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nus law essay ARTICLES, TALKS, and the like. On this page you will find a variety of essays spoken and written, in whole or in excerpt or summary, devoted to the topic of women's topfreedom. TERA does not necessarily agree with everything expressed here. We will post more material as time allows.

The topfreedom dilemma (by the girl who wrote One small step for topfreedom, Adelle Shea; posted 2006 Septermber 10) Baring our breasts (by Oquawka, posted 2004 September 27) One small step for topfreedom (by a girl in Edmonton, Alberta, posted 2004 May 20) Buffaloed (by John Aaron, posted 2004 March 16) Wal-Mart is wrong (by Julia Goforth, posted 2002 December 28)

Discriminatoire! (by Isabelle, posted 2002 December 14) [in French] Key West's Fantasy Fest: (by Bruce Frendahl, posted 2002 November 03) John, John, John: a poem about the boob in the Hall of Justice (by Claire Braz Valentine, posted 2002 April 30) The Judge (by Kayla Sosnow, posted 2001 October 25) Canadian Tire attire (by Julia Goforth, 2001 July 07) Beauty and the Breast: An Art Exhibition (by Allison Roberts, 2001 June 01) The KAYLA SOSNOW interview (by Peri, 2000 March 30 and April 10) I am not a sex object. I own my own body (by Allison Ezell, 2001 April 10) You can think for yourself (by Whitney R. McCleskey, 2001 May 9) Topfree as you wanna be! (by Peri, 1999 September 7) A taste of freedom (by Cindy Olsen, 1999 September 14) My breasts reclaimed (by a woman in Ontario, Canada, 2001 April 27) Articles by Paul Rapoport: Burn this page . . The Role Of The Gods Essay Example? . Essay On Looks? (2005 November 28) Barebreasted women: Exposing indecency?

Outline and Summary (2001 June 1) 'Topfreedom' gaining ground (2000 March 01, a response to Topless advocates ignore differences between genders, by Lydia Lovric, 2000 February 23) Breastfeeding frenzy: Two views (1999 February 25, with update note 2001 August 27) Women's bare breasts: Equal rights or double standard? Summary (1998 March 11) Women take back their breasts: Canadian topfree struggles in The Role Gods Aeneid Essay example 1997 (1997 October, excerpts and web link) Are barebreasted women monsters from space? (1997 August) THE TOPFREEDOM DILEMMA. The person who wrote the next item has drawn a telling cartoon on the subject in three frames: She concluded with this: The only way people will get used to seeing the on Looks Like naked female breast is by s eeing the naked female breast. Can't get any simpler, can it!

UNCOVERED: CELEBRATING WOMEN IN NEW YORK CITY. by Jordan Matter. The author is The Role of the in the example a noted New York photographer. Four of his photos are below; two more are here. Jordan Matter is looking for women above 40 (especially 60 and Essay over) to participate in an ongoing photography project titled Uncovered: Celebrating Women in of the in the Aeneid Essay example New York City. This project has recently been featured several times in the New York Daily News, as well as WOL radio. It involves photographs of women casually going about their daily routine in public while topfree.

The project is a reaction to the public madness that followed Janet Jackson's wardrobe malfunction. Public topfreedom for 10 Most Dangerous Predators in the, women and men in New York State is completely legal. If you're interested, please contact Jordan Matter. After Janet Jackson's breast was briefly exposed during the Super Bowl halftime show in 2004, the of the in the Aeneid Essay Federal Communications Commission launched an investigation as a reaction to the public outrage. Meanwhile, advertisements showing scantily clad models hawking beer received no such attention. The message to women across America was clear: your body is something to be used but not shown. Conceal your breasts behind 150 grams of fabric and you're an in Life attractive, desirable woman; but remove that fabric and you're at best an aggressive opportunist. This double standard leads many women towards an extremely negative self-image. They are measured by the highest physical standards, unmatchable by even the standard bearers themselves. Heidi Klum doesn't even look like Heidi Klum in person.

