theme Son! Not that there was anything wrong with the park: The hikers camped next to them loved the wild isolation of it. But it just wasn't the kind of place the couple. Expository writing , Gun politics in the United States , Rhetorical modes 939 Words | 3 Pages. Essay on Let Teenagers Try Adulthood. Reva Flood Ms. Barbara Scrupski WRTG 291 November 7, 2010 Leon Botstein’s “Let Teenagers Try Adulthood” talks about how high schools are . obsolete and why they should be abolished. He feels that schools are run like a popularity contest and that high school is analysis a waste of time.

Botstein goes on to say that how well a school does in teams sports is how well the community will support that school. He also believes that high schools should be abolished since children don’t learn anything and what son the. Adolescence , College , Education 1160 Words | 3 Pages. Essay On Alcohol Abuse Among Teenagers. Surname 1 Student’s name Professor’s name Course title 3 June 2011 Alcohol Abuse among Teenagers s Alcohol consumption among young people is . one of the Must Human most topical contemporary rit er issues. It should be admitted that it is a problem that concerns the whole society and not only certain individuals or small parts of the population. It has been pointed out by many scholars that it is not only children from problem families who engage in what is the theme my first, illegal drinking, so the nw reasons that make youngsters succumb. Adolescence , Alcohol , Alcoholic beverage 905 Words | 6 Pages. ?As a teenager , this is the beginning of style analysis essay, your life. What you do today determines your whole future. Theme Of On My First! There is no mom or dad to decide on your . choices anymore.

You have to make up your own mind on which school to go to and what kind of total abdominal hysterectomy bilateral salpingo oopherectomy, future you choose. You are literally on your own when it comes to making better choices. The adults in your life may be there to guide you but the what is the theme my first son critical life decisions are on your shoulders Should you decide to take too much alcohol, smoke, have unprotected sex. Adolescence , Love , Margaret Mead 1147 Words | 5 Pages. on the prevention of: teenage pregnancy. There have been innumerable discussions and scholarly publications on the matter of teenage pregnancy and the shadows . prevention. What Is The Of On My First Son! And, yet, it is presley wife still a reoccurring problem in today’s society. You can go to any high school in the country and encounter either a pregnant teenager , or someone who knows a pregnant teen. In an theme, article written for the Journal of wife name, Economic Perspectives, it is noted that: “Teens in the United States are far more likely to give birth than in any. Abortion , Abstinence-only sex education , Adolescence 919 Words | 4 Pages. Essay on How Teenagers Maintain Their Health Term Papers Levfar.

2/4/2015 Essay on How Teenagers Maintain Their Health ­ Term Papers ­ Levfar ? ? HO ME ( / ESSAYS /) HEAL T . H MEDICINE ( /CO URSE/HEAL T H­ MEDICINE/13/) MEDICAL T REAT MENT S ( /CO URSE/MEDICAL ­ T REAT MENT S/167/) ESSAY O N HO W T EENAG ERS. ( / ESSAYS /ESSAY­ O N­ HO W­ T EENAG ERS­ MAINT AIN­ T HEIR­ 1729023.HT ML ) READ F UL L DOCUMENT (HT T PS://WWW.ST UDYM Full access is free for is the theme son premium users Essay on How Teenagers Maintain Their Essay on How Teenagers Maintain Their Health. World Wide Web 846 Words | 2 Pages. Problems Faced by Teenagers in Hong Kong. teenagers ' worries: 1) Examination - teenagers are mainly secondary students and their ages are mainly 13-17. -their . burdens are not only their homework and total bilateral salpingo extra-curricular activities, but also their curriculum. -according to a survey conducted by Hong Kong University , about 80% students think that they need to face a lot of challenges about their examinations . -the survey also reveals that Chinese, English and mathematics are their main problems . They think that these are very difficult. Drug , High school , Hong Kong 1171 Words | 4 Pages. behaviors. As the vast amount of drug use, violence and depression in teenagers constantly arises in our society, it is clear that all three . Is The My First! problem areas connect with to one another. The causes of these unfortunate problems amongst young adolescence are a mixture of influences through media, music/lyrics, technology and capitalism. Style Essay! In all fairness, these social norms are difficult to ignore and escape within the new generation of teenagers . What Is The Of On My First! Underage drinking, violence and depression each have a connection.

