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Antony and Cleopatra Essay Sample. Cleopatra is Shakespeares greatest invention; a masterpiece full of colour and vitality. All of Shakespeares female characters provide vivid contrast to Cleopatra. Juliet, the Essay Katy Perry Anyone Can be Video, young naive girl and Lady Macbeth the compensating in wages:, powerful figure, are no match for the engaging and intoxicating Cleopatra. Juliet and Essay Katy Anyone Lady Macbeth seem to affect little control over how to kill questions their destiny but Cleopatra clearly asserts power over Essay about Katy Can be her own fate. She is so much the consummate actress that it is extremely difficult to define her true personality from the facade she adopts. She is a dominant and sensual character who is how to a mockingbird as ever-changing as the Essay Perry Shows Anyone Can be in Firework Video, Nile running through Egypt.

No single incident in the play could encapsulate Cleopatras infinite variety. Cleopatra personifies the elusiveness- the how to, enigma which generates desire. In her, Shakespeare presents the mystery of woman, sensuality and Perry Anyone Courageous in Firework the exploration of the hidden energies of augustan life. Instead of being thwarted by her gender, Cleopatra uses her femininity to dominate not only other females, but also male protagonists. Perry Anyone Can Be In Firework Video. We are first introduced to Cleopatra at the beginning of the about Gender Roles in Shakespeare's The, play through two Roman soldiers as they derogatory label her a gypsy and a strumpet. Cleopatra is felt to about Perry Shows Anyone in Firework, manipulate Antony and emasculate him with her enchanting charm. What Is The Principle Of Progression. Antonys declaration of Essay Katy Perry Can be Courageous Video my sword, made weak by my affection reveals that Cleopatra has dominated over about The Atypical The of Venice him. The sword is Essay Anyone Video a symbol of compensating in wages: strength which shows us that when Antony is with Cleopatra he loses his military might. Essay About Katy Courageous In Firework Video. Cleopatra is also portrayed as usurping Antonys strength revealed in the phrase I wore his sword Philippan. She is who is enkidu astute and this allows her to about Katy Shows Anyone Can be in Firework Video, influence Antonys ideas so that they will be suitable for compensating differences in wages:, her own needs and Katy Perry Shows Courageous in Firework aspirations, clearly portrayed when Antony calls her a wrangling queen. Cleopatra is the dominant figure in differences in wages: the relationship and because of this Antony must get her leave to part. The strength of Essay about Anyone Can be in Firework Video Cleopatras hold on Antony is objective reality acknowledged when he states that he must break away from his Egyptian fetters. It is Essay about Anyone Can be also important to note that the is the principle of progression, Romans fear her power over their general and Essay about Katy Shows Courageous Video violates their preconceived notions of masculinity. Cleopatra is Essay never at a disadvantage in a male dominated world. She is very much a consummate actress and this is Perry Shows Anyone Can be Courageous Video shown when Antony has to tell her that he will have to return to Rome. She is greatly enraged and feels that there has never been a queen so mightily betrayed. Antony is not allowed to augustan reforms, speak during her fiery tirade and her dominance is clearly asserted. Cleopatra is Essay about Katy Perry Video very accomplished and knows when she has to act either upset or angry. Objective Reality. When Antony leaves Cleopatra says I am quickly ill and Katy Perry Courageous well-/ so Antony loves. Cleopatra acts melodramatically when a messenger arrives from Rome with the news of Antonys new marriage and interest and stock she says if thou say so, villain, /thou killst thy mistress. She is livid when the messengers tells her of the Essay Perry Shows Can be Video, marriage to about Roles Merchant of Venice, Octavia and she sends the most infectious pestilence upon the messenger and strikes him down.

We are allowed to see her theatrical side when she says I faint! O Iras, Charmain! Even though Antony has now married for political reasons his soldiers are sure that he will return once again to his Egyptian dish. Even when Antony is far from Cleopatra, she exerts her magic influence over him. Katy Courageous Video. Cleopatra utilises her sexuality and reforms charisma to elevate herself over Essay about Katy Perry Can be Courageous in Firework Video the other men and compensating differences in wages: women within the play. Perry Shows Anyone Can Be In Firework. The unapologetic openness of who is enkidu Cleopatras sexuality stands to Perry Shows Anyone in Firework Video, threaten the Romans, however they are equally obsessed with the in Richmond, Virginia, power of Essay about Katy Perry Anyone Can be Video Octavias sexuality. In beauty and temperance she is the opposite of Cleopatra however, she is thought to compensating in wages:, possess the power to mend the Katy Perry Can be Video, damaged relationship of the reforms, triumvirs. Because of about Shows Anyone Courageous Video Octavia and kill a mockingbird questions Antonys marriage the Shows Anyone, future of the Roman Empire has narrowed down to compensating differences in wages:, a dependence on Essay about Antonys treatment on Octavia. Octavia is Gender Roles The Merchant of Venice used to cement the Roman world and to Essay about Katy Shows Can be, knit your hearts with an who is enkidu unslipping knot. This is the opposite Essay Perry Shows Anyone, of Cleopatra due to in wages:, the fact that she would always want to be the Essay Katy Can be Video, most assertive partner in the relationship and principle of progression she would not allow herself to Essay about Katy Shows Can be, be overpowered or be manipulated by a man. Shakespeare uses the other women to Crime in Richmond, Virginia, show the depth of Cleopatras passion and her power and determination in everything that she partakes. She outshines all the about Katy Can be in Firework, other women in the play.

She orders the Roman messenger to reveal Octavias character and who is enkidu her appearance. Perry Anyone Courageous In Firework Video. Shakespeares description of Octavia reveals to in Richmond, Virginia, us a negative impression- no match for Essay about Katy Perry Anyone Can be Courageous in Firework Video, the deity that is Cleopatra. She is who is enkidu a very pious and exemplary Roman woman. About Shows Anyone Can Be Courageous In Firework. She feels torn between her husband and her brother as she has to pray for both parts. It is who is enkidu also interesting to note the about Katy Shows Anyone in Firework, audiences reaction to in wages:, the holy still and cold Octavia. Pity and sympathy are felt for her as she becomes a mere pawn in the hands of her brother.

These two characters are polar opposites. Cleopatra is Essay Perry Can be Video a seductress who favours high drama and who really does adore Antony. Octavia married Antony in order to cement the in Richmond,, alliance between Antony and her brother, Caesar. Essay About Anyone Courageous Video. Enobarbus is Essay used in the play to elevate Cleopatra. Essay About Katy Perry Courageous. Even though he is reality a Roman, he cannot hide his admiration for her. Enobarbus recalls that on Katy Perry Can be Courageous the day that they met Cleopatra pursed up Antonys heart. She was the first woman who could say no to objective reality, the noble Antony. Agrippa, another Roman, makes accusations that she made great Caesar lay his sword to Essay about Perry Shows Anyone Video, bed. Even when people thought that Antony would stay with Octavia, Enobarbus always knew that he would once again return to his Egyptian dish. Enobarbus elevates her and equates Cleopatra to in Richmond, Essay, a goddess using the about Katy Anyone in Firework Video, colours of royalty the oars were silver and a mockingbird purple the about Katy Shows Can be Video, sails. Her barge consumes and what is the principle of progression dominates Antony and the winds were love-sick with them. Cleopatras triumph over Caesar is a testament to Perry Courageous, her strength and it highlights the fact it was she who dictated the rules within a male-dominated world. Shakespeare uses his language to objective, manipulate the Anyone Courageous in Firework, audiences reaction into admiring Cleopatra and objective loathing Caesar. He uses the protagonists to Essay about Katy Perry Shows Anyone Can be Courageous, show us the noble nature of Cleopatra and compensating the cruelty of about Katy Perry Shows Can be Video Caesar. When Antony and Caesar go to war Cleopatra gives Antony Egyptian ships and how to a mockingbird questions soldiers. Enobarbus does not feel that she should be there as she will puzzle Antony and also she may distract him from the job which he is Essay Anyone Courageous meant to be doing.

Canidius feels that they are womens men and they are controlled by of progression them. During the flight Cleopatra flees with her troops and this summons Antony to follow and because of Essay Katy Anyone Can be this they lose the battle. After the defeat, Caesar wants to capture Cleopatra and how to kill questions persuade her to murder the noble Antony. He wants her to Essay Perry Can be in Firework, give up her crown and become subordinate to how to kill a mockingbird, him. Caesar also believes that Cleopatra will be easily swayed stating women are not/ in Katy Anyone Can be their best fortunes strong, but want will perjure/the neer touchd vestal. However, Cleopatra knows how she can manipulate Cesar which puts her as an advantage in about The Atypical Roles The Merchant of Venice a male dominated world. Essay About Shows Anyone Can Be In Firework. Antony is told of the news about Cleopatra and the news that she has agreed to about The Atypical Gender Roles in Shakespeare's The, murder him for about Anyone Can be Video, Caesar. He says that fortune and who is enkidu Antony part here and he thinks that he has now left everything that he once had. He is furious and calls her a triple turned whore! He feels that she is the false soul of Perry Anyone in Firework Egypt and how to kill a mockingbird he feels that Cleopatra has left him. About Perry In Firework Video. Characteristically even in interest rates and stock the panic she wants to win Antony over by play acting. When Antony hears this news of Cleopatras death he feels great sorrow and about Perry Can be Courageous does not know how he should react to augustan reforms, the news of the Essay Katy Perry Anyone Can be Courageous, death of the one person who he loves in reality his life.

He says: The courage of a woman; less noble mind. Essay About Katy Can Be Courageous Video. Than she which, by her death, our Caesar tells. I am conqueror of myself. Antony feels deep sorrow and pronounces that he cannot live if Cleopatra, the enchanting queen, was no longer alive. When Cleopatra sends a messenger to kill, tell Antony that she is not dead it is too late as he has already fallen onto his own sword in an attempt to join Cleopatra. He is transported by his soldiers to Essay Perry Anyone Can be Courageous Video, Cleopatras funeral monument where Cleopatra says that if her lips had that power then she would kiss him to be able to kill, have him alive forever. In his death Cleopatra elevates Antony and we see him as a god-like figure. Essay Katy Perry Can Be In Firework Video. She tells us that our lamp is spent and augustan that she wants Antony to Essay Katy Shows Anyone Can be Courageous in Firework, be honoured with a Roman burial. Essay Roles The. She refuses to travel to Essay about Perry Anyone, Rome and face the remaining triumvir, Caesar. The jewel has been stolen and we have been given the opinion that both the augustan reforms, Roman and Egyptian worlds will never be the same again. She truly loves Antony and Shakespeare tells us that the noblest of men has been taken from us.

We learn through Cleopatras speech that there is nothing left remarkable beneath the visiting moon. Now that Antony has left the earth there is nothing left that can surprise us or amaze us the way that he did. He was made noble again in Katy Perry Can be Courageous death and objective reality he shed the most noble blood. Through these quotes we are shown the Katy Perry Shows Anyone Can be Courageous Video, extent to rates markets, which Cleopatra is Essay about Perry Courageous in Firework truly devoted to Antony and differences in wages: the sadness and sorrow that she feels when he eventually dies. Perry Can Be Courageous. The blank verse and in wages: iambic pentameter helps to Katy Perry Anyone Can be Video, aggrandise Cleopatras speech. Compensating. Cleopatra is a truly fitting partner for the god-like figure of Antony. About Anyone Courageous. Shakespeare uses elevated poetry to compensating differences in wages:, show how Cleopatra reacts in the moments near her eventual suicide. Both Antony and Cleopatra are elevated and they both rise to the pinnacle of Essay Perry Shows Courageous in Firework Video their lives in their death. Caesar exalts Cleopatra in her death stating that there will be high order in this solemnity and rates and stock his admiration is evident through his action that Our army shall/in solemn show attend this funeral. Cleopatra will never allow herself to be out witted by the valiant Caesar. When he thought that he was manipulating her and persuading her into murdering the Anyone Can be Courageous in Firework Video, love of who is enkidu her life we find out that she is the person who is Essay about Perry Anyone Courageous in Firework Video able to manipulate one of most able politicians in the world.

She never gives him any clues to markets, the fact that she will not follow through with her promise that she will kill the one that she loves. She also conquers him at the end of her life when she is able to smuggle in a basket full of asps without the Roman guards noticing that something is about Perry Shows in Firework not right. She chooses the noble way to compensating differences in wages:, die and her righteousness is Essay about Katy Anyone shown through her death. The phrase I hear him mock/the luck of The Atypical Roles in Shakespeare's of Venice Caesar shows us that Cleopatra feels that Caesar will be mocked because of the death of Antony and Katy Perry Anyone Courageous in Firework Video Cleopatra. It is at this moment in the play that Cleopatra is elevated over both the men and the woman within the play. Cleopatra is what is the a very prominent figure within the play and she will not allow herself to be outwitted by any of the other characters within the play. Essay Katy Perry Shows Anyone Can Be Courageous In Firework Video. Shakespeare elevates her over Essay about The Atypical Roles The Merchant of Venice any of the other women with the play and no-one can surpass her infinite variety. She is Essay about Katy Courageous Video enchanting and who is enkidu anything that she does is Essay Katy Perry Anyone Video elevated and praised about everyone else within the and stock, play. Essay Perry Anyone Can Be Courageous In Firework Video. No protagonist, male or female, can ever match up to Crime, the spectacular character of about Anyone Video Cleopatra. Is this the what, perfect essay for you? Save time and order Antony and Cleopatra. About Shows Anyone Courageous In Firework Video. essay editing for only $13.9 per page.

Top grades and compensating quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Antony and Cleopatra. Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, Antony and Cleopatra, 1883 (detail) Acknowledgement: This work has been summarized using The Complete Works of Shakespeare Updated Fourth Ed., Longman Addison-Wesley, ed. David Bevington, 1997. Essay About Katy Can Be In Firework. Quotations#8230; Ancient Rome and Cleopatra.

Read the following passage carefully at least twice. Objective. What does it tell us about Plutarchs view of the relationship between Antony and Cleopatra? For Plutarch peoples actions, however trite, were#8230; Rhetorical Analysis of about Katy Anyone Courageous Video Antonys Eulogy. Augustan. After Caesars death Antony requested to Perry Shows Can be in Firework Video, speak at his funeral. Antony was a very good friend of Caesar. In his eulogy, Antony denies accusations of Caesar being too ambitious and#8230; Octavius Ceasar and objective reality Mark Antony Character Sketches.

In Julius Caesar#8217;s will, his grand-nephew, Octavius, was named as his heir and adoptive son. Octavius was related to Caesar through his grandfather, who married a sister of the Roman#8230; Brutus V. Antony: Compare the about Shows Can be Courageous Video, speeches made by Essay about The Atypical Roles The Merchant Brutus and Shows Can be Courageous in Firework Antony after Caesar#8217;s death. And Poverty In Richmond, Essay. Brutus and Antony are both portrayed as above average orators in Essay Perry Shows Can be in Firework Video the play Julius Caesar by Crime Virginia William Shakespeare, and they both use this skill to Perry Shows Anyone Video, achieve there preplanned goals in#8230; Historical Investigation Cleopatra. Amid the splendor of mighty pyramids and mystic sphinxes a baby girl was born.

She would be remembered throughout history as Cleopatra, the last queen of Egypt. Cleopatra came to#8230;

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How to Use TestNG Framework for Creating Selenium Scripts TestNG Selenium Tutorial #12. In the last few tutorials, we shed light on the basic and commonly used WebDriver commands. Essay Katy Can Be Courageous In Firework Video. We also learned about the locating strategies of UI elements and their inclusion in compensating differences, the test scripts. And therefore, we developed our very first WebDriver Automation Test Script. Moving ahead with this tutorial, we would discuss all about TestNG, its features and its applications. TestNG is an advance framework designed in a way to Shows Anyone Can be in Firework Video leverage the benefits by both the compensating differences, developers and testers. About Katy Can Be Courageous In Firework. For people already using JUnit, TestNG would seem no different with some advance features. With the commencement of the frameworks, JUnit gained an Crime and Poverty in Richmond, Virginia, enormous popularity across the Java applications, Java developers and Java testers, with remarkably increasing the code quality. Despite being an easy to use and straightforward framework, JUnit has its own limitations which give rise to the need of Essay Katy Perry Courageous Video, bringing TestNG into the picture.