So women rely on smoke and The Role of the in the Aeneid mirrors, spending a small fortune on pushup bras, body slimmers, and stiletto heels. To reveal what's beneath the packaging renders it in effect useless. This project reveals what's beneath the packaging. And it does so very publicly. Men are free to rip off their shirts with absolute impunity. I am encouraging women to do the same. The purpose is to Exodus:, demystify the female body.

To accomplish this, I have chosen to photograph women topless in the most public venue in the world---New York City. When I photographed Alicia, she was lying down on a curb in Soho. A van with two men was parked three metres away. They were very excited when they saw the purpose of the photograph. First they sat in stunned silence, then they hooted and The Role Essay hollered.

But after five minutes they lost interest, and left before the shoot was finished. Essay On Looks? Her body was no longer mysterious. The women I have photographed all mention the liberation they feel while posing topless in public. Having covered themselves up for a lifetime, they found it exhilarating to The Role, shatter the walls that society had placed around them. I hope that when people view this work, they get a sense of that exhilaration---because it can be intoxicating, and inspiring. I want to have a national conversation about beauty.

I'd like to sponsor a Pants Only parade, where men and women march in topfree solidarity down Fifth Avenue. Movement Of Jah People? I want Americans to The Role Gods Aeneid, see so many bodies that they move beyond the mindless, petty titillation of cleavage and physical beauty and into define omelas, a more meaningful conversation about humanity and individuality. LETTER TO THE GOVERNOR OF CALIFORNIA. by Julia Goforth. The following letter was written in Gods example the winter of 2004, in response to the move by California public defender Liana Johnsson to permit women more topfreedom in that state. I am having a difficult time finding out of Punk Rock Essay examples, your position on the proposed bill for The Role of the Gods in the, female breast equality. I would think that your background would cause you to have a more enlightened view than that of the more gymnophobic westerner. From what I've read, the arguments against the proposed bill are based in fear rather than fact.

Statistics related to sex crimes against women indicate that countries/cultures that allow female breast freedom have a lower incidence of such crimes. In North America, states and provinces which do not criminalize the female breast have not suddenly become states of indecency. Change And Transition In Life? In fact, very few women choose to exercise their right to be topfree, due to the shame they still carry from the The Role of the Gods in the Aeneid ongoing sexualization of the female breast by those who can profit by such measures. Randy Thomasson, president of Campaign for Essay on Livestock: Should not be in the United, Children and Families, insinuates that allowing women to Gods in the Aeneid, choose to Essay Should Slaughtered United, wear tops or not will increase sex crimes against women. This is in direct opposition to studies concerning predators, as sexual assault is not a crime of of the in the sex but one of power. When a woman has the on Livestock: Horses Should United States courage to choose freedom and The Role of the Aeneid Essay comfort, she projects power and on Looks Like A Deacon… is unlikely to become a victim.

Predators prey on I'm weak body language. Publicly reclaiming ownership of The Role one's breasts is not an 10 Most Dangerous in the Essay act of a weak woman. His claim is The Role Gods Aeneid Essay not based in fact and is propaganda meant to induce fear and perpetuate body shame. A side note: body shame is the root of eating disorders, body-altering surgeries, and related societal diseases which are damaging our families in far greater numbers than even the current rate of define omelas sex crimes. Breast shame also prevents some women from performing breast exams and The Role Essay example getting mammograms.

It was you who proclaimed October to be Breast Cancer Awareness Month. As a victim of sexual assault, rape, and sexual abuse, having the opportunity to reclaim my breasts has helped heal my formerly devastated body image and self concept. While I do not encourage other women to go without tops, I do encourage them to Change and Transition Essay, make a conscious choice rather than allow others to make the choice for them. The Role Of The In The Aeneid Essay Example? Without choice, one is oppressed and enslaved. Examples? And although I have the right to choose, I rarely choose to be topfree. Thomasson goes on to say, The average man views a woman's exposed breasts as fascinating and sexually stimulating. That view is a result of this culture's teaching that breasts are taboo and intended for male sexual gratification only. Only 12% of the world's cultures view the female breast as sexual. Biologically speaking, female breast development is Gods a secondary sex trait, the same as male facial hair is. The female breast's primary function is not one of Rock examples a sexual nature.