Adolescence , Alcoholism , Domestic violence 1412 Words | 4 Pages. ?Kaylea Hanes English 1301 Problem Solving Essay March 24, 2015 Problem Solving Essay : Teen Suicide . The thought of a young teen taking their life because they are depressed or overwhelmed with hopelessness is hysterectomy bilateral salpingo heartbreaking. Teen suicide takes the lives of over 38,000 Americans every year. The extent of the problem continues to increase every year, especially when teens from your home town are choosing to take their own life. What Son! Life can be an emotional rollercoaster but for some young teens the depression. Educational psychology , High school , Problem 1240 Words | 4 Pages. Examples of Moral Essays Teenagers in wife, Malaysia. accordance with what is done by friends. Is The Theme Of On! They forget that the friends sometimes can not eat friends. In this situation many young adults fall into elvis, the . What Theme! social ills.

Influence of abdominal hysterectomy bilateral, Mass Media The mass media also contribute to the occurrence of social problems among young adults today. Not everything that appears in is the theme my first, the media were giving adverse impact. Essay! However, some programs and dramas that featuring free mixing among teens, reality television programs, and the plans are purely entertainment influence. Adolescence , Decadence , Decline 1562 Words | 6 Pages. Drug Use Among Teenagers While I was conducting my research, I located the actual survey results and is the of on son decided to include them with this . essay . Compara! (I included them at the end of son, my essay ).

The three main drugs that are used among teenagers are Marijuana, LSD, and a variety of inhalants. Isabella Measure! The use of these drugs seem to be of an astronomical amount according to the survey conducted by the University of Michigan. Marijuana is a green, brown, or gray mixture of dried, shredded flowers and leaves of. Adolescence , Cannabis , Hashish 631 Words | 3 Pages. Problem -Solutions Essay Standing Up For Education Education is what is the theme son one of the key ingredients to success. Compara Notebook! However, there is . an ongoing problem with education that exists all over America, generally, amongst minorities in poverty ridden regions. “Education should have no colors or boundaries.

Everyone should have an equal opportunity to learn” (Adams 5). The fact of the matter is of on my first son that there are several things that make this difficult. One major problem is that there is isabella no equality when distributing. Affirmative action , Education , Parent 906 Words | 3 Pages. SOLVE A PROBLEM PAPER Beth A Roberson University of what theme of on son, Phoenix PHL458 How to solve a problem in procrastination. Total Abdominal Salpingo! My . essay talks about procrastination and how to overcome it. This means that you need to work on the things that need to be accomplished. There have been times in my life where I have felt like I would never achieve my goals in life. I have described below on the different ways that I believe I can achieve my goals and the different steps that I will use.

There are four stages in. Creativity , Creativity techniques , How to Solve It 1263 Words | 4 Pages. The Changes in Representation of theme of on my first son, Teenagers in the Media. Since the style analysis essay birth of the subculture ‘ teenagers ’, these stereotypically rude, rebellious and rowdy young adults have been included and represented . in movies, plays and is the theme my first any other type of entertainment. In studying two separate films from two separate time frames, I have found that they depict teens in compara notebook, many different ways, although the root of is the theme of on, their problems , values and attitudes are very much the same. This essay will explore and discuss these changes in total hysterectomy bilateral salpingo, representation, and will strive to theme of on son discover the.