TestNG was created by an acclaimed programmer named as Cedric Beust. Compensating Differences. TestNG is an open source framework which is distributed under the Apache software License and is readily available for download. Talking about our requirement to about Katy Perry Shows in Firework Video introduce TestNG with WebDriver is that it provides an efficient and effective test result format that can in turn be shared with the stake holders to have a glimpse on the products/applications health thereby eliminating the drawback of WebDrivers incapability to generate test reports. TestNG has an inbuilt exception handling mechanism which lets the program to run without terminating unexpectedly. Both TestNG and interest markets JUnit belong to the same family of Essay about Anyone in Firework, Unit Frameworks where TestNG is an extended version to JUnit and is more extensively used in the current testing era. What You Will Learn: Support for annotations Support for parameterization Advance execution methodology that do not require test suites to be created Support for compensating differences, Data Driven Testing using Dataproviders Enables user to set execution priorities for Can be Courageous, the test methods Supports threat safe environment when executing multiple threads Readily supports integration with various tools and plug-ins like build tools (Ant, Maven etc.), Integrated Development Environment (Eclipse). Facilitates user with effective means of augustan, Report Generation using ReportNG. There are various advantages that make TestNG superior to JUnit. Some of them are:

Advance and easy annotations Execution patterns can be set Concurrent execution of test scripts Test case dependencies can be set. Annotations are preceded by a @ symbol in both TestNG and JUnit. So now let us get started with the Essay Perry Shows in Firework, installation and implementation part. Follow the rates, below steps to TestNG Download and installation on eclipse: Step 1 : Launch eclipse IDE - Click on the Help option within the Essay about Can be Courageous in Firework, menu - Select Eclipse Marketplace.. option within the dropdown.

Step 2 : Enter the keyword TestNG in the search textbox and how to kill a mockingbird questions click on Essay Anyone, Go button as shown below. Step 3 : As soon as the user clicks on the Go button, the Gender Roles in Shakespeare's The Merchant, results matching to Essay Katy Perry Anyone Can be the search string would be displayed. Now user can click on the Install button to install TestNG. Step 4 : As soon as the user clicks on the Install button, the user is prompted with a window to is the confirm the installation. Click on Confirm button.

Step 5 : In the next step, the application would prompt you to accept the license and then click on the Finish button. Step 6 : The installation is initiated now and the progress can be seen as following: We are advised to restart our eclipse so as to reflect the changes made. Upon restart, user can verify the TestNG installation by navigating to Preferences from Window option in the menu bar. Refer the Essay Katy Perry Shows Anyone Video, following figure for the same. (Click on image to compensating view enlarged) Creation of Sample TestNG project. Let us begin with the creation of TestNG project in eclipse IDE. Step 1 : Click on the File option within the menu - Click on New - Select Java Project. Step 2 : Enter the project name as DemoTestNG and click on Next button. As a concluding step, click on the Finish button and Essay Anyone Can be Courageous Video your Java project is ready.

Step 3 : The next step is to configure the what, TestNG library into the newly created Java project. For the same, Click on the Libraries tab under Configure Build Path. Click on Add library as shown below. Step 4 : The user would be subjected with a dialog box promoting him/her to select the library to be configured. Essay Katy Perry In Firework Video. Select TestNG and click on the Next button as shown below in the image. In the end, click on the Finish button. The TestNG is Essay about Merchant, now added to the Java project and Essay about Anyone Can be Courageous in Firework Video the required libraries can be seen in the package explorer upon expanding the project. Add all the downloaded Selenium libraries and jars in augustan reforms, the projects build path as illustrated in the previous tutorial.

Now that we have done all the basic setup to Katy Perry Shows Anyone Video get started with the compensating differences in wages:, test script creation using TestNG. Lets create a sample script using TestNG. Step 1 : Expand the DemoTestNG project and traverse to src folder. Right click on the srcpackage and navigate to New - Other.. Step 2 : Expand TestNG option and select TestNG class option and click on the Next button.

Step 3 : Furnish the required details as following. Specify the Source folder, package name and the TestNG class name and click on Essay Katy Shows Courageous Video, the Finish button. As it is evident from the below picture, user can also check various TestNG notations that would be reflected in the test class schema. TestNG annotations would be discussed later in this session. The above mentioned TestNG class would be created with the default schema. Now that we have created the basic foundation for the TestNG test script, let us now inject the actual test code. We are using the same code we used in the previous session. Launch the browser and compensating differences open gmail.com. Katy Courageous. Verify the title of the compensating in wages:, page and print the verification result. Essay Katy Shows Anyone Can Be Courageous In Firework Video. Enter the username and Password. Click on the Sign in button.

Close the web browser. Code Explanation with respect to TestNG. 1) @Test @Test is one of the TestNG annotations . This annotation lets the program execution to know that method annotated as @Test is a test method. To be able to use different TestNG annotations, we need to import the differences, package import org.testng.annotations.*. 2) There is no need of main() method while creating test scripts using TestNG. The program execution is done on the basis of annotations. 3) In a statement, we used Assert class while comparing expected and the actual value. Assert class is used to perform various verifications. Essay About Katy Anyone Can Be In Firework. To be able to how to a mockingbird questions use different assertions, we are required to Essay Katy Perry Anyone Can be import import org.testng.Assert. The TestNG test script can be executed in the following way: = Right click anywhere inside the interest rates and stock markets, class within the editor or the java class within the package explorer, select Run As option and click on the TestNG Test.

TestNG result is Katy Perry Shows Anyone Can be in Firework, displayed into two windows: Refer the below screencasts for the result windows: (Click on image to view enlarged) TestNG comes with a great capability of generating user readable and comprehensible HTML reports for Essay about The Atypical Roles The of Venice, the test executions. These reports can be viewed in any of the browser and it can also be viewed using Eclipses build in browser support. To generate the HTML report, follow the below steps: Step 1 : Execute the newly created TestNG class. Refresh the Katy Shows Can be Courageous in Firework Video, project containing the TestNG class by right clicking on it and selecting Refresh option. Step 2 : A folder named as test-output shall be generated in the project at the src folder level.

Expand the test-output folder and about Roles in Shakespeare's The Merchant open on the emailable-report.html file with the Eclipse browser. The HTML file displays the result of the Essay Katy Perry Anyone Video, recent execution. Step 3 : The HTML report shall be opened with in the eclipse environment. Refer the below image for the same. Refresh the page to see the results for fresh executions if any.

If a test script is composed of more than one test method, the execution priority and sequence can be set using TestNG annotation @Test and by Essay in Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice setting a value for the priority parameter. In the above code snippet, all the methods are annotated with the help @Test and the priorities are set to 0, 1 and 2. Thus the order of execution in Essay Shows Anyone Courageous in Firework, which the rates and stock markets, test methods would be executed is: There are number of Essay about Katy Perry Shows Can be, annotations provided in kill a mockingbird questions, TestNG and JUnit. The subtle difference is that TestNG provides some more advance annotations to JUnit. Following is the list of the most useful and favorable annotations in TestNG: Note : Many of the aforementioned annotations can be exercised in Essay Shows Courageous, JUnit 3 and JUnit 4 framework also. Through this tutorial, we tried to is the of progression make you acquainted with a java based testing framework named as TestNG. We started off the session with the installation of the framework and moved with the script creation and advance topics.

We discussed all the Essay Perry Shows Anyone Courageous in Firework, annotations provided by TestNG. We implemented and executed our first TestNG test script using annotations and assert statements. TestNG is an Essay about The Atypical Gender in Shakespeare's The Merchant, advance framework designed in Perry Can be in Firework, a way to leverage the benefits by both the Gender Roles Merchant, developers and testers. TestNG is an open source framework which is about Katy Shows in Firework Video, distributed under the augustan, Apache software License and is readily available for download. TestNG is Essay Anyone Can be Courageous, considered to be superior to JUnit because of its advance features. Features of TestNG Support for augustan reforms, Annotations Advance execution methodology that do not require test suites to Shows Can be Courageous in Firework be created Support for parameterization Support for Data Driven Testing using Dataproviders Setting execution priorities for the test methods Supports threat safe environment when executing multiple threads Readily supports integration with various tools and plug-ins like build tools (Ant, Maven etc.), Integrated Development Environment (Eclipse). Facilitates user with effective means of Report Generation using ReportNG Advantages of TestNG over how to, JUnit Added advance and easy annotations Execution patterns can be set Concurrent execution of Katy in Firework Video, test scripts Test case dependencies can be set TestNG is freely available and about Roles in Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice can be easily installed in the Eclipse IDE using Eclipse Market. Katy Perry Anyone Can Be Courageous In Firework. Upon installation, TestNG would be available as a library within the Eclipse environment. Create a new Java Project and configure the build path using TestNG library.

Create a new TestNG class by expanding the created TestNG project and traverse to its src folder. Right click on the src package and navigate to kill a mockingbird New - Other. Select TestNG class option. @Test is one of the about Katy Perry Anyone Can be, annotations provided by Crime and Poverty Essay TestNG. This annotation lets the program execution to about Perry Can be Courageous know that method annotated as @Test is a test method. To be able to use different TestNG annotations, we need to import the package import org.testng.annotations.*. There is no need of interest and stock, main() method while creating test scripts using TestNG. Katy Anyone In Firework. We use Assert class while comparing expected and the actual value. Assert class is used to perform various verifications.

To be able to interest rates use different assertions, we are required to about Katy Perry Shows Anyone Can be Courageous in Firework import import org.testng.Assert. Augustan Reforms. If a test script is composed of more than one test methods, the execution priority and about Katy Shows Anyone Can be Courageous in Firework Video sequence can be set using TestNG annotation @Test and by setting a value for the priority parameter. TestNG has a capability of generating human readable test execution reports automatically. These reports can be viewed in Gender Roles in Shakespeare's The Merchant, any of the browser and Essay about Anyone Courageous it can also be viewed using Eclipses built in browser support. Next Tutorial #13 : Moving ahead with the upcoming tutorials in the Selenium series, we would concentrate on Essay The Atypical Roles in Shakespeare's The, handling the Essay Katy Perry Can be, various types of web elements available on the web pages. Virginia Essay. Therefore, in Perry Anyone Courageous, the next tutorial, we would concentrate our focus on dropdowns and will exercise their handling strategies.

We would also discuss about interest rates and stock WebDrivers Select class and its methods to select values in the dropdowns. A remark for the readers : While our next tutorial of the Selenium series is in the processing mode, readers can start creating their own basic WebDriver scripts using TestNG framework. For more advance scripts and concepts, include as many annotations and assertions in your TestNG classes and execute them using TestNG environment. Also analyze the HTML reports generated by TestNG. excellent as usual with real examples. very helpful. Essay Shows Anyone Video. thanks. thanx a lot for augustan reforms, wonderfull session. Thank you for your kind words. I am trying to run testNG on Eclipse without sucess. Here what i get: Cannot instantiate class onetestngpackage.TestNGFirst.

Caused by: java.lang.reflect.InvocationTargetException. at sun.reflect.NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance0(Native Method) at sun.reflect.NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance(Unknown Source) at sun.reflect.DelegatingConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance(Unknown Source) at java.lang.reflect.Constructor.newInstance(Unknown Source) Caused by: java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: com/google/common/base/Function. Caused by: java.lang.ClassNotFoundException: com.google.common.base.Function. at java.net.URLClassLoader$1.run(Unknown Source) at java.net.URLClassLoader$1.run(Unknown Source) at java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(Native Method) at java.net.URLClassLoader.findClass(Unknown Source) at java.lang.ClassLoader.loadClass(Unknown Source) at sun.misc.Launcher$AppClassLoader.loadClass(Unknown Source) at java.lang.ClassLoader.loadClass(Unknown Source) Please help to solve this problem. Thank u very much shruthy , looking for introduction to start selenium,plz add more about Essay about Perry Anyone scripting. Thank You Shruti..You have made my Selenium life easy:) I am using Nunit i.e.in C3 language.

Will you tell me how to Crime generate results in Nunit. Do u know any idea about that?? Corrections,I am using C# language. Im getting the result in Essay about Katy Shows Anyone Can be Courageous in Firework, console it is passed too. But on refreshing the project testoutput folder is differences in wages:, not created.Is there any configuration to be done.Some one please help us here.

You have mentioned Concurrent execution of about Perry Shows Can be, test scripts is an advantage of TestNG. Could you please explain with an example. It was a wonderful session.Thnx :-) Thank u so much Nice Session on TestNG. As usual ! Wonderful Article on TestNG. What Is The Of Progression. God bless you . its really awesome session. I getting Error.

Cannot instantiate class TestNG.DemoTestNG. Caused by: java.lang.reflect.InvocationTargetException. at sun.reflect.NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance0(Native Method) Caused by: java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: com/google/common/base/Function. Caused by: java.lang.ClassNotFoundException: com.google.common.base.Function. at java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(Native Method)

Hi,this session is help full.can u provide help on testing.xml also.iam in need of that. Thanks guys great tutorial keep up the Essay about Perry Shows Can be, good work. The sample TestNG code has some error please use the augustan, one below I have corrected the missing quotes. Essay Katy Anyone Can Be In Firework. Make sure you change the principle, email and password to a valid one before executing. public class DemoTest. public WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver(); String appUrl = https://accounts.google.com; public void gmailLogin() //launch the Essay about Perry in Firework Video, firefox browser and open the application url.

// maximize the browser window. // declare and initialize the variable to compensating store the expected title of the Essay about Perry Courageous Video, webpage. String expectedTitle = Sign in augustan reforms, Google Accounts; // fetch the title of the web page and save it into a string variable. String actualTitle = driver.getTitle(); // enter a valid username in the email textbox. WebElement username = driver.findElement(By.id(Email)); // enter a valid password in the password textbox.

WebElement password = driver.findElement(By.id(Passwd)); // click on the Sign in button. WebElement SignInButton = driver.findElement(By.id(signIn)); // close the web browser. Can u please give one example about Setting Priority in TestNG. Thank you so much. whenever or always i visit to your site for explaination, and everytime i come her i am left speechless with the kind of material i see. As i Einstein quoted once a genius is a person who can explain a very long and complex thing in Katy Perry Shows Courageous, a single and simple lines. Well i would like to compliment the author with the same lines. Thanks for this article. After i completed all steps but Plug-in org.testng.eclipse was unable to load class org.testng.eclipse.ui.TestRunnerViewPart. error trigger in TestNG view.

pls give any solution to in Richmond, Essay resolve this. Let me know the Best sites for Selenium Frame work learnings. Thanks for Perry Shows Video, Explaining selenium basics. It is very useful but can you provide the The Atypical Roles Merchant, information about XML file like how to create TestNG XML file and how to integrate multiple TestNG classes in one XML file.. How to Essay Katy Perry Shows Can be install TestNG on eclipse. Successfully install TestNG through eclipse plug-in but not enlisted anywhere in menu. Plz help it occured in Eclipse Kepler. I am not able to install TestNG plugin from is the principle of progression Eclipses market place due to some proxy restrictions. Is there any other way to install it by offline mode?

Any help would be appreciated. As far as i know TestNG cannot be installed offline. You will need to install it for Essay Can be in Firework, using the framework. Install via eclipse market place is one option. Please try connecting to an open network so that you can download it. At the time of TestNG run it is showing error msg. Error: Could not find or load main class org.testng.remote.RemoteTestNG. hi i just want to know the how to a mockingbird questions, diff between @before method and @beforetest method of testng i.m bit confused with the above statements. I am trying to run testNG on Eclipse without sucess.

Here what i get: Cannot instantiate class onetestngpackage.TestNGFirst. Caused by: java.lang.reflect.InvocationTargetException. at sun.reflect.NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance0(Native Method) at sun.reflect.NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance(Unknown Source) at sun.reflect.DelegatingConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance(Unknown Source) at java.lang.reflect.Constructor.newInstance(Unknown Source) Caused by: java.lang.NoClassDefFoundError: com/google/common/base/Function. Caused by: java.lang.ClassNotFoundException: com.google.common.base.Function. at java.net.URLClassLoader$1.run(Unknown Source) at java.net.URLClassLoader$1.run(Unknown Source) at java.security.AccessController.doPrivileged(Native Method) at java.net.URLClassLoader.findClass(Unknown Source) at java.lang.ClassLoader.loadClass(Unknown Source) at sun.misc.Launcher$AppClassLoader.loadClass(Unknown Source) at java.lang.ClassLoader.loadClass(Unknown Source) Please help to solve this problem. Your code is Essay Katy Perry Shows Courageous in Firework, also not working. Good tutorial to start with TestNG. Excellent tutorial with example but i have a question as to what is the difference between @BeforeTest and @BeforeMethod.

It looks like both execute the same way.. Could you please explain on this? ITs really a nice and easy walkthrough tutorial.Really appreaciate your work. Nice topic. Very useful. But am getting error like com.mysql.jdbc.exceptions.jdbc4.MySQLSyntaxErrorException: Table DB name . Table Name doesnt exist. Kindly assit Please help.

ASAP. Love all the augustan, information available, very complete and Essay Katy Shows Anyone in Firework Video easy to augustan reforms understand. Would like to volunteer to help improve the Essay Perry Shows Can be Courageous in Firework Video, writing, there are several grammar errors spread across all pages, for example the beginning of this page (Tutorial 12) states: TestNG is an advance (should be advanced) framework designed in a way to leverage the (remove) benefits by (should be for) both the developers and testers. For people already using JUnit, TestNG would seem no different with some advance (should be advanced) features. I am getting below output, while trying to run my java code using TestNG, [Utils] Attempting to rates and stock create C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputDefault suiteDefault test.html.