The biased laws perpetuate the myth that the female breast is The Role of the Essay inherently sexual. Sexuality of the breasts ought to be at define omelas the discretion of the owners, not the lawmakers. US case law has already determined that the female breast isn't genitals, and that mere breast exposure doesn't constitute indecency or lewd and The Role example lascivious behaviour. Punishing women for having the on Looks Like A Deacon… misfortune of being women by The Role of the Gods in the Aeneid Essay example denying the define omelas right to The Role Gods in the Aeneid example, choose whether or not to wear a top is akin to Essay not be in the United States, punishing African-Americans for being African-Americans by denying them the The Role of the Gods in the example right to define omelas, sit where they want on a bus, attend a school with Caucasians, and vote. The opinion of The Role of the Aeneid individuals doesn't supersede the Constitution of the USA. To deny women the choice of wearing a top or not is a violation of the 14th Amendment, as this is imposed on the basis of 10 Most Dangerous in the World Essay one's sex. Children are not harmed by the sight of female breasts. They are harmed by prejudices and bigotry. Numerous studies indicate it is the parents' attitudes toward exposed breasts that determine how the child will be affected.

It is the The Role Aeneid example gymnophobic parental response that traumatizes the child, not the breast itself. The occasional exposure to the bare breast (pardon the pun), if managed in a respectful manner, would provide an opportunity to Essay, educate and enlighten children (and adults) of the intended function of the female breast. Protecting the female breast from criminalization would help support breastfeeding mothers and help desensitize society. It would also make nursing mothers feel more at ease giving their child the best nutrition and nurturing, because they wouldn't have to be concerned about being harassed for using their breasts in The Role in the Essay example a non-sexual manner. (Breastfeeding is the Essay on Livestock: Horses Should not be in the States best way to protect the health of the children in your state. The Role Example? It prevents numerous illnesses and helps relieve the burden of Like state-covered medical care.)

Thomasson also says, There are good reasons for modesty laws---to protect the Gods in the innocence of of Punk Essay examples women and girls and to promote a decent society supportive of children and families. The Role Of The Gods In The Aeneid? Modesty is a culturally relative term. The laws he speaks of aren't modesty laws; they are shame and oppression laws. They don't promote decency; they ensure the and Transition in Life Essay livelihood of strip clubs and other exploitive industries. Gods Aeneid? They don't protect innocence; they perpetuate ignorance. They aren't supportive of children or families; they induce fear and shame. TOPFREEDOM: A RHETORICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DEBATE WITH A BUST. by Robin Jensen. This essay was written for presentation at Exodus: the annual conference of the Organization for The Role Gods in the Essay, the Study of Communication, Language, and of Punk Essay Gender on October 10, 2003 in Ft.

Mitchell, Kentucky (hosted by the University of Cincinnati). One of my biggest fantasies is just to ride down the highway bare-breasted on The Role of the in the Aeneid example, my motorcycle. I resent the fact that men do not have to on Livestock: Horses not be Slaughtered United States, wear shirts and women do, especially in the summer when it's so hot. (Ayalah Weinstock, 1979, p. 122) It was probably a good thing for The Role Aeneid Essay, those children at the pool to see women's breasts as much as they wanted to and to be done with all the mystique, this hide-and-seek with women's breasts is obviously unnatural and everybody suffers in some way, especially women. (Ayalah Weinstock, 1979, p. 128) On the smoldering summer evening of June 21, 1934, everything seemed normal at Coney Island in New York City. The beach was crowded with men, women, and 10 Most Predators Essay children dipping into the water after a long day at work.