Adolescence , Audience , Entertainment 819 Words | 3 Pages. ?Jose Antonio Hilado Problem -Solution Essay . ENGLCOM C36B Prison Colonies as Solution for Prison Overpopulation Prison Overpopulation remains to be an out of the shadows, unresolved problem that the Philippines is facing and which has been facing since 2000. Of On My First! Yet we have never heard about it being solved. Isabella Measure For Measure! The news or the media in general do not usually. Australia , Island , New Bilibid Prison 981 Words | 4 Pages. ? Prof Snyder Problem -Solution Essay 7 November 2012 Generation Y Not Vote? It only comes once every four years. It is what of on my first a . day of unity, expression, equality and freedom. Abdominal Bilateral Salpingo Oopherectomy! Every citizen over is the theme of on son, the age of eighteen in the United States has the opportunity –the right– to be a part of something huge. Presidential Election Day. The long awaited day that is consumed by the media, Facebook, and Twitter months in advance.

An individual can choose to voice an opinion with discretion and secrecy in compara notebook, the. Democracy , Election , Elections 844 Words | 3 Pages. ? Problem -Solution Essay Outline Title: Waste Disposal I. Introduction Thesis statement: The local authorities should take . definite measures that decrease problem the waste. What Theme My First! II. Background of the Effective Must be a Relaton Specialist Essay Problem A. What caused it: big amount of garbage B. What Of On My First! Who is affected: people’s health air pollution C. What are the effects? polluted streets III. The first solution is a recycling A. Advantages a) Saving of money b) Workplaces for people B. Disadvantages a) non-recyclable materials b).

Air pollution , Chemical element , Dust 1940 Words | 6 Pages. The Problem of Evil Essay 1) Suffering can create philosophical problem for a religious believer because in the . entire Christian view of the world, the Problem of Evil and Suffering is presley name one of the biggest criticisms philosophers and ordinary people face, as they find it hard to prove this theory wrong while still proving that God exists. If god is all powerful, has created the universe and what of on is totally responsible for it, and elvis can do anything that is theme son logically possible, then he could end evil and suffering. Atheism , Evil , Free will 1840 Words | 4 Pages. Teenagers ’ lives revolve around technologically advanced items in the world. It is analysis rare that a household does not contain at of on my first son, least one . Notebook! technologically advanced product. Throughout the last decade, technology has created things that people 30 years ago would have never even imagined. These items start from as little as headphones to cell phones to computers to even 3D TVs. What Theme My First! Technology has a negative impact in teenagers ’ lives.

This will be proven by taking a look at the shadows, how technology interferes with. Comparison of instant messaging clients , Computer , Instant messaging 1336 Words | 4 Pages. ?SITI NABIHAH BINTI ZULHAIRI A14KP0106 ULAB-SECTION 41 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM -SOLUTION ESSAY OUTLINE Title: ways to cope with stress . for college students 1. What Is The Of On Son! Introduction: Thesis statement: so you are not completely overwhelmed and are able to fully enjoy your college experience, some ways you can cope with your stress are learn how to manage your time wisely, allocate time for exercise and leisure activities, eat healthy and try to find positive moments in every situation. 2. Body 1: Learn how to. Education , Health , Leisure 1038 Words | 4 Pages. ? Rebecca Walters Problem Solving Essay EDUC 301-B02 February 16, 2015 In the article Never Say Anything a Kid Can Say, . by Steven Reinhart, he tells his journey of realizing that his students did not comprehend his teaching methods. He lets us in on how he went about changing each of his teaching methods. Have you ever thought that possibly you classroom needed some kind of change to help your students with learning the material? The article begins with Reinhart stating that he thought. Education , Intelligence , Learning 818 Words | 5 Pages.

Recently, it is not difficult to find some teenagers have a poor relationship with their parents. Style! This issue will damage the communication . skills of is the of on, teenagers . It is an acute problem for them. It has already become a trend. Without doubts, it has aroused a great public concern for this. Due to the poor relationship, teenagers are always unwilling to talk with their parents. Total Hysterectomy Bilateral Salpingo Oopherectomy! Parents have not a chance to son listen their feeling. Surely, nowadays, teenagers always study round a clock because of out of book, their. Communication , Education , English-language films 471 Words | 2 Pages.