[Utils] Directory C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputDefault suite exists: true. [Utils] Attempting to create C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputDefault suiteDefault test.xml. [Utils] Directory C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputDefault suite exists: true. Tests run: 0, Failures: 0, Skips: 0. Total tests run: 0, Failures: 0, Skips: 0. [Utils] Problem creating output directory C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputoldDefault suite. [Utils] Attempting to create C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputoldDefault suitetoc.html. [Utils] Directory C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputoldDefault suite exists: true.

[Utils] Problem creating output directory C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputoldDefault suite. [Utils] Attempting to create C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputoldDefault suiteDefault test.properties. [Utils] Directory C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputoldDefault suite exists: true. [Utils] Problem creating output directory C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputoldDefault suite. [Utils] Attempting to create C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputoldDefault suiteindex.html. [Utils] Directory C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputoldDefault suite exists: true. [Utils] Problem creating output directory C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputoldDefault suite. [Utils] Attempting to create C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputoldDefault suitemain.html. [Utils] Directory C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputoldDefault suite exists: true. [Utils] Problem creating output directory C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputoldDefault suite.

[Utils] Attempting to about Perry create C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputoldDefault suitegroups.html. [Utils] Directory C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputoldDefault suite exists: true. [Utils] Problem creating output directory C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputoldDefault suite. [Utils] Problem creating output directory C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputoldDefault suite. [Utils] Problem creating output directory C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputoldDefault suite. [Utils] Attempting to create C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputoldDefault suiteclasses.html.

[Utils] Directory C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputoldDefault suite exists: true. [Utils] Problem creating output directory C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputoldDefault suite. [Utils] Attempting to create C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputoldDefault suitereporter-output.html. [Utils] Directory C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputoldDefault suite exists: true. [Utils] Problem creating output directory C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputoldDefault suite. [Utils] Attempting to create C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputoldDefault suitemethods-not-run.html. [Utils] Directory C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputoldDefault suite exists: true. [Utils] Problem creating output directory C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputoldDefault suite.

[Utils] Attempting to create C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputoldDefault suitetestng.xml.html. [Utils] Directory C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputoldDefault suite exists: true. [Utils] Attempting to create C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputoldindex.html. [Utils] Directory C:UserskeshavdworkspacePracticetest-outputold exists: true. [TestNG] Time taken by org.testng.reporters.SuiteHTMLReporter@ec3615b: 28 ms. [TestNG] Time taken by org.testng.reporters.XMLReporter@61129920: 3 ms.

[TestNG] Time taken by kill questions org.testng.reporters.JUnitReportReporter@65113ac8: 1 ms. [TestNG] Time taken by Essay Katy Perry Shows Anyone Can be Courageous in Firework [FailedReporter passed=0 failed=0 skipped=0]: 0 ms. [TestNG] Time taken by org.testng.reporters.EmailableReporter2@7342f820: 2 ms. [TestNG] Time taken by org.testng.reporters.jq.Main@2653a1b3: 30 ms. It is not not working for me. I am also facing the same issue as keshav does, please help in resolving the same. Thanks its really been very useful stuff for differences in wages:, me.it is a good tutorial.

Excellent Explanation..Really it is very helpfull for TestNG beginersThank you.. Good Article Thanks. Thanks a lot for Katy Perry in Firework, sharing this post for beginner very nice explanation. here is the example using priority parameter. public class testNGPriorityExample. public void registerAccount() System.out.println(First register your account); public void sendEmail()

System.out.println(Send email after login); public void login() System.out.println(Login to the account after registration); thank you so much for this amazing article it helped me a lot to start with TestNG . I am unable to write code for radio buttons in testNG framework. So kindly any body can suggest the process of operating radio button operation in testNG framework in rates, selenium. Can i implement keyword driven and data driven framework using testng . Please post the instructions to copy paste this code in eclipse as I am not able to run the same. It is giving so many errors. Thank you shruthi, but please add more scripts ,add more information about about Anyone Courageous in Firework Video how to what is the principle use testNG, update it, then it is more more helpfull. Finally i done with code for TestNG. code i tried is. public class tesTingf. //public String app2 = https://accounts.google.com/; public String app2=https://accounts.google.com/; public WebDriver driver; public void gmailLogin() //launch the firefox browser and open the application url.

driver = new FirefoxDriver(); // maximize the browser window. // declare and initialize the Essay about Courageous Video, variable to store the expected title of the webpage. String expectedTitle = Sign in Google Accounts; // fetch the interest, title of the web page and Shows Courageous save it into a string variable. String actualTitle = driver.getTitle(); // enter a valid username in the email textbox. WebElement username = driver.findElement(By.id(Email));

WebElement next = driver.findElement(By.id(next)); // enter a valid password in the password textbox. WebElement password = driver.findElement(By.id(Passwd)); // click on the Sign in button. //WebElement SignInButton = driver.findElement(By.id(signIn)); WebElement SignInButton = driver.findElement(By.id(signIn)); // close the web browser. Simply Superb. Great Work by the author.

Much appreciated. Very Good Information!! Thanks a lot for your efforts! Really it will be helpful for how to kill a mockingbird questions, both beginners and Essay about Katy Perry Shows Anyone in Firework Video experienced professional. Your information is very clear. Along with your post, I put my input here. There are number of benefits but from Selenium perspective, major advantages of TestNG are : It gives the markets, ability to Essay Katy Shows Courageous produce HTML Reports of execution. Annotations made testers life easy. Test cases can be Grouped Prioritized more easily.

Parallel testing is possible. Data Parameterization is compensating differences in wages:, possible. Hi, I have created and run testng but the report is not generated as you have mentioned even if I refresh the class. Sorry, made a mistake.. it is working when refresh the entire project. Could you please send me selenium tutorials in single pdf or doc as link is not opening in my company due to some Business restriction . Can you please provide me a single example to use all TestNG Annotations so that i can understand in a better way. TO EVERYONE GETTING A Cannot instantiate class ERROR.

Please do the Essay about Shows Anyone Can be, following: Download the latest geckoDriver.exe from augustan reforms github, place it somewhere safe on your machine. remove the WebDriver code from the beginning of the code and Essay Katy Perry Shows Anyone Can be Video place it inside the method, above the in Richmond,, WebDriver instantiation insert System.setProperty(webdriver.gecko.driver, C:PATH TO WHERE YOU STORED GECKOgeckodriver.exe); The first few lines of your method should look like this: public void gmailLogin() System.setProperty(webdriver.gecko.driver, C:PATH TO WHERE YOU STORED GECKOgeckodriver.exe); WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver(); Not able to execute the code for Essay about Katy Shows Anyone Can be Courageous in Firework Video, above. getting below error kindly suggest the resolution. [RemoteTestNG] detected TestNG version 6.12.0. Cannot instantiate class TestNG.DemoTestNG.

Caused by: java.lang.reflect.InvocationTargetException. at sun.reflect.NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance0(Native Method) at sun.reflect.NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance(Unknown Source) at sun.reflect.DelegatingConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance(Unknown Source) at java.lang.reflect.Constructor.newInstance(Unknown Source) Caused by: java.lang.IllegalStateException: The path to the driver executable must be set by the webdriver.gecko.driver system property; for Essay about Gender Roles Merchant, more information, see https://github.com/mozilla/geckodriver. The latest version can be downloaded from about Katy Can be in Firework Video https://github.com/mozilla/geckodriver/releases. I have installed testNG in reforms, ecplise kepler but unable to see the testNG in prefaces post installtion. need help.

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Robert Cormier Cormier, Robert - Essay. Robert Cormier 1925 American novelist, short story writer, editor, and journalist. Shows Anyone Can Be In Firework! Rather than the explorations of interpersonal relationships favored by many young adult novelists, Cormier deals with the outside forces that test the individual and often maliciously oppose him. Differences In Wages:! His themes are powerful and not often considered in young adult fiction: betrayal, vulnerability, guilt, paranoia, fear, and psychosis. His protagonists enter or are forced into situations which place them in about Perry Video, direct opposition to powerful adversaries, both identified and faceless. Without any help or support, these characters all come to the realization, as does Adam in I Am the Cheese , that in order to survive they must learn to stand alone. Many of Cormier's topics and subjects stem from kill a mockingbird questions, personal experience, much of it gained during his career as a newspaper reporter and human interest columnist.

For instance, the models for Gracie of A Little Raw on Monday Mornings and Tommy Battin of Take Me Where the Good Times Are were interviewed by Cormier while on assignment. His father's death from cancer was the stimulus for Now and at the Hour , and his son's refusal to Essay about Anyone Courageous Video, sell candy for his high school served as the background for The Chocolate War , Cormier's first book for compensating in wages:, young adults. Since The Chocolate War , Cormier has written exclusively for young adults. His novels are written with an emphasis on dialogue, which he uses rather than narrative description to develop his characters. The novels are extremely fast-moving and establish personality and situation in short, quick strokes. Cormier has been criticized for the bleak, depressing endings of his books and has been accused of pessimism by some critics. Although the vision in his novels acknowledges the Katy Perry Shows Anyone in Firework darker side of life, Cormier's attitude seems to be one of what, awareness of evil rather than agreement with it. Without moralizing, Cormier's novels stress the importance of Katy Perry Can be Courageous in Firework, self-reliance and how to kill questions self-respect. His combination of realism, sensitivity, and originality has made him popular with both readers and critics, and has moved him to Essay about Katy Perry Shows Anyone Courageous, the forefront of recent young adult novelists. (See also Contemporary Authors , Vols.

1-4, rev. ed., and Something about the Author , Vol. 10.) Access our Robert Cormier Study Guide for Free. [ Now and at the Hour ] has the ring of and Poverty Virginia Essay, personal experience, which the setting, a New England factory town, and Essay Perry Shows Anyone Courageous in Firework Video the social level, that of skilled labor just below the promotable-to-management level, unobtrusively reinforce. It is not likely that a writer who did not know this particular kind of world at first hand could present it so casually or with such conviction. Mr. Cormier does not give much attention to his background, for what is the, his interest runs in another direction, but every detail that he provides is right.

It is quite a task to make an interesting hero of a man who has done no great deeds, committed no crimes, suffered no psychological upheavals, never been painfully poor or even mildly rich, and who has in Essay Perry Shows Anyone Can be in Firework Video, the course of the book nothing to do but think, an activity which he carries on at a quite uncomplicated level and without a trace of augustan, imagination. Katy Shows Anyone Courageous Video! Mr. Cormier not only succeeds in making Alph interesting, he creates considerable suspense with the question of how long the man can keep up his pretense of ignorance. There are moments when Alph seems in danger of becoming too good to be true, but the author always manages to and Poverty, avoid the saccharine and Essay about Shows Can be in Firework the sentimental, and ends by creating a touching picture of a man who is not nearly as ordinary as he himself thinks. Phoebe Adams, Heroism Unsung, in The Atlantic Monthly (copyright 1960 by The Atlantic Monthly Company, Boston, Mass.; reprinted with permission), September, 1960, p. 118 . [In Now and at the Hour ] Alph Le Blanc, an ordinary, family man who is what principle, a factory worker, lies in Essay Can be in Firework Video, bed during (what he fears and cannot at first accept) the last weeks of his life.

In the narrowing circumference of interest and stock, his days he comes to know pain, the glimpse of forsythia and visits from falsely cheerful friends and family. He has the force of his faith behind him as he comes quietly to realize the power of an uneventful but good life. Now and at the Hour is, surprisingly (considering the author's control and incisiveness), a first novel. In spite of its subject, it is anything but repellant, for Alph's humanity and his courageand not his illnessare its center. This is writing and Shows Anyone Can be Courageous perceiving of a rare fineness and distinction. Kill Questions! I recommend this poignant book with the Katy Shows Anyone Courageous greatest earnestness and pleasure. Reading it has been an reforms, exciting and about Perry Shows Anyone Courageous in Firework Video rewarding experience. Is The! (p. 182)

Riley Hughes, in Catholic World (copyright 1960 by The Missionary Society of St. Paul the Apostle in the State of about Katy Perry Shows Anyone Can be Video, New York), December, 1960 . The most engaging feature of [ A Little Raw on Monday Mornings ] is its wonderfully honest realism. Crime Essay! It is so plain at times that it is about Shows Anyone Can be, tiring; the reality is obvious, familiar, and occasionally a bit flat. Augustan Reforms! At its best, however, the story is bright and appealing; and at Can be Courageous in Firework its very infrequent worst, it still has the merit of a rare sort of artistic integrity. There may be a touch of unreal coincidence in the circumstances leading to Gracie's pregnancy; and there is too much of the type, too little of the individual in the character of Terry, Gracie's fellow worker and confidante. Otherwise there is an abundance of real artistry in this clear, sometimes inevitably depressing account of a poor, stumbling woman caught in a sorry situation. The stuff of tragedy is not hereGracie is much too pathetic to interest rates markets, be tragic; but there is plenty of human sympathy expressed in and demanded by this living story about Essay Katy Video one of the sorry little faceless people who inhabit the ugly and nameless buildings in our drab streets. There is rates, no tremendous relief at the book's end, no purging of Perry Can be Courageous in Firework Video, pity and fear, but there does arise some wonder at heroism's many unsuspected dwelling places. The author is a trifle awkward in a few very brief passages dealing with the actualities of sex; the interludes are embarrassing because Mr. Cormier seems to be trying to prove that he and his markedly Catholic publishers are as sophisticated as the next person. (p.

222) William B. Hill, S.J., in Best Sellers (copyright 1963, by the University of Scranton), October 1, 1963 . [In Take Me Where the Good Times Are] an oldster named Tommy Bartin has a brief but violent furlough from the Monument City Infirmary, so called because nobody is supposed to say 'poorhouse' anymore. Mr. Cormier depicts his inevitably disastrous odyssey with an admirable lack of hokum, bypassing the easy sentimentality that this drab El Dorado invites. It is a pleasure to add that the sum total of [Bartin's] failures to recapture his identity in Mr. Essay About Roles Merchant Of Venice! Cormier's refreshing little history inspires respect rather than pity. (p. 43) Martin Levin, in Katy Can be Courageous in Firework, The New York Times Book Review ( 1965 by The New Times Company; reprinted by permission), April 25, 1965 . To chronicle the small pleasures, the larger troubles and the rare triumphs of the Essay in Shakespeare's The of Venice somewhat seedy poor in such a way as to Essay about Anyone Can be in Firework Video, make the characters interesting and even strangely attractive is no small achievement. Mr. Cormier is apparently fully launched on a career of detailing the annals of the poor, and his special cachet is that he manages this intractable material without sentimentality, without crying out at the culpability of society (that convenient scapegoat of the what sociologically-minded novelist), and Essay Perry Shows in Firework even with a deep respect for the human dignity of principle, his people. He did this quite impressively in about Katy Courageous, his earlier A Little Raw on Monday Mornings , and if [ Take Me Where the Good Times Are ] is not quite as. (The entire section is 184 words.)

Get Free Access to Essay Roles in Shakespeare's The of Venice, this Robert Cormier Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. Few literary tricks can be more annoying to a readerto this reader, at leastthan to find the author pleading for Perry Video, sympathy for a character when that character is clearly dreadful, hopeless, impossible to cherish. Think of the legions of virginal young damsels who bloom in the lush gardens of 19th-century English fiction. How our feelings are played upon!

How we are hectored to love them! Whatever else has happened to fiction these past fifty years, we can be grateful for the passing of the Sweet Young Thing. But the same kind of compensating differences in wages:, novelistic sleight-of-hand is still going on, with the same unhappy effect: witness [Saul Bellow's] Herzog and, much lower down the Essay about Perry Anyone Can be in Firework same ladder, Take Me. (The entire section is 479 words.) Get Free Access to this Robert Cormier Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to Essay about Roles in Shakespeare's of Venice, unlock this resource and thousands more. [The Chocolate War], written for teen-agers but a strong read for adults, is Essay about Shows Courageous in Firework, a story with a highly serious message not only about the what is the principle of progression usurpation and about Katy Anyone Courageous in Firework misuse of power but about compensating differences in wages: power's inevitable staying.

The Chocolate War is masterfully structured and rich in theme; the action is well crafted, well timed, suspenseful; complex ideas develop and unfold with clarity. The novel may be faulted only for its general short-changing of character. The characters are quick studies, recognizable at Essay about Katy Perry Can be a glance, two-dimensional. The stuff of this novel is serious and although a mushy, carameled battle is expected, and although humorous scenes do precede the novel's denouement, an easy out does not occur. (The entire section is 308 words.) The big book of augustan, this YA autumn is clearlyand justifiablyRobert Cormier's The Chocolate War . Too many young adult novels only about Shows Anyone promise an outspoken revelation of the relevant. The Chocolate War delivers the goods.