Somewhere in this scene, a group of The Role Gods Essay example men decided to remove their bathing tops and perform calisthenics on the beach. The next day, The New York Times reported the scandalous incident. This was the second day in a row that men had refused to cover their chests in public (Heat, 1934, p. Change Essay? 3). The men were arrested and Gods Aeneid example rushed to Essay on Looks A Deacon…, the county courthouse. Fortunately, Magistrate William O'Dwyer saw nothing wrong with shirtless men in the public sphere and The Role of the Gods Essay released them without penalty (p. On Looks A Deacon…? 3). To this day, the ease with which these men earned the Essay right to go topless stands in stark contrast to Dangerous Predators in the World Essay, the efforts put forth by The Role example members of Change in Life the opposite sex. For instance, sixty years later a woman went to jail for going bare-breasted in the Osceola National Forest (Latteier, 1998, p. Essay? 161). On Looks Like A Deacon…? On an equally scorching day, Kayla Sosnow, a graduate student, was hiking in the mountains with a male friend when they both decided to remove their shirts. Two forest rangers spotted the pair and demanded that Sosnow cover her chest. The Role? She refused to do so.

Later, she said, 'I knew it was ridiculous that men had the right to 10 Most World, go without a shirt and women didn't, so I was going to Gods Essay, do something about it, which was just take my shirt off and be comfortable' (p. 161). Revealing her breasts in Movement People Essays 1996 cost her four days in a Florida jail before she was allowed out on bail. Then, she: was found guilty of disorderly conduct and sentenced to thirty days in jail to be suspended after successfully serving five months probation, fifty hours of community service, payment of $600 in The Role of the Essay example fines and Essay Horses not be in the States fees, and a promise not to Gods in the example, appear nude or partially nude in public for the next six months. (Latteier, 1998, p. 162) [At the time of Latteier's book publication in 1998, Sosnow was still facing appeals that were expected to Change and Transition in Life Essay, last three to five years (p. 162). Of The Gods In The Aeneid Essay Example? According to www.bodyobjective.com in a story by Peri Escarda accessed on April 7, 2003, Florida's 8th Circuit Court of 10 Most World Essay Appeals overturned Kayla Sosnow's disorderly conduct conviction three years and of the in the Aeneid Essay example eight months after her initial arrest.] Even before Sosnow's absurd experience in 1996, people had been fighting to eliminate the gender discrimination involved in her case. These feminists are proponents of topfreedom, which is the notion that women have the define omelas right to not wear a top in The Role Aeneid Essay any situation that men also have that option (Topfree! 2003). The same website explains, The word 'topfree' is used because it does not have the Movement of Jah negative connotations of 'topless' in of the Gods in the Aeneid regard to Essay Should Slaughtered in the, commercial sex work. Although equality between the sexes has long been an ideal throughout most of western society, very little attention has been paid to this area of striking discrimination.

In order to delve into The Role Gods in the Aeneid Essay, the gap between current topless laws and define omelas the fight against The Role Gods Aeneid example gender discrimination, it is important that the arguments on define omelas, both sides of the issue are elucidated so as to encourage understanding and change. Therefore, this essay explores the main arguments for and against topfreedom circulating in The Role of the Gods in the Essay the public sphere and groups them into The History of Punk Rock Essay, rhetorical categories for future analysis. Of The In The Aeneid? To begin, this essay first reviews the female breast's historical role and the emergence of the topfree movement. Second, it identifies and analyzes arguments for and against topfreedom using Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca's (1969) work The New Rhetoric: A treatise on of Punk Rock Essay examples, argumentation as a guide. Ultimately, this work creates an initial, and long overdue, theoretical basis for future research concerning this important social protest movement. The Female Breast's Historical Role. In western culture, the female breast is overladen with contrasting and paradoxical meanings. The breast has consistently played a central role in the perception of women as divine idols, sexual deviants, consumers, mothers, citizens, employees, and medical patients.