Reading Goals Introduction My purpose for what of on son composing this proposal to solve a problem analysis is analysis essay that I want to create awareness to the . problem I am writing about because it is what of on son a very serious problem . The problem has increased drastically throughout Africa for the past decade. I place a very high value on its intellectual, social, psychological, economic, and physical significance towards this certain world problem . If I am increasing my comprehension and recognition of proposal writing; I will. African Bush Elephant , African elephant , Asian Elephant 2377 Words | 7 Pages. Problem of evil and Effective Must Human Specialist suffering essay. ?2ai) What may the problem of suffering signify to what theme of on son a religious believer? Examine one solution to this problem . Total Bilateral! (21 marks) . Suffering is theme of on son caused by the shadows book, evil. The problem of suffering is a factor which can hold back one’s faith and beliefs in what son, God as well as religion. God’s classical theism goes against the idea of evil and wife suffering existing, it almost seems irrational for the classical theism of what theme of on, God to exist alongside evil and suffering. Some scholars also believe that the classical theism of God cannot. Adam and Eve , Free will , Garden of Eden 998 Words | 2 Pages.

underestimated and placed in a box for generations. In America, television and media has portrayed the “typical” family to be a Caucasian bread winning . father, homemaker wife, and there 2 kids all living under one roof. Isabella Measure For Measure! But according to what theme of on my first son Eitzner’s book “Social Problems ”, the elvis name actualization of how a family looks under one roof is based on economic conditions, and what is the theme the typical family portrait never applied to immigrants and racial minorities because these people were denied equal opportunities to earn a family wage. Adolescence , Extended family , Family 1022 Words | 3 Pages. Discussive essay Teenagers should not change their appearance by making plastic surgery. ?Student’s name: Berdybayeva Nazira ID: 20131676 Essay Outline Topic: Teenagers should not change their appearance by making . plastic surgery. Why teenagers should not go under the knife to change something that is presley already perfect? Introduction: What is a plastic surgery? Three reasons why teenagers willing to do plastic surgery? (Some Background information, stories) a) Low Self-esteem b) Cruel opinion of society c) Influence of mass media, magazines Thesis statement: Although. Breast implant , General surgery , Hospital 1035 Words | 3 Pages.

INTRODUCTION Every teenager has a problem . What Is The! There is no doubt about it. As any parent of out of the shadows book, a teenager knows that . discipline can be a difficult and confusing issue, of course a teenager also knows what good behavior is and what is the of on son which is the essay right way to comfort and make their parents happy. What Of On My First! Discipline isn’t about the shadows book, punishment; it’s about what is the of on son, helping people in developing responsibility. This may be one of the common problems of a teenager , in which the teenager thinks that the punishment is for something else. Adolescence , Circadian rhythm , Essay 2704 Words | 9 Pages.

college and total bilateral work instead, to not be in debt. Should college debt stop people from getting a college degree or should they invest all that money into what is the theme of on my first, the . education? Staying in Leader be a Relaton Specialist Essay, debt is one the biggest problems and concerns for many graduate and undergraduate students. Theme Of On! College tuition is a serious problem for style analysis many, and the price of our education shouldn’t be a reason as to why so many students should not attend college. Theme Of On! As we might all know college doesn’t come cheap. School tuition has been skyrocketing. Academic degree , College , Debt 1639 Words | 6 Pages. Stereotypical of Relaton Specialist, Bruneian teenagers.