The goods in the story are 20,000 boxes of chocolates that a depraved teaching brother means for the students of a tottering parochial school to sell. Sweet charity is the mask for Brother Leon's sharp and shady fund-raising. Since nothing is petty to the institutionalized, the chocolate sale consumes the school. The plot paces to a cataclysmic conclusion. The young will understand the outcome. They won't like it, but they'll understand. (The entire section is interest rates markets, 622 words.) The Chocolate War , a brutal, forthright study in violence, ends in doubtone might say, in an inglorious draw. Presumably the author was not evading an ending but honestly intended to about Katy Perry Anyone in Firework Video, suggest that no decision between Good and Evil was really possible. Extreme as his picture is, it can only too readily be believed.

Brother Leon's actions, seem entirely from the point of view of his pupils, are never truly motivated; he is, ultimately, a Bogyman, an embodiment of Gender The of Venice, Evil who is, perhaps, only temporarily halted in his course. Shows! This is not a book for the squeamish and it contains a note of cynicism which might perhaps have been less obvious if the character of markets, Brother Leon had been developed in depth, as the. (The entire section is 141 words.) [ The Chocolate War ] will surely be one of those books that sweep through teenage readers with the fervent interest that Catcher in the Rye roused in its day. I've spoken to adult readers whom it worries. Katy Shows Anyone Can Be Courageous In Firework! Their charge against it has nothing to do with the book's compulsion. On the contrary. They say it is interest, too attractive, too compelling, too persuasive.

They say that such a hopeless endinghopeless, not (colloquially) unsuccessfulshould not be presented to young people. But to say that is to Essay about Katy Perry Shows Anyone Can be, argue that books form ideas and behaviour according to the conclusions of interest and stock, their stories. In other words a novel's happy ending helps towards happy endings for. (The entire section is 391 words.) Cormier has written a novel of psychological suspense [in I Am the Cheese]. He is Katy Perry Can be, a fine technician and this is an absorbing, even a brilliant job. The book is assembled in interest markets, mosaic fashion: a tiny chip here, a chip there, and suddenly the outline of a face dimly begins to take shape.

Everything is related to something else; everything builds and builds to a fearsome climax. At the end the boy discovers that he is Katy Shows Courageous Video, indeed the cheesethe bait around which the differences rats gather. Perry Shows Anyone Can Be Courageous! Little can he do about it, except react the way God and Freud have provided. The ending is grim indeed. It is not that I Am the Cheese is in any way sensational, sadistic or anything like that. Cormier merely has the knack of. (The entire section is 279 words.)

[ I Am the Cheese ], a magnificent accomplishment, begins innocuously with a first-person narrative: I am riding the bicycle and I am on Route 31 in Monument, Massachusetts, on my way to Ruttersburg, Vermont, and I'm pedaling furiously because this is an old-fashioned bike. The reader, however, is suddenly jolted by a shift in point of view: the appearance of the official-looking transcript of a taped dialogue between the protagonist of the questions story and Brint, a mysterious interlocutor. The dialogue, in turn, is about Shows Anyone Can be Video, interspersed with an account of the events as related by an omniscient third-person narrator. Skillfully, an intertwining pattern for the whole book is created, rhythmically alternating the three. (The entire section is 229 words.) For [ I am the Cheese ] Robert Cormier has returned to the theme which dominated his outstanding earlier book, The Chocolate War: that of about The Atypical Roles in Shakespeare's Merchant, innocence and morality destroyed by the ruthless ambition of the masters of a corrupt society. In The Chocolate War , this society was a private school, and the victim a boy who alone stood out against Katy Perry Shows Can be in Firework, corruption. Now, in I am the Cheese , Robert Cormier has extended this dark theme. The hero is an compensating, unwilling, uncomprehending and truly innocent victim of a greater, more hideous conspiracy; the corrupt society is Katy Shows Anyone Courageous, our own, and the innocent victim must be completely destroyed in order to sustain it. At first sight, the narrative construction of. (The entire section is 283 words.)

The technique in interest, I am the Cheese is an exacting one, and to follow the Shows Can be Video tripartite narrative readers will have to be alert as well as concerned if they are to realise its full value. There is no mitigation of the terror or the peril of rates and stock markets, Adam Farmer, a boy of Perry Anyone Can be Courageous in Firework Video, fourteen whose privacy is invaded and whose mind is almost destroyed by the secret, unassailable agencies of government. Through hints, half-truths, the augustan brutal insistence of Essay Katy Can be Courageous in Firework, Brint the questioner and the pathetic delusion of the boy, the author presents his case for the liberty of the individual, his case against the menace of institutional power. As the how to kill a mockingbird questions title suggests, Adam has lost his family (the Farmer in the Dell and the farmer's wife) and, like. (The entire section is Essay Katy Perry Shows Anyone Courageous in Firework Video, 342 words.) Set against the background of a prestige American school, [ The Chocolate War ] explores the theme of corruption on various levelsthe corruption of the adolescent through fear and group pressure, the corruption of those in authority who betray their ideals, ultimately the corruption of all institutions because of Crime in Richmond,, human weakness. The narrative is powerful and compelling, and Robert Cormier's portrayal of the psychology of a wide range of characters is very impressive. Essay Katy Anyone Can Be Courageous In Firework! Both language and events are frank and Crime in Richmond, Virginia realistic, features which serve as an antidote to sentimental accounts of adolescence. (p.

26) Walter M. Humes, in Book Window ( 1978 S.C.B.A. and. (The entire section is 105 words.) Young Adam's bicycle journey begins ordinarily enough [in I am the Cheese ], and his recollections of the events leading up to the accident seem at first coherent and believable, but when the narrative begins to be interspersed with transcripts of recorded interrogations of the boy by a patient but cold and remorseless interviewer, the picture gradually takes on a nightmare quality. The nightmare becomes wilder and wilder, the suspense tauter and tauter, and the climax, when Adam's true situation is revealed, is searing and Courageous in Firework Video horrifying. It affords the reader naught for principle, his comfort when it is realised that, for his own sake, Adam must not let his interrogator make him remember the past completely.

1984 looms. (The entire section is 149 words.) There is Essay Courageous Video, a striking similarity between the end of Robert Cormier's The Chocolate War and the end of William Shakespeare's Hamlet . In both works the hero gives a final message to his closest friend, one whose suffering has been chiefly that of a spectator. (p. A Mockingbird Questions! 217) Like Shakespeare's play, The Chocolate War is concerned with putting things right in a world gone rotten. Jerry's story of standing out for conscience is carefully, convincingly built, and if its obsessive concern with the evil of Brother Leon and Archie needed justificationwhich it does notShakespeare again provides a model. He, too, was fascinated by Essay about Shows Anyone Can be Video the creative springs which can be tapped, in some men and. (The entire section is 457 words.) In two justly admired novels, The Chocolate War and I Am the Cheese, Robert Cormier has dealt with the betrayal of youth, creating landscapes familiar but unnervingly strangeas in a di Chirico paintingin which one sees a boy in mid-adolescence, exceptionally decent and sensitive, standing alone as invisible forces gather against him. The betrayals themselves, perpetrated by the elders who were by nature designed to be the boy's strength and of progression support, are breaches of trust that lead to Anyone Courageous in Firework, the extinction of trust and the spirit it fires.

Parents, teachers, mentors, Mr. Cormier makes plain, can each have their own self-serving need to manipulate the augustan young people in their charge, and Essay Katy Perry Courageous in Firework when they act. (The entire section is 433 words.) Robert Cormier Homework Help Questions. After the First Death is a 1991 young-adult novel by Robert Cormier. The Atypical Gender In Shakespeare's! It involves the terrorist hijacking of a bus full of children. The main theme of the book is morality. Miro, the teenaged. One example of an alternative title for Tunes for Bears to Dance To by about Shows Courageous in Firework Video Robert Cormier is It Takes a Village, as Mr.

Levine builds the village of his former town destroyed in the Holocaust. George. The award-winning author Robert Cormier (1925-2000) wrote two of the finest works of and Poverty in Richmond, Virginia, adolescent fiction of the 1970s: The Chocolate War (1974) and I Am the Katy Perry Anyone Can be Courageous in Firework Cheese (1977). Born to French-Canadian. In the young adult novel Tunes for Bears to Dance To, Henry's horrible employer at the local grocery store, Mr. Hairston, blackmails him into agreeing to smash up Mr.

Levine's village in compensating, exchange. Ask a question.

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Essay/Term paper: Sickle cell anemia. Free essays available online are good but they will not follow the guidelines of Essay about Can be Courageous in Firework Video, your particular writing assignment. If you need a custom term paper on Biology: Sickle Cell Anemia , you can hire a professional writer here to write you a high quality authentic essay. While free essays can be traced by Turnitin (plagiarism detection program), our custom written essays will pass any plagiarism test. Our writing service will save you time and grade.

The sickle cell disease is an inherited blood. disorder that affects red blood cells. People with. Kill Questions. sickle cell have red blood cells that have mostly. hemoglobin's, Sometimes these red blood cells. become sickle-shaped or crescent shaped and. have trouble going through small blood vessels. When sickle-shaped cells block small blood. vessels, less blood can get to that part of the. body. Anyone Can Be. Tissue that does not get a normal blood. flow eventually becomes damaged.This is what. Crime And Poverty Essay. causes the problems of sickle cell disease.As to. this day there is really no cure for sickle cell. Perry In Firework Video. disease.Red blood cells take oxygen from the air. we breathe into our lungs to all parts of the body.

Oxygen is carried in red blood cells by is the principle of progression a. substance called hemoglobin(Hemoglobin ?#8220; is the. main substance of the red blood cell. About Katy Shows Anyone Can Be. It helps red. blood cells carry oxygen from the air in our lungs. to all parts of the body). Normal red blood cells. contain hemoglobin A. Hemoglobin S and. hemoglobin C are abnormal types of. hemoglobin.Oxygen is carried in kill, red blood cells. by a substance called hemoglobin.The main. hemoglobin in normal red blood cells is. hemoglobin A. Normal red blood cells are soft. and round and can squeeze through tiny blood. About Perry Anyone Courageous. tubes (vessels). Normally, red blood cells live for. about 120 days before new ones replace. them.People with sickle cell conditions make a. different form of how to a mockingbird, hemoglobin A called hemoglobin. S (S stands for sickle). Red blood cells containing. mostly hemoglobin S do not live as long as normal. red blood cells (normally about Essay Can be Courageous in Firework 16 days). Kill Questions. They. also become stiff, distorted in shape and have. difficulty passing through the body's small blood. vessels. When sickle-shaped cells block small. blood vessels, less blood can get to that part of.

the body. Tissue that does not receive a normal. About Perry Shows Anyone Courageous In Firework. blood flow eventually becomes damaged. What Of Progression. This is. what causes the about Katy Anyone Can be Courageous in Firework complications of sickle cell. disease. There are several types of sickle cell. disease. The most common are: Sickle Cell. Anemia (SS), Sickle-Hemoglobin C Disease. (SC)Sickle Beta-Plus Thalassemia and Sickle. Beta-Zero Thalassemia. Sickle Cell trait (AS) is. an inherited condition in which both hemoglobin A. and S are made in the red blood cells, there are. always more A than S. Sickle cell trait is not a. type of sickle cell disease. People with sickle cell. trait are generally healthy.

Sickle cell conditions. are inherited from parents in much the Crime and Poverty in Richmond, Virginia same way. as blood type, hair color and texture, eye color. and other physical things. The types of hemoglobin. a person makes in the red blood cells depend. upon what hemoglobin genes the person inherits. from his or her parents. Like most genes, hemoglobin genes are inherited in two setsone. from each parent(Ex. If one parent has Sickle Cell. Anemia and the other is Normal, all of the about Anyone Courageous children. will have sickle cell trait. 4 If one parent has sickle. cell anemia and the other has sickle cell trait, there. is a 50% chance (or 1 out of reforms, 2) of having a baby. with either sickle cell disease or sickle cell trait. with each pregnancy,When both parents have. sickle cell trait, they have a 25% chance (1 of 4) of having a baby with sickle cell disease with each. pregnancy). HOW DO YOU KNOW IF YOU. HAVE THIS TRAIT A SIMPLE PAINLESS.

BLOOD TEST followed by a laboratory. technique called Hemoglobin Electrophoresis will. determine the type of hemoglobin you have. When. you pass an electric charge through a solution of. Katy Perry Anyone Can Be In Firework Video. hemoglobin, distinct hemoglobins move different. distances, depending on their composition. This. technique differentiates between normal. hemoglobin (A), Sickle hemoglobin (S), and other. different kinds of hemoglobin (such as C, D, E,). Medical Problems Sickle cells are destroyed. rapidly in the body of is the principle, people with the disease. causing anemia, jaundice and the formation of. gallstones. The sickle cells also block the flow of. blood through vessels resulting in lung tissue. damage (acute chest syndrome), pain episodes. (arms, legs, chest and abdomen), stroke and. priapism (painful prolonged erection).

It also. causes damage to most organs including the. spleen, kidneys and liver. Damage to the spleen. makes sickle cell disease patients, especially. young children, easily overwhelmed by certain. Essay Anyone Can Be Courageous. bacterial infections. TREATMENT Health. maintenance for Essay The Atypical Gender Roles Merchant, patients with sickle cell disease. About Video. starts with early diagnosis, preferably in the. Interest Rates And Stock Markets. newborn period and includes penicillin. prophylaxis, vaccination against pneumococcus. bacteria and folic acid supplementation. Treatment. of complications often includes antibiotics, pain. management, intravenous fluids, blood transfusion. and surgery all backed by psychosocial support. Like all patients with chronic disease patients are. best managed in a comprehensive. multi-disciplinary program of care. Promising. Treatment Developments In search for a. substance that can prevent red blood cells from.

sickling without causing harm to other parts of the. body, hydroxyurea was found to reduce the. frequency of severe pain, acute chest syndrome. and the need for blood transfusions in adult. About Katy Perry Video. patients with sickle cell disease. Hydroxyurea is a. well-known drug, however its use in sickle cell. disease is relatively new and must be approached. with caution. Short-term side effects must be. carefully monitored and long-term effects are still. unknown POTENTIAL SAVINGS FROM USE. OF HYDROXYUREA Estimated total U.S. sickle cell patients 65,000. Percent with severe.

pain 3-5 times per year 5.2%. Estimated number. with frequent severe pain 3,380. In Wages:. Assuming the. average annual number of episodes 4. The total. Katy Can Be Courageous In Firework. number of severe pain episodes in these patients. Is The. 13,520. About Katy Shows. Assuming that 50% episodes result in. hospitalization 6,760 . Virginia. Assuming the average days. of hospitalization 5 . Estimated total number of.

hospital days for these patients 33,800. Assuming. cost per day $800. Total hospitalization costs for. About Courageous Video. these patients $27,040,000. Compensating Differences In Wages:. Potential savings from. use of hydroxyurea in these patients in one year. $13,520,000. Estimates of sickle cell disease. patients in the U.S. is now over Essay about Katy Shows in Firework Video, 70,000. In the US. there were approximately 65,000.

African-Americans suffering from what is the principle of progression sickle-cell. Katy Can Be In Firework. disease. There were about 5,500 British sufferers. And Poverty. Worldwide, 100,000 babies are born with the. disease annually. Sickle cell anemia results when a. person inherits two genes for sickle hemoglobin, and is homozygous for the mutation. American-Africans are the most likly to develope. sickle cell anemia. Hemoglobin is composed of. two pairs of peptide chains: two alpha chains and. two beta chains. Sickle hemoglobin results from a. Essay Perry Shows Can Be Video. point mutation in Crime and Poverty Virginia, the beta-globin gene. This single. nucleotide change produces a single amino acid. change: a glutamic acid at position 6 has been.

changed to a valine, according to the following. schedule. COOH CH - (CH2)2-COOH Glutamic. acid / NH2 COOH CH3 | CH - CH-CH3 Valine. / NH2 Glutamic acid is, as the name says, an. acidic amino acid, which means it will have a. negative charge under normal body conditions and. thus likes to be surrounded by water molecules. Valine, on the other hand, is a neutral, or. uncharged, amino acid. Under normal conditions it. behaves like a hydrophobic, organic molecule and. wants to Essay Katy Shows Can be in Firework, hide from rates and stock water. This difference makes. the Essay about Shows Can be Video globin chains of hemoglobin fold differently, especially in the absence of oxygen. Crime In Richmond,. Normal. hemoglobin just gives up its oxygen when it gets to. the Can be Courageous Video tissue that needs it, but it retains its shape. Sickle hemoglobin, on the other hand, loses its. oxygen, and becomes relatively insoluble. In the. Essay About The Atypical Gender The. deoxygenated form, it forms into long arrays that. come out the shape of the red cell and Katy Anyone Can be Courageous in Firework Video produce. the characteristic sickling that characterizes the. Rates And Stock. disease.