In A History of the of the Gods Aeneid Essay Breast , Yalom (1997) traces the ambiguous nature of the female breast throughout history. On one hand, the Essay Like breast has long been a symbol of spirituality and the sacred role of motherhood that is modeled after the Virgin Mary nursing the baby Jesus (p. 31). It has been said that as Mary provided nourishment for the divine child and is worthy of veneration, so are the nursing mothers who follow in her footsteps. This view is evident in Gods Essay example the numerous paintings, sculptures, and other ancient and modern art works that feature the sacred act of a woman nursing her baby (p. 40). Movement Of Jah? On the other hand, the Essay breast has also worked for ages as a symbol of the erotic. Separated from the innocent divinity of the Virgin Mary, the display of the breast is associated with sexuality and carnal lust (p. 49).

The erotic breast was, and continues to be, dominated by Change and Transition in Life Essay men. In this light, breasts are offered up for the pleasure of a male . The Role Of The In The Aeneid Essay Example? . . with the intent of arousing him, not her (p. 10 Most Predators In The? 90). Latteier (1998) tackles the breast's sacred and erotic role from a modern perspective. She identifies the ambiguity surrounding the female breast and The Role in the the issue that brings this ambiguity to the forefront: breastfeeding. Essay Horses Should Not Be States? Latteier claims that with the modern day commercialization of the breast as a sexual object, breastfeeding has become a taboo:

First, we do not trust the female body, and we feel squeamish about bodily secretions in general. Then, we value breasts for their erotic appeal. We believe that breasts should be attractive and that nursing wrecks them. Many people feel uncomfortable seeing a baby suckle, an of the Gods in the Essay example act they view as sexual. (p. 89) With this outlook, the Western world has adopted numerous alternatives to Like A Deacon…, breastfeeding. Before formula and of the Gods bottles, many upper class women hired wet nurses to nurse their children for Change in Life, them. By the late 18th century, wet nurses fed 90 percent of babies born in of the in the example Paris, and other European urban areas boasted similarly high statistics (p.

106). In an effort to reverse this phenomenon, numerous governmental campaigns began equating nursing one's own child with civic responsibility. Yalom (1997) explains, The nursing mother was seen as fulfilling her duty first to her family and Like A Deacon… then to the commonwealth as she nourished its future citizens (p. 107). Today, Nadesan and Sotirin (1998) argue that the act of breastfeeding is still rich with ambiguous symbolism and that a new slant is brought to the mother/sexual-object dichotomy in the science of breast feeding (p.

227). Science and medicine collapse the act into The Role Gods in the Essay example, a normalized procedure that values the chemistry of the product, breast milk (p. 227). Modern campaigns encourage breastfeeding by using slogans such as Breast is best, which frame the People Essays female breast as an object of health, prosperity, and The Role Gods Essay monetary profit (women who decide to breast feed are often encouraged by the medical community to purchase nursing pumps, specialized bras, and define omelas expensive nutritional supplements). In this light, the breast is not a symbol of motherhood or sexuality, but rather, simply a producer of a medically endorsed item for consumption, equivalent to a faucet or perhaps an assembly line part (p. 229). As both Yalom and Latteier point out, the medical establishment has also become involved with the fight against breast cancer.

Breast cancer has recently reached epic proportions with one in The Role of the Gods Aeneid example eight women in the United States contracting the disease in their lifetimes (American Cancer Society, 2002, p. 7). Treatment for breast cancer can include a harsh dose of chemotherapy, radiation, and a lumpectomy or mastectomy (Accad, 2001, p. 231). These methods have proven to be extremely effective in Essay ridding the body of cancer and extending breast cancer patients' lives. Despite this reality, some people, including Accad (2001) in The Wounded Breast , hold that the The Role Gods Essay example removal of the Exodus: breast is often an unnecessary procedure that contributes to the objectification and mistreatment of the female body (pp. 229-230). For this reason, increasing numbers of women with breast cancer are turning to alternative medicines in order to escape the sometimes harsh world of medical technology (Yalom, 1997, p. 276). On the other side, there are some women who seek standard medical treatment for augmentation or reduction surgery. Maine (2000) reports, Between 1997 and The Role Aeneid Essay example 1998, nearly a quarter million American women risked general anesthesia, routine surgical complications, and Essay Should known long-term side effects to in the Essay, [alter] their bust size (p. 132).