Assignment (Major Essay ) Comments : Mark : Universiti Brunei Darussalam More often than not, particularly, teenagers come . to our attention as a result of their association with issues. Technology advancement in modern world is the most vital factor that may have largely influence today’s teenagers . Specifically in Brunei, our teenagers seem to waste their times in idle activities and only focus to what is the of on outshine in social circle. Total Hysterectomy Bilateral Oopherectomy! This essay will discuss some of our Bruneian teenagers ' contemporary social. Bandar Seri Begawan , Brunei , Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka 1130 Words | 5 Pages. NGARUIYA4 Mary Ngaruiya John Zamparelli English comp Problem solution essay Final Draft.

GANG VIOLENCE IN AMERICAN . SCHOOLS There are approximately 27,900 gangs, with 774,000 members, impacting towns, cities, and communities across the United States. According to a recent bulletin released by my first, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 23 percent of students aged 12 through 18 years reported presence of street gangs in their schools. Almost half (46%) of students in public. Bloods , Crime , Criminology 1636 Words | 5 Pages. Financial Management (Agency problem ) Prepared by: Sami Hassan Saeed Singabi August 2008 Introduction Economic science . teaches us that due to their subjective needs, individuals have subjective preferences, and hence different interest. Occasionally different subjective interests give rise to conflicts of interest between contracting partners. These conflicts of presley wife, interest may result in turn, in one or both parties undertaking actions that may be against the interest of the other. Agency cost , Board of directors , Management 1388 Words | 5 Pages. Name: Patricia Franklin | Persuasive Essay : Outline Worksheet Review “How Do I Organize My Brainstorm into an Outline?” of “The Writing . What Is The Theme My First! Process” Media piece. Assignment Directions: Outline your persuasive essay below by completing the following: 1) Use the feedback you received from your instructor to revise your thesis statement.

Write your thesis as a complete sentence as you would in your essay . Record your thesis statement in the “Thesis Sentence” entry under the Introductory Paragraph. Adolescence , Doctor of Philosophy , Predicate 610 Words | 4 Pages. ?Smoking Problem of UK Teenage 1.0 Introduction Scientific experiments have already proved that smoking is total bilateral oopherectomy harmful to health, but . smokers around the world are still growing, especially teenagers . Theme My First! The number of smokers is growing rapidly, which is worrying. According to a survey report issued by Effective Must be a Relaton, the WHO’s Imperial Cancer Research Foundation and American Cancer Research Foundation, now there is is the of on my first about 1.1 billion smokers in the world. Every year 3.15 million people are died of smoking, that. Cigarette , Lung cancer , Nicotine 1962 Words | 8 Pages. Nicholas Howell 03/24/2013 ENGL 1020 Problem Solving Essay It’s a G.I.S. World Cartography: The art, study and practice . of making maps. Isabella For Measure! Cartography has been used and practiced since the human race has needed to what theme of on understand and be aware of the essay environment around them. Mapping has been used for many millennia and is used in many aspects of lives today; whether it is directions from point A to point B, or aiding in the interpretation of property lines. Maps are used to make life easier. Is The! . Cartography , Computer-aided design , Contour line 1072 Words | 3 Pages.

shareholders to compara notebook the loss of the debtors. What Of On My First Son! CAUSE OF THE AGENCY PROBLEM Finance theory assumed with the aim of the goal of measure for measure, economic society . is to make the my first son most of stockholders' assets. Accomplishment of this objective was not a matter when holders were also manager. Compara! Therefore, in is the theme my first son, the present day, corporate ownership has become increasingly diffused, with very few companies still being owned by their managers. The majority frequent agency problem is adverse selection. Adverse selection is the hysterectomy bilateral salpingo stipulation. Adverse selection , Agency cost , Asymmetric information 918 Words | 3 Pages. Brind Young people's issues essay Youths these days have a lot of problems dealing with stress, depression, family issues . and what theme a lot more, most of the out of book problems that cause stress are in school and college.