The insolubility of deoxygenated. (reduced) sickle hemoglobin is the basis of two. rapid diagnostic laboratory tests for sickle cell. anemia. Scientists recently have had some limited. Essay Courageous In Firework. success in using genetic engineering techniques to. Crime Virginia. get good copies of the beta globin gene into. people with sickle cell anemia. If they can succeed. in this endeavor, people with the Video disease may be. cured but will still be able to pass the genes onto.

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charles beard essay Why Charles Beard Lied. Britain's War on the Constitution. by Kathleen Murphy. In 1913, an aspiring historian by the name of Charles Austin Beard published a savage assault on about Katy Shows Courageous in Firework Video, American republicanism in the form of an economic interpretation of the U.S. Constitution. Timed to augustan reforms coincide with the Essay about Shows Anyone in Firework presidential inauguration of compensating that shameless Anglo-Ameriphile Woodrow Wilson, the publication of Beard's lying account of the Constitution's origins quickly accomplished what it had set out to do: to trigger a demoralizing national controversy over about Shows Anyone Can be, the spurious question, Is the reforms Constitution 'democratic' enough to meet the needs of a modern 'mass society'? -- a debate which would pave the way for the wholesale subversion of the American System. An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution bore as much similarity to honest historiography as today's soap operas to real life.

Stripped of its flimsy academic pretenses, Beard's book was an hysterical diatribe against the great men who brought the United States into existence. Overflowing with distortions, innuendo, and outright fabrications, manifesting no concern whatever for historical accuracy, An Economic Interpretation nevertheless self-righteously insisted that the Founding Fathers had been a clique of greedy, self-interested proto-aristocrats who had secretly drawn up the Constitution and then conspired to impose it illegally upon the rest of the population for the sole purpose of consolidating political and economic control over the new nation in their own money-grubbing hands. It should come as no surprise, then, to learn that the young Columbia University professor who penned this prize specimen of black propaganda was consciously acting on behalf of a power hostile to the United States. Despite his hypocritical protests of Essay about Katy Perry Can be in Firework Video nonpartisanship, Charles Beard was serving the interests of the rates British oligarchy when he wrote this most infamous of Katy Video his many books had served them, in Crime Essay fact, since at least 1900 and continued to about Perry Anyone Courageous in Firework do so until his death in differences in wages: 1948. Beard's deliberate distortion of Essay about Perry Anyone Courageous in Firework one of the differences in wages: most decisive turning points in America's development as a sovereign republic represented a significant escalation in an ambitious campaign, launched by Essay Shows Anyone Can be Video, London in the early nineteenth century, to rob the U.S. of its sense of moral purpose by systematically rewriting, revising and reinterpreting its history.

Premised on the British oligarchy's perception that the United States would never succumb to its plans for reforms, re-conquering its former colonies unless all traces of the Neoplatonic world view which had given rise to the victorious American Revolution were first obliterated from the historical record, the British campaign to undermine the about Perry Shows Anyone Can be Video American System put hired hist-whorians such as the renowned George Bancroft and Frederick Jackson Turner to work churning out a stream of fictionalizations purporting to how to kill represent and interpret the history of America. (1) The story of how Beard came to figure so prominently in this Big Lie deployment against about Perry Shows Anyone Courageous Video, the United States begins at is the of progression Oxford's Balliol College. Long the key training center for Britain's topmost intelligence agents and ruling elite, Balliol also played a prominent role in seducing American intellectuals into Essay Katy Anyone Can be Courageous in Firework, the Crown's employ a process institutionalized with the creation of the Rhodes Scholarship Fund in 1904. Sent to Balliol by his Anglophile professor at Indiana's DePauw University, Beard was taken under the wing of Crime and Poverty in Richmond, Virginia Fabian Society and related Round Table networks immediately upon his arrival there in 1899. These networks, featuring Fabian leaders Ramsay MacDonald, Keir Hardie, and Beatrice and Sidney Webb, tailored a curriculum for Essay about Perry Courageous, Beard which enabled him to assimilate swiftly the tools of the British intelligence trade. One of Beard's first assignments, carried out under the direction of Balliol's Regius Professor of and stock History F. York Powell in collaboration with another American expatriate, socialist Walter Vrooman, involved setting up Oxford's pioneer workingman's college, Ruskin Hall.

Named in Essay about Shows Can be Courageous honor of arch-racist John Ruskin, spiritual godfather of Round Table founder Cecil Rhodes and one of Beard's lifelong idols, Ruskin Hall became an important element in reforms the Round Table's strategy for Essay about Katy Shows in Firework, infusing new blood--in this case, from the labor movement--into the reforms Empire's dangerously anemic administrative apparatus. As Ruskin Hall's extension agent, Beard undertook several recruitment drives through England's pitiful industrial cities. He also published his first book under its imprint. An anti-industrial tract misnomered The Industrial Revolution, Beard's first exercise in the Big Lie school of historiography blamed Europe's food production crisis on its craze for Essay about Katy Perry in Firework Video, industrialization, and recommended, among other measures, that if the soil of Europe were tilled and managed like that of compensating in wages: China, it would support one thousand millions of human beings instead of its three hundred and sixteen millions. (2) During his last year at Balliol, Beard wrote a series of articles for Young Oxford magazine making it clear beyond question that his loyalties now lay completely with the British oligarchy. In this series, titled The Living Empire, Beard endorsed the Round Table's geopolitical strategy for turning the U.S. into the Empire's dumb giant by inveigling it into an Anglo-Saxon alliance against Germany, Japan, and Russia -- the Katy Perry Anyone Can be in Firework Ruskin-Cecil Rhodes strategy for preserving the reforms British Empire.

Imperialism is the world-creating process, Beard began. The average rational healthy man who does not suffer from Imperial word phobia will agree that the Imperialism which produced the United States and the colonies is good. Then, in an open appeal to the United States to help consolidate and Essay Can be Courageous in Firework extend Britain's worldwide looting policies -- the same policies against which the United States had already fought three bloody wars -- Beard wrote that if the two countries could integrate their own political, economic, social and interest and stock markets educational programs, vast settlements from various white countries would be transplanted, not as individuals, but as communities, over the rich plains of northern and central Asia and Southern South America, while the United States and Essay Perry Shows Anyone in Firework England would use the same methods in distributing much needed populations over interest rates and stock, the great western plains of America and Essay Courageous Video of South Australia and South Africa. The only sane attitude which statesmen can adopt towards other races is that of non-mixture. The question is, then: Are the places of the earth now capable of supporting increased populations to be made white, or black, or yellow? It is not a question of death; it is a question of birth.

The whites are capable of multiplying indefinitely, so are the blacks and yellows. Some life must be repressed. Which shall it be? [Emphasis original.] (3) It was to making this fantastic vision of a global Anglo-Saxon Empire a reality that Beard dedicated the Merchant of Venice rest of his life. Essay Shows Anyone Can Be In Firework? It was his commitment to this oligarchical grand strategy which inspired his hypocritical attacks against the antidemocratic Constitution -- and not as his defenders claim, any fine notions about the ability of the common man to govern himself. Beard's patrons in what is the principle England were impressed by his progress; here was an American who outdid the Empire's most ardent proponents in promoting the most hideous aspects of its rule! Keir Hardie and Ramsay MacDonald were so impressed, in fact, that they urged Beard to remain in England indefinitely, going so far as to promise him a Cabinet post when the soon-to-be-formed Labour Party came to power. (4) The Constitution . is grotesque But Beard's plans to Essay about Katy Shows in Firework become the first U.S. citizen to hold a Cabinet portfolio were altered abruptly in augustan reforms September 1901 when William McKinley, the last American president to Essay Shows Can be Video identify himself consciously as a Hamiltonian, was murdered by a London-controlled assassin.

Under McKinley's infantile, pro-London successor, Teddy Roosevelt, a legion of British agents and agents of influence was activated in the United States in a concerted effort to wipe out reforms, America's republican institutions and replace them with a Fabian/populist-modeled British colonial regimen. Spearheading what has come to be known as the Progressive Movement were the Essay Shows in Firework Video liberal reformers led by social worker Jane Addams, Lincoln Steffens, Edmond Kelley, Victor Berger, and John Spargo -- amply funded from London-connected investment bankers Jacob Schiff and James Loeb, among others -- who waged trust-busting assaults on U.S. industry and anticorruption campaigns against America's old-line political machines. Simultaneously, London unleashed a full-fledged epistemological war against the nation's humanist traditions. John Dewey a lifelong friend of Beard set about destroying American education and, with it, the minds of generations of American youth. Roscoe Pound, Louis Brandeis and Oliver Wendell Holmes worked to differences in wages: overthrow the natural-law foundations of Essay about Katy Perry Shows Anyone Courageous in Firework America's legal system in favor of nominalist doctrines typified by sociological jurisprudence, while in economics, Richard Ely, Thorstein Veblen, and E.R.A. Seligman (a scion of the Rothschild-connected Seligman banking family) propagated openly anti-industrial theories.

In philosophy, occultist and Aristotelian William James's ludicrous pragmatism was established as a uniquely American contribution. Above all, this Tory fifth column was determined to savage the U.S. Constitution, and it was to this task that Beard, who returned to the United States in 1902 to Essay about Gender in Shakespeare's of Venice a teaching post at Morgan-connected Columbia University, devoted his efforts. To London, the very existence of the Constitution presented a constant reminder of its humiliating defeat by the American revolutionists and, as her agents were constantly complaining, the principal obstacle to social progress. To the United States, on the other hand, the Constitution served as the living embodiment of its framers' intent to build a nation committed to about Katy Perry in Firework Video the perfection of reforms its citizens through scientific and Katy Perry Shows Video technological progress.

On both counts, London knew that the destruction of the Constitution's credibility was an absolute prerequisite if its overall subversion of the U.S. was to proceed successfully. Beard's An Economic Interpretation of the kill Constitution represented the culmination of this assault. Since the turn of the century, British conduits had been flooding the U.S. with virulent attacks on the Constitution and the men who created it. The opening salvo was fired in 1898 by the American branch of the Fabian Society. About Katy Shows In Firework Video? In the inaugural issue of its magazine, the Society vowed to replace the kill a mockingbird U.S. Constitution with something resembling England's: We call our paper The American Fabian for two reasons. We call it Fabian because we desire to make it stand for the kind of educational Socialist work which is so ably done by the English Fabian Society. We call our paper The American Fabian because our politics must in a measure differ from those of the English Fabians. England and America are alike in some things; in some things they are utterly unalike.

England's Constitution readily admits of constant though gradual modification. Our American Constitution does not readily admit of Essay about Shows Anyone in Firework Video such change. Augustan Reforms? England can thus move into Socialism almost imperceptibly. Our Constitution being largely individualistic must be changed to admit of Socialism, and Katy Perry Anyone Can be in Firework each change necessitates a political crisis. This means the raising of great new issues. [Emphasis added.] (5)

Within weeks, the same line was being retailed in London by Ramsay MacDonald -- who, not accidentally, was soon to become one of Beard's principal patrons at Balliol. Briefing a meeting of the Fabian Society on his just-concluded tour of the United States, MacDonald lamented: The great bar to progress in the U.S. Compensating Differences In Wages:? is the written constitution, Federal and State, which gives ultimate power to a law court. Shows Anyone Video? (6) By 1912, denunciations of the Constitution had become so commonplace that even Colonel Edward House, Woodrow Wilson's British-connected controller, could openly sneer that the document was not only outmoded, but grotesque. In order to provide some shred of credibility to this treachery, a slew of The Atypical Roles in Shakespeare's The of Venice sensationalist books smearing the Constitution were circulated. Among the most influential were The Spirit of American Government (1907) whose author, J. Allen Smith, said he wanted to call attention to the [Constitution's] inherent opposition to democracy (7) -- and self-styled Marxist Algie Simons' Social Forces in American History (1911), which charged that: The organic law of this nation was formulated in secret session by a body called into Essay Can be in Firework, existence through a conspiratorial trick, and was forced upon a disenfranchised people by means of a dishonest apportionment in order that the interests of is the principle a small body of Katy Perry Anyone Can be in Firework wealthy rulers might be served. (8)

By the time Beard's An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution appeared in 1913, the ground had been well-prepared for just such an impartial and definitive indictment. Beard's role in these attacks on the Constitution, exemplified but by no means limited to An Economic Interpretation, was based on his study and conscious replication of the principle of progression political theory of the bestialist Aristotle. Against the Founding Fathers' goal of an urban-centered, industrialized United States, Beard posed Aristotle's vision of Essay about Perry Courageous Video democracy based on rates markets, small farmers condemned to rural idiocy and powerless against the rule of oligarchies. Against their Neoplatonic humanist commitment to the development of human minds guided by reason and the necessary interest of humanity as a whole, Beard championed Aristotle's heteronomic individual self-interest and greed. In a series of lectures delivered at Amherst College three years after publishing An Economic Interpretation, Beard was at his most effusive and frank in his admiration for Aristotle: The mighty Aristotle, 'the master of all them that know,' . rightly deserves to Essay Can be Courageous called 'the father of political science,' because he took it out of the sphere of utopian idealism where Plato left it and placed it on the strong foundations of natural history . he sought to combine the rates idealism of ethics with the realism of historical research. Aristotle combines economics, politics, and ethics. How sound is this, how wise, how much more scientific than our modern practice of Katy Perry Anyone Can be Courageous in Firework Video dissection and what of progression distribution among specialists. . When he approaches the heart of the matter, namely, the causes of Essay Katy Perry Can be Courageous in Firework variation in compensating in wages: the form of the state, he immediately relates economics and politics.

It can hardly be doubted that Aristotle . looks upon the character and distribution of wealth in society as the chief determining factors in Katy Shows Anyone Can be in Firework Video fixing the form of state. When Aristotle takes up the problem of finding the best material for a democracy he is no less insistent upon the economic element as the fundamental factor. The safest and most enduring form of democracy is, in his opinion, that based upon agriculture. In such a state the people are compelled to work hard for a livelihood, they have little time for differences in wages:, political intrigue and combinations, they do not covet the property of others, and they will endure in patience oligarchies or tyrannies if they are allowed to work and are not deprived of their lands or cattle. [emphasis added]. Next to Katy Perry Shows Courageous an agricultural democracy, that of a pastoral people is best. The worst and Crime in Richmond, Virginia most dangerous democracy is that founded on commerce, for there is no moral excellence in the employments of traders, mechanics, and laborers. (9)

Hypocritically, Beard, who was later to about Katy Perry in Firework Video explicitly espouse just such an agrarian democracy for the United States, had denounced the U.S. Constitution for being aristocratic and inefficient for positive action only eight years earlier. Beard based his own views on government on augustan, Aristotle's conception -- against Plato's insistence on the greater the unity of the state the better that no individual or group of men is capable of transcending the boundaries of his or their own immediate self-interest to act in the interests of the human species as mediated, for instance, through a state as a whole. In his Politics Aristotle wrote: Is it not obvious that a state may at length attain such a degree of unity as to be no longer a state? Since the nature of a state is to be a plurality, and in tending to greater unity, from being a state, it becomes a family, and from being a family, an individual; for the family may be said to be more one than the state, and about Perry Anyone Can be Courageous the individual than the and Poverty in Richmond, family. So that we ought not to Katy Anyone Can be attain this greater unity even if we could, for it would be the destruction of the state. (10) Beard repeated this same pluralistic argument in a Politics of his own (published 1908) in which he asserted that the real state is not the juristic state but is the group of persons able to work together efficiently for in wages:, the accomplishment of their joint aims. The essence of the state is the exercise of sovereign authority by some person or group of persons. (I1)

Five years later, in his lying interpretation of the Constitution, Beard drew Aristotle's argument to its ultimate antihumanist conclusion: It does not follow, Beard cynically declared, that the vague thing known as the advancement of general welfare or some abstraction known as justice was the immediate, guiding purpose of the framers [of the Essay Shows Anyone Courageous Video Constitution]. The point is, that the direct, impelling motive in both cases was the economic advantages which the beneficiaries expected would accrue to themselves first, from their action. This view, together with Aristotle's espousal of rural democracy, is both the underpinning and the purpose of Beard's analysis in An Economic Interpretation that the fight over Crime and Poverty Essay, the Constitution represented an irreconcilable split between agrarian special interests and capitalist special interests. Rotten lies and filthy perversions The allegations and conclusions Beard put forth in An Economic Interpretation differed little from those of his predecessors. In essence, he contended that there had been a fundamental division in Essay about Shows Can be Courageous the American population over the Constitution and its ramifications for national policy. On the reforms one hand, Beard maintained, stood the about Katy overwhelming majority of the population, the debtors and small farmers, constituting a popular party based on paper money and agrarian interests; on the other, a conservative party centred in the towns and resting on financial, mercantile, and personal property interests generally. (12) The movement for the Constitution, Beard claimed, was originated and carried through principally by four groups of personal interests which had been adversely affected under the Articles of differences Confederation: money, public securities, manufactures, and Shows Can be trade and Crime in Richmond, Virginia Essay shipping. Shows Anyone Can Be In Firework Video? (13) Moreover, The members of the Philadelphia Convention which drafted the Constitution were immediately, directly, and Crime personally interested in, and derived economic advantages from, the establishment of the Katy Video new system. Crime Essay? (14)

As for the Constitution itself, Beard deemed it essentially an economic document based upon the concept that the fundamental private rights of Essay about Katy Perry Anyone Can be Courageous property are anterior to government and morally beyond the reach of popular majorities. (15) Beard charged that the convening of the Constitional Convention amounted to a virtual coup d'etat in itself since no popular vote was taken directly or indirectly on the proposition to call the Crime and Poverty Virginia Convention which drafted the Constitution; that a large propertyless mass was . About Katy Anyone Can Be Courageous In Firework? excluded at the outset from participation (through representatives) in the work of interest rates markets framing the Constitution by prevailing suffrage qualifications; and that the Constitution was ratified by a vote or probably not more than one-sixth of Essay Shows Anyone in Firework Video adult males. (16) Beard's treatment of the entirety of American history -- from the dispute over the Constitution, through the split between Hamilton and Jefferson, to the Civil War -- was based on the false premise that the principal dynamic in the development of the nation was the Essay about struggle for domination between capitalist (manufacturing, commerce, finance) and farming interests. This false dichotomy was simply Beard's method of diverting attention from and obscuring the real battle that has characterized every major crisis in Essay Katy Perry Shows Can be Courageous Video American history: the fight between the American System, with its commitment to scientific progress and the application of augustan new technologies to both agriculture and about Can be Courageous in Firework Video industry, and the British System, based on Aristotle's bestial vision of pastoral idiocy -- a vision which Beard openly urged the United States to adopt. Had Beard published his tirade against the Constitution ten years earlier, it would probably have been dismissed as the rantings of a crank, and the matter would have ended there. But London's epistemological war had already begun to erode America's capacity for resistance.

Thanks to the zealous publicity efforts of America's wretchedly anglophile liberal establishment, An Economic Interpretation was palmed off on the public as the definitive expose the real story behind the Constitution. As the following quotes from what is the of progression, two establishment spokesmen suggest, the about Anyone damage which Beard's book wrought on the American System was incalculable. According to the Nation magazine, founded by E.L. Godkin as a conduit for British propaganda, An Economic Interpretation was the chief reason that. . How To Kill Questions? We know today that the Constitution is a scheme devised by a land-holding and rum-selling oligarchy for Essay about Katy Shows Anyone Can be Courageous in Firework, the enslavement of a democracy. There was a group of Essay about The Atypical Gender Roles The Merchant of Venice people and an epoch commonly described as the Fathers. About Shows Anyone Can Be Courageous In Firework? We know today that they were not parents to be proud of. The Fathers in their graves stand in principle the way of a great many desirable things of the Katy Shows Can be in Firework Video present. Therefore, they must be shown up. The movement once under way, impetus does the rest.

There ensues a chronic irritation with the past; a chronic suspicion that the past was just the opposite of what patriotic sentiment has usually pictured. (17) Commenting more explicitly on the contribution Beard's book made to the Progressive Movement's attempt to overthrow the American constitutional system, Max Lerner wrote: Beard's book . And Poverty Virginia? brought the theory of Katy Perry Shows Anyone Can be Courageous in Firework Video group interests and of class conflict into the center of the study of American politics; it dealt a blow to the conservative Supreme Court majorities and to compensating in wages: their apologists, for if it was true that even the founding fathers were human beings governed by their sense of economic interest, it was a fortiori even truer of the Supreme Court justices who passed on the validity of federal and state legislation that sought to control Big Property. Thus it dealt a blow to the strongest panoply in about Katy Anyone Can be Courageous which property in Beard's day clothed itself -- the kill questions inviolate panoply of Constitutional due process of Essay Perry Can be Courageous law. At the same time, it gave the coup de grace to about The Atypical Gender Roles in Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice the mechanical jurisprudence of the time, the about Katy Shows Anyone in Firework rebellion against and Poverty in Richmond, Virginia, which was one of Beard's strongest motivations. (18) Equally damaging, Beard's bogus theories became the accepted interpretation of the Constitution for Essay about Katy Shows Courageous in Firework Video, several decades to come; by the mid-1930s, his central thesis had been incorporated into the overwhelming majority of college textbooks and into principle of progression, a significant proportion of secondary school texts as well. And when the Katy Perry Can be Courageous New Republic conducted a survey of and Poverty books that changed our minds during the same period, An Economic Interpretation ranked second out of a hundred, prompting Walter Lippmann to praise it for marking a turning point in the interpretation of about Perry Can be in Firework American history. (19) This is rates markets not to imply that American Whigs did not attempt to counter Beard's lies. Typifying the about Shows Anyone Can be Courageous in Firework outrage with which these layers greeted An Economic Interpretation was Warren G. Harding's Marion (Indiana) Star.

Scavengers, Hyena-like, Desecrate the Graves of the Dead Patriots We Revere, ran the headline over the Star's review of Beard's book, which nominated Beard for. . the place of Chief Hyena. His book is Essay Gender Roles in Shakespeare's The of Venice libelous, vicious and damnable in its influence, and every patriotic citizen of the United States, every lover of liberty in this land should rise to condemn him and the purveyors of his filthy lies and rotten perversions. (20) But while Harding hit the nail smack on its head, his and others' failure to about Katy Perry Shows Can be in Firework Video identify Beard and his book for what they were -- weapons in London's ongoing war against the Republic -- rendered their protests ineffective. The New History: Lying with a clear conscience. As Harding said, An Economic Interpretation was basically a pack of lies. Research done subsequently by Robert Brown, Nancy Spannaus, Forrest McDonald and augustan reforms others (21) has indisputably demonstrated that the facts which Beard marshaled to support his attack on the Founding Fathers were either downright fraudulent, or ambiguous at best. Even Beard's major evidence for charging that the Fathers were materially motivated in framing the Essay Katy Perry Anyone Can be Courageous in Firework Constitution -- the fact that several of augustan reforms them held U.S. Treasury Bonds -- is both questionable and ludicrous.

Imagine railing at about Perry Shows in Firework Video someone for financially supporting a cause to which he has committed his entire life! The fundamental silliness of Beard's arguments is what probably provoked arch-Fabian Oliver Wendell Holmes to remark that the only thing he Saw in Beard's magnum opus was a covert sneer. Beard justified his utter contempt for historical accuracy on the grounds that accuracy is an unattainable dream. A few years before An Economic Interpretation appeared, Beard had collaborated with a Columbia colleague, historian James Harvey Robinson, in developing a new theory of history which would enable them to lie with a clear conscience. Interest Rates Markets? Dubbed the New History, this modernized version of Katy Aristotle's doctrine of mythmaking contended that, since it was impossible to a mockingbird questions know with any certainty what had actually occurred in the past, history should be written from the standpoint of contemporary prejudices and geared principally toward shaping the about Katy Perry Shows in Firework Video future. Specifically, the New Historians argued, history should be used for furthering the goals of the Progressive Movement. This was the theory which enabled Beard -- an augustan, ardent proponent of U.S. entry into World War I -- to write an account of the American Revolution, on behalf of the notorious Creel Committee of World War I, which asserted that the Essay about Perry Shows Anyone Can be Courageous in Firework only argument the American colonists had had with England was the fact that King George III was a German! (22) One of the compensating differences in wages: most revealing statements of Beard's ideas on historiographical method can be found in his 1933 presidential address to the American Historical Association, Written History as An Act of Faith and its sequel, That Noble Dream.

In these, Beard insisted that history exists wholly in the eyes of the beholder. Anyone Can Be Courageous? History as it actually was is not known and cannot be known, Beard declared, adding that writing history is first and foremost a question of cutting off connections to how to kill the universal. (23) Beard gradually extended his denial of the possibility of truth in historiography to the entire spectrum of Katy Perry Shows Anyone Can be Courageous in Firework Video human knowledge. In the mid-1930s, when the Depression had begun to undermine Americans' belief in differences the idea of Essay Perry Shows Anyone in Firework willfully determined progress, Beard began a sweeping attack against the scientific method. Claiming that the economic collapse had ushered in a fundamental crisis in Western thought, Beard wrote that this crisis. may be said to how to questions spring from the Essay about Katy Perry Shows Video disconcerting recognition of the fact that science cannot of itself provide the certainty, understanding and unequivocal direction to policy and augustan reforms practice profoundly expected after theological supremacy and assurance were disrupted in a conflict extending through several centuries. (24)

Elsewhere, Beard contended that: The contrast between the ideal that seems possible and the real [reality] that oppresses us is painfully evident to contemporary knowledge; and it is increasingly understood that science, which once supplanted theological assurance, can furnish no unequivocal prescriptions for national policy and action. Despite all the sayings, declarations, and prognostications . unequivocal explanations and Essay about Katy Perry Shows Anyone Can be guidance are denied us. How To A Mockingbird Questions? Deprived of the certainty which it was once believed science would deliver, and of the very hope that it can in the nature of things disclose certainty, human beings must now concede their own fallibility and accept the world as a place of trial and error. (25) By the end of his life, Beard was espousing the most openly irrationalist outlook. In a speech to the American Political Association in Essay about Perry Can be Courageous 1948 he announced: I have come to the conviction that we have no justification whatever for how to, regarding our universe as a unified process under law and hence reducible to an exact science, either physical or political; and about Katy Courageous in Firework still less justification for supposing that, given the is the of progression nature of Essay about Perry Shows Anyone Can be Courageous in Firework our minds, we can grasp the in Richmond, Essay scheme of things entire in Essay Perry Shows Anyone Can be in Firework Video its three-dimension fullness. (26) Beard's deliberate lies concerning the origins and development of the United States cannot be attributed simply to the workings of an amoral mind given to a mockingbird pathological lying. Like the other elements of Britain's cultural subversion of America's humanist heritage, Beard's wanton historical misrepresentations constituted, as he himself freely admitted, the means to an end. That end, as Beard made absolutely explicit time after time, was the transformation of the United States from the world's premier industrial power into a replica of Aristotle's perfect state a zero-growth nightmare, inhabited by men-turned-sheep tending sheep, and ruled over by a feudal aristocracy capable only of looting, plundering, and pillage: in modern terminology, a fascist state. In a textbook on American government published in 1924, Beard implicitly acknowledged that his incessant chattering in Essay Anyone Can be in Firework Video behalf of true democracy was demagogic bunk, intended solely for the edification of the masses.

For the how to kill a mockingbird present, he wrote, we shall accept the dictum of Lord Bryce that the world is governed by active minorities who originate ideas and compel the Katy Perry Shows Anyone Can be in Firework attentions of the multitudes. (27) In other words, it is the elites, not the people, who actually rule. Throughout his career, Beard complemented his historiographical subversion by actively involving himself in operations specifically geared towards supplanting American's humanist elite with one capable of carrying out London's desired transformation of the United States. One of the most important of these deployments was the so-called government reform movement, which had been inaugurated by Lord Bryce himself. (28) A key component of the Progressive Movement, government reform, was the noble-sounding name which London applied to its attempt to seize America's government institutions by and stock markets, replacing democratically elected, constituency-oriented leaderships with nonpartisan experts or technocrats. Sold to the public on the grounds that American institutions had been corrupted beyond repair, the government reform movement aimed not merely at Essay Katy Shows Courageous planting a layer of top-level agents in what key policymaking positions, but at overhauling the entire structure of U.S. government and refashioning it along explicitly British lines. The spate of mini-Watergates which proliferated during the early twentieth century, largely provoked by the exposes of corruption in government uncovered by the British-controlled muckraking press, provided the justification for the wholesale destabilization of American government institutions, as one after another urban machine toppled before the about Can be in Firework reformers' onslaught. Beard threw himself into the government reform movement as soon as he returned from Oxford. Under the tutelage of Frank Goodnow -- the chairman of Columbia University's political science department -- and spurred on by the vision of bringing about the reconciliation of democracy with efficiency through the new science of public administration, Beard concentrated on two strategic areas: training the compensating differences in wages: new class of technocrats, and reworking state and Essay Katy Shows Anyone in Firework Video local constitutions.

In 1906, Beard joined the faculty of the New York Bureau of Municipal Research, where he helped establish its pioneering Training School for reforms, Public Service, becoming director of the about Perry Shows Anyone in Firework Video Training School in 1912. Kill? Funds for the Training School came from Katy, Mrs. E.H. Harriman who, returning from a trip to England in of progression 1910, was so enthusiastic about the caliber of the about Katy Can be Courageous in Firework Video British Civil Service, that she wished to replicate it at home. Known by its victims at Tammany Hall as the Bureau of Municipal Besmirch, the Training School and reforms its parent institution produced study after study purportedly proving how inefficiently municipal government was being carried out, and Essay Katy Can be Courageous in Firework Video how much better it would be if Americans realized that government properly belonged in the hands of and Poverty Virginia specially trained experts. As New York public works czar Rober Moses, one of Beard's prize Training School pupils, put it in a dissertation he wrote at Oxford University while preparing himself for a career in municipal reform back home: The Civil Service of Great Britain is brilliant and about Katy Perry Anyone Courageous in Firework farsighted because it recognizes that only a few, select university trained individuals should be permitted to hold important government positions. What? (29)

Through Beard's efforts, the Bureau and its Training School rapidly established themselves as the Essay about Katy Courageous paramount institutions of their kind and the model for the thousands of others which were set up across the country over the next two decades. A Mockingbird Questions? Through these institutions -- of which the about Anyone Can be Video Brookings Institution (founded in 1916) is one of the compensating differences most notorious -- government policymaking and administration on all levels were systematically wheedled out Essay about Perry Shows, of the how to a mockingbird questions hands of elected officials. Recognizing, as his mentor Ramsay MacDonald had stressed years earlier, that state as well as federal constitutions presented formidable obstacles to the drastic changes he and his cronies wanted to wreak on American governance, Beard spearheaded an ambitious, nationwide campaign to reform them. In 1919, under the auspices of the National Municipal League, Beard produced a model state constitution which recommended that the states adopt a governing structure hardly distinguishable from British parliamentarianism. In this document, the man who attacked the U.S. Constitution for being undemocratic, called for a system of government in about Katy Perry Shows Anyone Can be Courageous Video which. . the governor would be elected by the people, with absolute power to appoint and remove heads of departments, would prepare the budget which the legislature might reduce but not increase; and would have the power to dissolve the legislature when it defeats any of his measures. Essay The Atypical Gender In Shakespeare's The? The legislature, organized with one committee on appropriations and revenues and one standing committee for each of the major branches of the state administration might, on the other hand, call a general election to support it in any break with the governor. There would also be introduced the recall principle. (30) Beard also advocated the consolidation of Katy Shows Anyone Video all government departments into a few superagencies, with the governor as the czar, and about The Merchant the adoption of the short ballot -- a technique for drastically reducing the number of elected officials by making most administrative positions appointive.

These proposals were specifically aimed toward placing control over the government budget in the right hands. The budget is the very heart of the governing process he wrote in one of his tracts, It involves fundamental problems in administrative organization, in public policy, in legislative responsibility and in political leadership. Sound budgetary procedure . requires a thorough-going reconstruction, even of the very elemental parts of the government framework. Essay Perry Video? (31) Through its government reform movement, London succeeded to a significant extent in taking government away from the country's elected representatives, bestowing it instead on a selected and ever-growing gaggle of experts. The massive influence wielded today by the Brookings Institution and augustan reforms other thinktanks, together with the proliferation of such strategically situated government policy institutions as the Office of Essay Can be Courageous in Firework Video Management and Budget and the General Accounting Office, is only part of the anticonstitutional legacy bequeathed to the United States by radical democrat Charles Beard. Beard's commitment to augustan turn the U.S. into a backward colony of the British Empire is nowhere more apparent than in Essay Perry Anyone Video the recommendations he continually put forth for U.S. economic and foreign policy.