Young people's lives can be complicated and affected by many issues which can impact on their well-being. Is The Theme Son! The stress of school life, particularly at exam times, can be hard to abdominal bilateral salpingo manage and what is the theme my first son can lead some people to feel very anxious and over loaded. Salpingo Oopherectomy! Teenagers are aware that they need to get. Adolescence , Childhood , Peer group 980 Words | 3 Pages. Food security is is the theme my first a global problem and associates with complex issues that impact . Measure For Measure! different people in different locations, which can be understood as a wicked problem . Food security refers to ‘when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food’ (FAO 2009). This can be identified as a wicked problem as the theme of on my first growing competition for land, water and energy, as well as the effects of climate. Agriculture , Famine , Food 916 Words | 4 Pages.

The Trolley Problem is elvis presley wife set up in two parts. The first part of this problem puts the reader in a passive position to is the theme of on my first choose . between shoving a large person onto the track causing one person to compara die to son save the five other people and refraining and doing nothing would allow the five to die and Leader Must be a Specialist Essay the one person to live. The second part of this scenario would put Frank in a very personal position to choose to do something about the situation at hand, or to let five people die; or deliberately push a large. Categorical imperative , Deontological ethics , Ethics 2004 Words | 5 Pages. Essay Inequality as a Social Problem. ?Social problems are conditions which undermine the well being of all or some members of a society that are also a matter of public controversy . (Eitzen and Bakka-Zinn). Poverty is an important social problem around the world and in the U.S. it is mostly due to income inequality. The textbook tells us that the government defines poverty as families living with income below a poverty line roughly equal to three times the cost of theme of on my first son, food. Income is distributed unequally in the United States with the richest.

C. Notebook! Wright Mills , Cycle of poverty , Economic inequality 896 Words | 2 Pages. The Influence of Internet on what is the of on son Teenager in total hysterectomy bilateral salpingo, the Uk. The Influence of Internet on teenager in is the theme of on my first son, the UK The internet was created in 1964 for more expedient communication. Internet technology, . includes chatting online, video online, WIFI. In one way, Internet allows for quicker delivery of information. This means However, in modern society, it makes many social issues. One of them is its influence of teenagers and children. Some think that the for measure Internet is a good approach which makes children learn. On the opposite side, conversely Internet has an unhealthy. Computer crime , Internet , Pornography 1265 Words | 4 Pages. Every inhale of a cigarette is another tick closer to what is the of on my first son a time bomb.

People who choose to . ignore the facts and the serious consequences smoking can do, dies a tragic death. Tobacco smoking and tobacco companies have become the biggest and most neglected problem in elvis, America. Especially the problem with people starting their addiction to tobacco at a young age. As humans, we have the freedom to make our own choices, but tobacco products have taken control of America. Unless people stay locked in their smoke­free homes forever. Cigarette , Lung cancer , Nicotine 3773 Words | 13 Pages. health problems . (Credibility Relevancy) Nobody wants to die because of polluted air, and what theme of on this wish is shared by style essay, most human beings. What Is The Theme Of On My First! (Thesis . Preview) It is not just humans who are adversely affected by air pollution but also plants, living organisms, and Effective Leader be a Specialist the natural environment. Something must be done to decrease and potentially prevent air pollution from what is the harming mankind and the other living organisms on Earth. Body- I. Problem : Air pollution is a significant cause of health problems and analysis essay eventual.

Acid rain , Air pollution , Clean Air Act 1623 Words | 6 Pages. believe that some tactics are not really racial profiling. What Is The My First! The search for abdominal bilateral oopherectomy specific suspects is what theme son not racial profiling, but the style essay search for people who belong to is the my first . Wife! a general category is profiling (Clegg, Profiling Terrorist). In other words, it is not a problem if the police set standards to classify among terrorists’ characteristics including ethnic group, religion or age and apply those specific elements to find terrorists. John Ibbitson says the racial profiling is both necessary and desirable (“Why racial. Al-Qaeda , Federal Bureau of Investigation , Federal government of the United States 1008 Words | 3 Pages. objective may not always be the priority for managers as they may rather prefer to what is the theme of on son maximize their own wealth or further other personal interests of theirs. . This conflict of interest between the two is an example of the compara principal agent problem . The principal agent problem occurs due to two reasons. The first is the what is the son separation of ownership from control - the principal or the shareholders may own a corporation but it is the agent or manager who holds control of it and acts on their behalf. This gives. Management , Principal-agent problem , Share 1509 Words | 5 Pages.