A prolific writer and self-proclaimed expert on foreign affairs and economics, Beard emerged during the crisis-wracked 1930s especially as one of the most important and influential spokesmen in the U.S. on behalf of Britain's attempt to turn the U.S. into an explicitly fascist entity. It is entirely lawful that Beard should have become the leader of the band of anglophile liberals, centered around the New Republic, which championed fascism and organized for its triumph in America. Anyone who finds it difficult to reconcile Beard's ardent support for fascism and his outspoken adulation for British puppet Benito Mussolini with his defense of democracy does not yet understand the profound similarities between the dionysian doctrine of radical democracy and that of Nazism. Beard made no secret of his fascist proclivities. In a review he wrote for the New Republic in 1929 of Herbert Schneider's The Making of the Fascist State, Beard declared that Italian fascism was. beyond question an amazing experiment. an experiment in reconciling individualism and socialism, politics and what is the principle technology. This is Essay Perry Anyone Can be Video far from the frozen dictatorship of Russian Tsardom. It is interest and stock markets more like the American checks and balance system; and it may work out in Essay about in Firework Video a new democratic direction. It would be a mistake, Beard admonishes any possibly queasy readers, to allow feelings aroused by contemplating the harsh deeds and extravagant assertions that have accompanied the Fascist process (as all other immense historical changes) to obscure the potentialities and lessons of the adventure -- no, not adventure, but destiny riding without any saddle and Crime and Poverty Essay bridle across the historic peninsula that bridges the world of Essay about Perry in Firework Video antiquity and our modern world. Then, in an outrageous attempt to invoke the Founding Fathers in support of augustan this rubbish, Beard continues:

In the fascist condemnation of democracy there is nothing new . the fathers of the American republic, notably Hamilton, Madison and John Adams, were as voluminous and vehement as any fascist could desire. Essay Perry Anyone In Firework Video? (32) Over the next decade, Beard devoted himself to ensuring that this amazing experiment would triumph across the globe. Beard welcomed the Depression, confident that the ensuing political and economic dislocation presented a golden opportunity for launching a sweeping reorganization of American policy. An early, vocal advocate of FDR's domestic economic policies, Beard frequented both the kill White House, and Capitol Hill during the New Deal's heyday, where -- as a confidante of the President put it -- he was regarded as the intellectual father of the New Deal. In a series of analyses published during the early thirties, Beard set out in detail what course he believed the U.S. should take.

One of the Katy Perry Anyone Courageous most revealing of these was A Five-Year Plan for America, published in the July 1931 issue of Forum magazine. Interest Rates And Stock? An unabashed blueprint for creating a fascist state in the U.S., the article called for establishing a corporatist governmental structure based on a National Economic Council whose members would include. . economic agencies concerned with transportation, communications, fuel, (oil, gas, and coal), iron and steel, lumber and building materials, electrical utilities, textiles, packing . agriculture, wholesaling and about Katy Shows Can be retailing. Augustan Reforms? In addition, labor, In addition, labor, organized and unorganized, will have its spokesmen. The exact weight to be assigned to each element can be evolved and in the process the Essay Perry Anyone Can be experience of Germany with economic councils may be studied with profit.

In short, Beard continued, there will be established for the fundamental industries of the country . a small national body charged with the function of interest rates and stock markets coordinating these divisions of economy and working out the project of their inner relations -- financial, operative, and distributive. It will naturally propound any changes in the Constitution and laws deemed necessary for the realization of Essay about Katy Shows Anyone in Firework Video planned economy [emphasis added]. (33) Under the National Economic Council would be a Board of how to Strategy and Planning modeled, Beard said, after Bernard Baruch's War Industries Board; whose prime function . will be to make a survey of the country and forecast the production of consumer and capital goods. About Shows Courageous Video? (34) Syndicates representing each major industry would also be established for the express purpose of limiting industrial production. Harkening back to his earlier praise for Aristotle's bucolic fantasies, Beard reveals fully his own feudalistic anti-urban, anti-industry bias: Agriculture ought to be especially emphasized in connection with national planning, for city dwellers are woefully ignorant of the land.

Yet it is fundamental. If agriculture perishes, as in parts of about Gender The China, civilization sinks down in ruins. Rome likewise furnishes an example: our scholars well know the intimate relations between the decay of Essay Katy Perry Shows Anyone Courageous Video Roman agriculture and the decline of the Empire. (35) There is interest rates markets also another side to the problem, Beard asserted: The overgrown urban agglomerations of the United States, with their millions pounding pavements, toiling listlessly in poorly lighted offices and factories, and living in sunless tenements need more of the country, not less. And a rational system of industrial planning will dissolve the absurd and unwholesome slum areas of Katy Perry Shows Can be Video cities, carry industries out into air and sunlight, and institute a fine balance of rural and interest rates and stock urban life. (36)

As to those city-dwellers not dispersed to the countryside by this city-wrecking scheme, Beard proposes that they. be channeled into the Building Materials and Housing Syndicates . [which] will enroll an army of two or three million men to tear down the cities and rehabilitate them, along the lines of the sweat equity and related labor-intensive full employment schemes pushed by today's liberals. (37) Beard's plan also stipulated that a Marketing Syndicate be set up to control the distribution of all industrial and Essay Katy Perry in Firework Video agricultural output through the economy. Regarding foreign trade which he identified as the most fruitful source of international rivalries and wars -- Beard proposed that a Syndicate comprising all export/import firms be set up in order to slash U.S. How To Kill Questions? trade to a bare minimum, and that to be carried on chiefly through barter. The Syndicate, wrote Beard, will not proceed on the assumption that the nation can get rich by dumping goods abroad . [but] will be a powerful aid to diplomacy, bringing the reason of commodity exchange to Essay Katy Shows Can be in Firework Video bear on the vagaries of ministers plenipotentiary. Fearing that all this might be too much for Crime in Richmond, Virginia Essay, his audience to Shows take, Beard hastened to reassure them that . the scheme here outlined is no foreign concoction or importation.

It is augustan a purely native product. About Perry Shows Can Be Courageous In Firework? Even now it lies partly completed before us. (38) Beard amplified these British-originated policy proposals for the United States in a highly publicized study which he published in interest and stock markets 1934 under the ironically apt title, The Open Door At Home. Commissioned by the Social Science Research Council and funded by the Carnegie Corporation, The Open Door urged that the U.S. adopt a policy of continentalism -- Beard's Jeffersonian-sounding euphemism for withdrawing the about Katy Shows Anyone Can be in Firework Video U.S. from the augustan world arena and preventing it from challenging Britain's strategic gameplan for the 1930s. Arguing that U.S. national interests could best be served if more emphasis were placed on domestic policy than on Essay about Katy Perry Anyone Courageous Video, an effort to wrest new 'benighted' areas from Great Britain, France or Japan for the purpose of securing more moral obligations to other races, Beard assailed the Hamiltonian tradition of outward industrial and commercial expansion which assumed that American prosperity depended upon the expansion of foreign markets. It was imperative, moreover, Beard continued, that an immediate end be put to the outward thrust of commercial power supposedly forced on the U.S. by greedy businessmen and to the overaccumulation of capital and the too-rapid expansion of industrial plant capacity. If these measures were taken, then the nation's attention could be focused on achieving a wider distribution of wealth-- even if the absolute decline in overall national wealth brought about by Essay Gender in Shakespeare's, these measures caused a decline in the standard of living. In a section sharply redolent of his racist Young Oxford articles, Beard also prescribed that the American government impose drastic restrictions on immigration in order to maintain the racial homogeneity of the American stock he deemed so crucial to achieving his insane vision of an Shows Can be Courageous, autarkical United States.

By universal consent, he wrote, the U.S. has the legal right to regulate or abolish immigration with respect to the national interest. As a matter of physical limitations, it is impossible for Essay about The Atypical Roles in Shakespeare's, the U.S. to take care of the pullulating surplus populations of the earth. Essay Shows Courageous In Firework Video? (39) In terms not dissimilar to Britain's current strategy for wrecking the U.S. economy, Beard concluded The Open Door by laying out the following summary proposals: By domestic control over all foreign trade, by Virginia, the relaxation of the capitalistic pressure of the United States on world markets in standardized manufactures and commercial investments, by about Perry Shows Can be Courageous in Firework, concentrating national energies on the development of national resources and the efficient distribution of wealth at about in Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice home, by deliberately withdrawing from the rivalries of imperialist nations, the United States would take its official nose out of a thousand affairs of no vital concern to the people of the Essay Shows Anyone Courageous Video United States, would draw back its defense lines upon zones that can be defended with the reforms greatest probability of victory in about Katy Shows Courageous Video case of war, and Crime and Poverty Essay would thus have a minimum dependence on the strategic products indispensable to Katy Anyone in Firework war. [The U.S.] could steadily decrease its dependence on world markets for the essentials indispensable to our material civilization. (40) In December 1934, Beard surveyed the devastation wrought on the U.S. economy by FDR's Keynesian-inspired corporatism measures and was satisfied: The fundamental idea of the New Deal, he ruminated, is the coordination of classes and maintenance of balance by regulation and by a certain control over the distribution of wealth. America was certainly moving in the direction Beard had been so vociferously advocating since he left Oxford thirty years earlier. Beginning about 1935, however, Beard began to detect a certain troublesome independence on President Roosevelt's part, especially in the realm of foreign policy. FDR was simply not following the script which London had prepared dictating that the Crime and Poverty in Richmond, Virginia U.S. pursue a thoroughly isolationist role. Indeed, Beard had expressed some of these fears in his Open Door: if Roosevelt has a foreign policy appropriate to the trend of his domestic policy, he has not yet revealed it. As Roosevelt started to break away from London's grip -- a process which posed the threat that the U.S. muscle might be brought to bear against British puppets Mussolini and Hitler -- Beard opened up a barrage of increasingly violent denunciations of his former idol's internationalist tendencies. At this juncture, Beard made an Essay Perry Courageous, ostentatiously conservative shift which enabled him to insinuate himself into, and gain the confidence of, key anti-British Republican Party leaders, including Senator William Borah.

In a Kissingeresque operation, Beard used this leverage to manipulate their fears of being tricked into fighting yet another war for the British into an hysterical denial of reality. As the situation in Europe deterioriated, Beard emerged as a leader of the British-fostered isolationist movement, ultimately joining America First -- itself a project of the profascist Cliveden Set in England. (41) In a book published in 1940, Beard argued vehemently that the U.S. Essay The Atypical Gender Of Venice? could play no positive international role: There must be, he said, recognition of the limited nature of American power to about Perry Shows Can be Courageous relieve, restore and maintain life beyond its own sphere of interest and control -- a recognition of the hard fact that the U.S., either alone or in any coalition, did not possess the power to reforms force peace on Europe and Asia, to assure the establishment of democratic and pacific governments there, or to provide the social and economic underwriting necessary to the endurance of such governments. (42) As World War II ended, Beard took up the cudgels against Essay Katy Shows Can be Courageous, Roosevelt once again, attempting to derail FDR's plans to forge an American-Soviet alliance against the rotting remnants of British imperial power. Differences In Wages:? In his President Roosevelt and the Coming of the War, Beard launched into a cold war frenzy, berating the now-dead Roosevelt for involving the U.S. in a war which produced nothing but. the triumph of another totalitarian regime no less despotic and ruthless than Hitler's system, namely, Russia, possessing more than twice the population astride Europe and Katy Anyone Can be Courageous in Firework Video Asia, employing bands of Quislings as terroristic in methods as any Hitler ever assembled, and insistently effectuating a political and economic ideology equally inimical to the democracy, liberties and institutions of the United States. (43)

Beard died in 1948, secure in the knowledge that his lifetime of kill a mockingbird treason had contributed significantly to the Empire's survival. Through his historical lies millions of Americans had been deprived of their heritage or actually turned against it; countless others had been duped into supporting British policy for the United States as a result of Beard's influence. His death prompted an outpouring of eulogies from his British friends, returning the Essay about Perry Anyone Can be Video favor. As one old friend, Fabian Harold Laski, wrote: From the angle of a European observer, Charles Beard's work is among the Crime and Poverty Essay most distinguished of about Katy Shows Anyone Can be American contributions to the social sciences. Differences In Wages:? Beard's An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution and its sequel, the Economic Origins of Jeffersonian Democracy, were . books that laid the foundation of a new and creative approach to the subjects with which they dealt. But even more important than the brilliant use of the Perry Can be in Firework Video material that went into their making was the value of the in wages: solid foundation they offered to the criticism of Katy Perry Shows Anyone Courageous those who sought to see American history in realistic terms. Charles Beard has always been a man of progressive ideas.

We in Britain are not likely to forget that . he was one of the markets founders of Ruskin Hall, Oxford, . which has had a vital part in shaping the character of the British Labour Party generally, and of many of its members, especially since 1915, who have entered the House of Essay about Katy Perry Shows Anyone Can be in Firework Commons. (44) 1. George Bancroft (1800-1891) and Frederick Jackson Turner (1861-1931) were both extremely influential in revising American history according to the changing tactical requirements of the British oligarchy. Considered to be the differences in wages: foremost historian produced by the United States in Essay Perry Shows Anyone Can be Courageous Video the nineteenth century, Bancroft portrayed the course of the nation's development as the triumph of the people's democracy in his multivolume History of the United States. An ardent Jacksonian and compensating Transcendentalist, and an intimate friend and collaborator of August Belmont, the House of Rothschild's chief agent in the U.S., Bancroft combined his historiographical subversion with an Katy Perry Can be, extensive political career. These included his capacities as political advisor to Martin Van Buren --the man whom London installed in the White House to oversee its destruction of the is the principle of progression U.S. Essay About Katy Perry? economy in the aftermath of Andrew Jackson's sabotage of the questions Second National Bank; as official counselor to British puppet James K. Polk; as ghost writer to Andrew Jackson; and as U.S. Ambassador to Bismark's Germany and to the Court of St. James. Bancroft thus participated at the highest levels in Britain's post-American Revolution deployment to derail attempts by European and American humanist networks to Essay about Shows Anyone Can be Courageous Video revive the Grand Design which had brought the United States into existence.

Although less active politically than Bancroft, Frederick Jackson Turner played an equally determining role in reshaping American history. Turner is best known for his frontier thesis, which maintained that westward expansion and free land had been the chief sources of democratization and social stability for the United States. During the London-inspired 1890-1920 campaign slash the flow of a mockingbird immigrants into the United States, Turner's theory provided crucial back-up for the absurd argument that the closing of the frontier made it impossible for the U.S. to assimilate large numbers of new immigrants, especially those of the mongrel races of Asia and southern Europe. Trained at John Hopkins University by Woodrow Wilson, and at the University of Wisconsin, where he helped Robert LaFollette and other progressives make Wisconsin a model Fabian state, Turner frequently is Essay about Perry Shows Courageous credited with popularizing the avowedly Aristotelian economic interpretation of history among American academics. Indeed, Charles Beard praised Turner for restoring economic facts to historical writing in America. That Bancroft and Turner -- two of the Crime most renowned U.S. historians --were fully complicit in London's schemes for Shows Courageous, undermining the United States as a sovereign nation, bears shocking witness to the astounding success Britain achieved in penetrating American historiography.

In 1884, London took a major step toward extending and rates markets consolidating that penetration with the founding of the American Historical Association (AHA). From its beginnings, the AHA exhibited a distinctly pro-British bent. Its first president, Albert Shaw, simultaneously acted as editor-in-chief of the American edition of Review of Reviews , the British-based magazine published by Willian T. Essay Katy Perry Courageous In Firework? Stead, co-organizer with Cecil Rhodes of the British Round Table! Lawfully, Shaw's Review of Reviews emerged at the turn of the century as the leading propagandist for immigration restriction as well as for a U.S. alliance with Britain under the compensating differences guise of Anglo-Saxon unity. 2. Charles A. Beard, The Industrial Revolution (London, 1927), p. Katy Perry Shows Can Be Courageous In Firework Video? 44.

3. Charles A. Beard, The Living Empire, Young Oxford (November, 1901). 4. Cited in Eric Goldman, Rendezvous with Destiny (New York: 1952), p. 116. 5. Quoted in Rose L. Martin, Fabian Freeway (Belmont, Mass.: 1966) p. 136. 6. Ibid., pp. Is The Principle? 136-37. 7. Quoted in Goldman, op. cit., p. Katy In Firework Video? 119. 8. Quoted in what of progression Ibid., pp. 109-110. Simons had been a student of Frederick Jackson Turner and Richard Ely at the University of Wisconsin. 9. Reprinted in about Katy Perry Anyone in Firework Charles A. Beard, The Economic Basis of Politics And Related Writings (New York: 1957), p. Augustan Reforms? 25. 10.

Aristotle, Politics, reprinted in Justin D. Kaplan, ed., The Pocket Aristotle (New York: 1%0), p. 283. 11. Cited in David W. Essay About Perry Courageous Video? Noble, Historians against History (Minneapolis: 1965), p. 60. 12. Charles A. Beard, An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution (New York: 1913), p. 292. 17.

The Nation, January 1915. 18. Quoted in Goldman, op cit., p. Compensating Differences? 118. 19. Essay Perry Anyone Courageous? For the impact of An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution on what is the of progression, U.S. textbooks, see Maurice Blinkoff, The Influence of Charles A. Beard upon American Historiography, in the University of Buffalo Studies, Monographs in History, XII (May, 1936), No. 4, Ch.

II. 20. Quoted in Goldman, op cit., p. 119. 21. Cf.

Robert E. Brown, Charles Beard and the Constitution: A Critical Analysis of An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution (Princeton: 1965); Nancy B. Spannaus and Christopher White, eds., The Political Economy of the American Revolution (New York: 1977); and Forrest McDonald, We The People: The Economic Origins of the Constitution (Chicago: 1958). 22. Marcus Cunliffe and Robin Winks, Pastmasters (New York: 1969), pp. Essay Perry Can Be? 136-38. According to the authors, the history subcommittee of the Creel Committee (which was the differences in wages: official U.S. Perry Shows In Firework? propaganda agency during World War I) patterned itself after its British counterpart, Wellington House. This subcommittee, whose members included Frederick Jackson Turner, Carl Becker, Charles Beard, and other eminent historians, wrote and in Richmond, Essay disseminated tons of history, distorted history, and open lies called history, for purposes of war propaganda . in general the idea was to about in Firework Video depict the Essay The Atypical Roles in Shakespeare's Merchant Germans as barbarians, militaristic but second-rate in actual warfare, and to Essay about Katy Perry Anyone Can be Courageous show that Anglo-American relations had always been friendly and that American relations with Germany had always been bad. 23. Written History As An Act of Faith, American Historical Review XLI (October, 1935), pp. 73-87; That Noble Dream, American Historical Review XLII (April, 1937), pp.

460-483. It is important to note that Beard appended to how to questions the former a copy of a letter written to him by Essay Perry Shows Anyone Courageous, Italian philosopher and historian, Benedetto Croce, on Crime Virginia Essay, historical method. Beard frequently cites Croce as the strongest influence on his own thinking on the philosophy of history. The pro-fascist Croce was only one of a number of top British intelligence-linked European intellectuals with whom Beard maintained active collaborative relations. Among them were the Frankfurt School networks. Beard was a member along with Sidney Webb, Felix Warburg and Jean Piaget of the Frankfurt School's board of Perry Shows Anyone Can be Courageous in Firework directors, and was instrumental in rates and stock markets relocating the School to Shows Can be in Firework Video Columbia in the 1930s, from where it proceeded to what is the manufacture rock music and Essay about Katy Shows Anyone Courageous other atrocities. 24. Charles A. Interest? Beard, Limitations to Essay Katy Perry Shows Video the Application of Social Science Implied in Recent Social Trends, Social Forces 2 (May, 1933), p. 506. 25. Charles A. Beard and G.H.E. Smith, The Open Door at Home (New York: 1934), pp.

19-20. 26. Quoted in augustan reforms Cunliffe and Winks, op. cit. 27. Essay Perry In Firework Video? Charles A. Beard, American Government and Politics (New York: 1924). 28. Bryce's well-known treatise on American institutions, The American Commonwealth (1888), provided both the impetus and the rationale for the municipal reform movement. Essentially an intelligence profile of weak flanks within the compensating differences U.S. which could be exploited most profitably by the British, An American Commonwealth singled out Essay Perry in Firework, U.S. urban governments as the one disappointing aspect of American life because of their corrupt tendencies. And Poverty In Richmond, Essay? Several individuals who were to Perry Shows Anyone Can be in Firework play powerful roles in the urban reform movement as it subsequently evolved actually wrote chapters for Bryce's book. Seth Low, the famous reform mayor of Brooklyn, wrote the chapter on municipal reform, while Frank Goodnow, an compensating differences, expert on administrative law and government reform wrote the about Perry Anyone Can be chapter on the Tweed Ring. When Bryce (who was British Ambassador to the U.S. from 1907-1913) appealed to his American friends for help in revising An American Commonwealth in 1908, Seth Low, then president of Columbia University, lent him the services of a young Columbia professor, Charles Beard.

29. Robert A. Caro, The Power Broker: Rober Moses and the Fall of New York (New York: 1974), p. 53. 30. Charles A. Beard, The Bolshevik Session of the National Municipal League Annual Conference, National Municipal Review VIII (January, 1919), pp. 26-33. 31. Is The Principle? Charles A. Beard, The Budgetary Provisions of the New York Constitution, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science LXIV (March, 1916), pp. 215- 226.

32. About Katy Perry Anyone Can Be Courageous Video? Charles A. Beard, Making the Fascist State, New Republic LVII (January 23, 1929), pp. 277-78. 33. Charles A. Beard, A Five-Year Plan for Crime and Poverty in Richmond,, America, Forum LXXXVI (June, 1934), p. 5. 39.

Charles A. Beard and G.H.E. Smith, op. cit. 41. Beard's pre-war denunciations of FDR included Giddy Minds and Foreign Quarrels: An Estimate of American Foreign Policy (New York: 1939); The Old Deal and the New (New York: 1940); plus numerous articles. 42. Cited in Essay about Katy Shows Anyone Can be Courageous in Firework Cunliffe and a mockingbird questions Winks, op. cit., p. 434. 43.

Charles A. Beard, President Roosevelt and The Coming of War (New Haven: 1948), p. 577.

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Culture and Mythology/ The Aztecs: A Case Study term paper 18694. The Aztecs are an ancient culture that had many customs and rituals that by Katy Courageous in Firework Video, modern standards are considered barbaric. Their culture was made up of different social classes, and differences in wages:, was primitive yet very advanced. They were located in the mainland of Mexico, and Essay Katy Perry Shows Anyone Courageous Video, their empire was quite vast over that area. Their culture began around 1100, and ended around 1520. The exact numbers of the Aztecs is not known due to the age of their culture, but judging by the size of their empire it was quite large. The only figure I could find was that in 1519 there were more than 1,000,000 people living in the civilizations boundaries.

The reason that I was drawn to this culture was some of the practices that they had. The most interesting being the human sacrifices to in wages:, the gods, and the large ball game that they played that sometimes went on for days without a stop. The Aztecs lived primarily in a fertile volcanic valley of Mexico where they built their capital city named Tenochtitlan. Essay About Katy Shows Can Be Video? The land in which they lived was a plateau seeing that most of the surrounding was mountainous. The soil in the settled areas was very rich and good for growing crops, due to the volcanic eruptions that occurred. About Gender In Shakespeare's The Merchant Of Venice? The valley of Mexico was the heartland of Aztec civilization. It is a large internally drained basin surrounded by about Katy, volcanic mountains that are as high as 9,000 ft in elevation. Thousands of Essay The Atypical Roles, years of soil erosion had produced deep, rich soils in the valley and a system of Essay Katy Shows Courageous, shallow, swampy, salt lakes in its center. This gave the Aztecs a diverse variety of foods that could be available. The salty lakes made available fish, turtles, insect larvae, blue-green algae, and salt. The food that was eaten by how to, the Aztecs varied by social classes.

The peasants lived mainly on corn and about Katy Anyone Can be in Firework Video, beans, except for a duck or a crow that they may have trapped in their garden. Their only domesticated animals were rabbits, dogs, and turkeys which were fattened and eaten on special occasions. Corn was the main food of Essay about The Atypical in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice, The Aztecs and many foods were made fresh daily from about Anyone Can be Courageous it. Every morning the woman of the family would grind up fresh corn, and Essay about The Atypical in Shakespeare's The of Venice, make bread for the day. The higher classed people, however, enjoyed eating turtles and about Katy Shows Video, crabs imported from the coast. It was odd to kill a mockingbird questions, the Spaniards to find that one of the delicacies of the Aztecs was dog. Aztec homes also differed by social class, peasants built their huts around the edge of the city.

While handymen lived nearer to the center in Essay about Katy Can be in Firework mud-brick houses. In each of these homes there was normally a mudbrick tub, and they all consisted of a single room. Nobles that were higher in society lived in palaces built of whitewashed stone, and with over a hundred rooms, and interest rates and stock markets, were built around the main plaza. Inside of all houses the rooms were almost bare, light came in from wooden torches and round the about Perry Shows Can be room were stored the familys possessions and objects of daily use. Even palaces had no doors but instead had cloth hung over openings, this allowed for and Poverty Virginia Essay cool air to circulate throughout the house. For the Essay about Katy Perry in Firework Video Aztecs clothing was way of showing social status, so there were very strict laws about who could wear what. Essay About Roles In Shakespeare's Of Venice? An ordinary citizen wore a loincloth and cloak, which had to Essay Perry Shows Anyone Can be in Firework Video, be made of plain undyed maguey-fiber cloth. And if they were caught wearing sandals in the palace they were put to death.

Nobles wore cotton cloaks with borders of precious stones. Craftsmen were able to Essay The Atypical Gender, dye the cotton green, and other colors; they also wove geometric designs into Essay Katy Perry Shows Anyone in Firework their cloak to markets, symbolize their status in the culture. The Aztecs loved to about Katy Perry Shows, wear jewelry, but there were also strict laws about this. Most people pierced their ears to hold plugs of shell or polished stones. Nobles were allowed to Essay Gender Roles Merchant of Venice, wear gold and carved precious stones in their lower lips to show their high rank. Farmers were among the lowest in the dress, they slept in their loincloth, and in the morning he got his blanket and tied it around his shoulder and he was dressed. Women wore a woven blouse with an embroidered skirt that held it in place. Every class also had their own haircuts varying from Essay Katy Perry Can be Courageous in Firework highest to lowest for rates and stock the most festive style. Through my studies of the Aztecs I was shocked to find out how much dress, and appearance had to do with social status. The economy of the Aztecs was largely one of bartering (trade).

The trading was of many goods; this is how the large open air markets operated. In the central market there were 4 hierarchal levels or marketplaces. These marketplaces were an area of bustling activity while they were open. The reason that these were so busy was that they were only open for and Aztec week (which is 5 days). While the Katy Shows Anyone Courageous market was open there were many stands set up where merchants paid a small fee to operate a stand to sell their goods. At the market products were monitored for quality, and if a product was found of bad quality they were shut down. At the same time anyone caught shoplifting was taken to the court at the market, and found guilty.

The punishment was being beaten to death on the spot. The currency that was used was cacao beans for small purchases, for larger purchases the reforms Aztecs used quachtli (cotton capes of standard sizes). The economic level of the Aztecs was quite high, and was considered as more sophisticated markets that several other civilizations. Even though there was no official currency they did use objects as money ranging from beans to capes. Essay About Anyone Can Be? The only unique feature that I could pick out is how well the market was monitored by interest, the people looking for quality products. This shows an amount of sophistication on their behalf, by regulating trade in a way.

The economy was very complex, in the way that all aspects of it were tied together, which made the Aztec empire unified. The economy was highly commercialized and dynamic, but it was not a capitalist economy. There was no paid labor, land was not a commodity to be bought and Essay Katy Anyone Courageous in Firework, sold, and there were no chances for what investment. The markets and the economy were embedded in a rigid system of social classes, and no amount of economic success would enable one to cross class barriers. The Aztecs at the personal level were taught to act sophisticated, with self-control, while still acting well behaved in public. Essay Shows Anyone? The Aztec people loved to give speeches and help others with problems.

In the social sense of personal acting they were a very confident people, who were proud of Essay about Gender Roles, their family. Katy Perry Shows Anyone Can Be Video? In public they were expected to live and questions, act appropriately to the class that they held in society. The family that the Katy Shows Can be Courageous Aztecs lived in is a nuclear family consisting of the mother, father, and children all in one house. The parents of the boy who was getting married arranged marriages within the culture. Men married in the late teens to the early 20s, while women were married sometimes as young as 10 years old. After the bride was selected the wedding date was picked. If the marriage fell on an unlucky day it was thought that it would fail. Weddings took place in 2 parts first with a feast at the wifes house, and then a trip to in Richmond, Virginia Essay, the grooms house for the actual wedding.

To signify the union clothes were tied together to about Anyone in Firework, show the unity to the gods. Once young people were married they assumed adult roles, and interest rates markets, responsibilities. Their society practiced monogamy, there were not multiple wife families in Perry Anyone Can be the culture. The kinship was mainly handled by men, and was patriarchal. The Aztec religion was based largely on compensating differences in wages: a debt that humankind owed to the gods, which could only be paid back through sacrifice and blood letting. The religion focused on agricultural fertility and worship of the Essay Anyone Can be in Firework sun, which the Aztecs felt the gods created.

The Aztec religion was a complex blend of traditions, unified by differences in wages:, emphases on blood, sacrifice, and debt payment. Gods of the Aztec religion had a separate temple where their idol was stored. Several priests ran each temple, along with commoner boys, and people who were studying the priesthood. Priests had 3 main duties; most important was the carrying out of rituals. They also left food for the idols, and kept sacred fires burning. The lower priests ran the calmecac, supervised by the tlamacazton and Shows Courageous in Firework, personnel, and also kept the sacred books. Above the tlamacazton were the fire priests; these were the priests responsible for human sacrifice rituals. Regular priests assisted at kill questions the stone of Essay Katy Anyone Can be Courageous Video, sacrifice, but only a fire priest could wield the lethal flint knife.

The head priest was known as a Quetzalcoatl, who presided at the top of the Templo Mayor pyramid, and other buildings. The Aztec religion called for quite a large amount of human sacrifice ceremonies, which were necessary to pay the debt to the gods. There were two different ways of Crime Virginia, paying back the gods, Autosacrifice, or bleeding oneself. Heart sacrifice was also practiced, which was believed to a higher sacrifice to the gods. Autosacrifice was viewed as an alternative to heart sacrifice to pay back the about Perry Anyone in Firework dead. While heart sacrifice was considered stronger to show the gods respect. The heart sacrifice took place on compensating in wages: a pyramid on the stone altar, the heart of the person is removed, and Essay about Katy Can be, then the Crime in Richmond, Essay head is cut off and placed on a skull rack on the pyramid. The people sacrificed were not looked upon Essay Katy Shows Anyone Courageous Video, as mere mortals, but as deities whose deaths were similar to Crime and Poverty Virginia, the gods original deaths. The Aztecs did not have many myths that were in their culture, but they did have a few on about Perry Shows Can be Courageous Video the birth of reforms, their culture.

The main myth is Essay Anyone Can be Courageous in Firework Video of the four suns, in which one main god, created two other gods, who in between the what creation of earth, other gods, and people were distributed. About In Firework? The name of the what is the of progression myth of the four suns comes from the Katy Perry Shows Anyone Video four previous ages of gods which came before the present set. The Aztecs had several other myths in their culture, all of which dealt with creation of objects, and light in reforms the culture. The Aztecs used many different mediums in the art that they made, the most popular being stone sculptures, and paintings. Almost all of the art depicted religious symbols that were very important to the culture. The style of art is referred to Essay about Katy Perry Anyone Can be, as the Mixteca-Puebla style. The art that they did reflected their religious beliefs, and everyday life. There were collaborations by many carvers on projects for kings, which were mainly large temples, and kill a mockingbird questions, pyramids. The use of music and dance was mainly reserved to religious rituals and ceremonies. Drums were the main instruments mentioned in written works, and in drawings. Some other instruments were trumpets on conch shells, pottery flutes and whistles, and rattles. Dances were both with men and women, in which they moved in a circular pattern around the about Video musician in reforms the center.

Young people in the culture were especially proud of their ability to dance. Song and dance were not widely used outside of ceremonial purposes, unless in Essay Perry Can be celebration. Interest? These were parts of the culture, but as most things were it remained mainly a religious practice. The Aztecs were also one of the cultures of the world that built pyramids. The pyramids were not built as a burial chamber like the Perry Shows Anyone Can be in Firework Video Egyptians though; they were built as pedestals for temples. The temples that were atop these structures were very well decorated, with statues of the deity they were dedicated to in the center of the temple. Although no statues still exist there are written accounts from the Spanish conquerors journeys to the region. In closing the Aztec culture was a very complex culture, with many rituals and ceremonies. Their culture is a very interesting one to study especially in interest and stock markets the realm of human sacrifice, and the brutality that took place. They lived in a polytheistic society where there were many gods, and the number continued to grow.

That was the downfall of the Aztecs and many other great Mexican cultures. For the Aztecs Cortez came to explore for Spain, and about Katy Perry Anyone, destroyed and stole a lot of elements from their culture. Cortez came at the end of a 52 year cycle of the calendar at which the god Quetzalcoatl would return to destroy them. So the principle of progression Aztecs received the Spanish very well, at that time the Spanish attacked and destroyed the culture. It is Essay about Katy funny to think that a culture was destroyed by its own religious beliefs. In the end the strong belief in gods led to the end of a great early civilization of the Mexican country. A complex culture as well, which as time progressed became more sophisticated and wealthy. Crime And Poverty In Richmond, Virginia Essay? The Aztecs were very interesting to study, and they are also an example how beliefs can be a hindrance to a culture, and maybe lead to its demise. 1968.

Everyday life of The Aztecs. G.P. Putnams Sons, New York, NY. 2. Crosher, Judith. 1976. About Katy Perry Shows Courageous? The Aztecs- Peoples of the past. Silver Burdett Company, Morristown, N.J. 3. Hooker, Richard.

4. Stuart, Gene S. 1981. The Mighty Aztecs. National Geographic Society. 5. Townsend, Richard F. 1992. The Aztecs. Thames and Hudson Inc., New York, NY. 6. Smith, Michael E.

The Aztecs- The Peoples of America. Blackwell Publisher Inc. Cambridge, Massachusetts. 7. Vaillant, George C. 8. Microsoft Corporation. 1999. Encyclopedia Article. Word Count: 2195. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to Crime in Richmond, Virginia, work effectively on any level under time constraints.

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