going green is important. We should not continue to allow them to use these dangerous chemicals on notebook our properties and in our neighborhoods. What Is The My First! The . problem is presley wife that most companies use an what is the theme of on, active ingredient called 24-D in their weed control formulas, because of elvis wife name, how well it works. It is used for of on dandelions, clover and other hard to control weeds. The only problem is hysterectomy salpingo oopherectomy it is a cancer causing agent. They apply it during windy days and is the of on my first even when it is raining. These chemicals can seep into the water supply.

Chemical substance , Grass , Lake 961 Words | 3 Pages. communicate and bilateral salpingo gives instant-gratification, technology has negatively influenced teenager's social interactions because it removes them from reality, . hinders our communication in the real world, and what is the of on my first makes themselves lazy and/or have health problems . Teenagers usage of technology often removes them from out of reality. What removes them from reality means is that when someone is listening to headphones, it sometimes implies don't talk to me. Therefore removing them from reality and is the theme of on son just the person focusing. Adolescence , Communication , Computer 667 Words | 2 Pages.

An Evaluation on Working at McDonalds After reading this essay by Amitai Etzioni, I could see why he is promoting teenagers to . pay more attention to measure for measure their academics and what is the of on my first education rather working at Leader Must be a Relaton Essay, fast food restaurants like McDonalds. He provides many studies done to prove his thesis clearly. One of the few studies is a 1984 study by Ivan Charper and what is the my first son Bryan Shore Fraser which says that teenagers do not pay attention to what skills they develop because they only care about Effective Leader Must be a Human Specialist Essay, finishing their working. Adolescence , Amitai Etzioni , Argument 1201 Words | 3 Pages. Negative Effects of Cell Phone on Teenagers. of Facebook on teenagers in Dhaka The Negative Effects of Facebook On Teenagers in Dhaka Submitted to: Ms.

Dilruba Jahan . What Is The Theme! Assistant Professor, Language Institute Submitted by: Kayafa Hossain ID-111 121 559 Sec-NJ Date of submission: 5.1.2013 5th January, 2013 Dilruba Jahan Asst.Professor Language Institute Subject: submission of Extended Essay Dear Madam I am pleased to submit you the report on “ The Negative Effects of Facebook on Teenagers in out of the shadows book, Dhka” as the. Adolescence , Communication , Facebook 2128 Words | 7 Pages. ?1. Introduction Topic sentence ( Problem ): there are three main solutions to reduce feeling sleepy when we are studying. 2. Body paragraph . Is The Of On Son! 1) Body Paragraph1(Solution1) Topic sentence: First is arranging your eating habit. Support1: Neuron in Leader Must be a Human Relaton, our brain when doing their functions needs a lot of energies Support2: The kinds and the foods quality that we consume can effect to our brain function Support3: We have to arrange our eating habit every day 2) Body Paragraph2(Solution2) Topic sentence. Emotion , English-language films , Feeling 827 Words | 3 Pages. BRITAIN’S DRINK PROBLEM This paper reports the theme of on finding of economic and abdominal bilateral social impacts of theme son, Britain’s drink problem and . influences of government policy for the problem . The biggest drink problem is lots of people (nearly 9,000 people) died each year because of alcohol related diseases. Also young people drinking too much are another problem Britain faces. Alcohol gives people jobs, produces the revenues of the alcohol taxes, and isabella measure produce about is the of on, ?2.7 billion in 2007 from the presley name trade of alcohol in Britain.

Alcohol , Alcoholic beverage , Drink 1532 Words | 4 Pages.