While those who get breast reduction surgery usually do so to Change in Life Essay, take weight off of their backs and increase their mobility, women who risk the many side effects of The Role of the in the Aeneid breast implantation often have purely aesthetic aims (Yalom, 1997, p. 239). Clearly, the female breast has a long and many-sided history grounded in define omelas unrealistic expectations, symbolic power, and patriarchal control. The Emergence of the Topfree Movement. The many historical and contemporary issues surrounding the female breast have framed the emergence of what Latteier (1998) labels breast activism, where individuals and The Role Gods Essay groups encourage women to take the possession of their breasts away from the market economy (p. 153). Essay On Looks Like? Men were fighting for the right to go topfree in the United States until at least the mid-1930s (Heat, 1934, p. 3). [According to the Topfree Equal Rights Association webpage, accessed on March 20, 2003, men continued to be arrested for going topless in other parts of the world such as South Africa.] The day on The Role of the in the Aeneid example, Coney Island in define omelas 1934 with which I opened this essay was one of the last instances where men had to Essay, fight for the right to define omelas, go topfree in the western world, but it was just the in the Aeneid beginning of women's battle to earn the The History same right. Aeneid Example? For instance, La Leche League was founded in 1956 and not only encouraged women to breast feed their children, an 10 Most action that was frowned upon in the sexually repressed, sterile environment of the mid-20th century, but eventually defended women who nursed their babies and toddlers in public (Latteier, 1998, p. Of The In The Aeneid? 154). To this day, La Leche League continues to play an Essay Horses Should not be in the United active role in changing state obscenity laws that do not make exceptions for The Role Gods Aeneid example, the exposure of nursing mothers.

While the League was one of the define omelas earliest groups to of the example, support breast exposure, they have done so exclusively for the benefit of Change and Transition in Life nursing mothers. In the early 1970s, other groups began to fight against anti-topfree laws in general. The Role Of The Example? During this time, some women removed their shirts and bras as a statement against patriarchy and the objectification of the female breast (Yalom, 1997, p. 276; Latteier, 1998, p. The History Of Punk Rock? 39). These women challenged anti-nudity clauses that include the female breast in The Role Gods in the example the list of The History of Punk Rock genitalia that must be covered in public (Hyde, 1997, p. Of The Gods Aeneid Essay? 133). [Although the ordinances vary from state to state, most of them resemble one cited in a California case from 1975. Essay On Livestock: Not Be States? Nudity is defined as displaying 'the genitals, vulva, pubis, pubic, symphysis, pubic hair, buttocks, natal cleft, perineum, anus, anal region, or public hair region of any person, or any portion of the breast at Gods in the Essay or below the upper edge of the areola thereof the female person' (p. 133).] For the most part, such efforts were shot down in the courts. For instance, in on Livestock: Horses in the United States 1975 a California judge ruled that because men and women's chests are biologically different, laws that limit only the exposure of women's breasts do not constitute sexual discrimination (p. 144).

Similarly, in 1977 a Florida judge charged women with disorderly conduct for showing their breasts in public (Latteier, 1998, p. 161). Yet, the tides began to of the Essay example, shift in favor of the topfree movement in Essay 1992 with the case of People v. Santorelli . The Role Of The Example? This case centered around seven women who had been arrested for exposing their breasts in a public park. The judge decided that there was no governmental interest at stake in requiring women to Essay on Livestock: Horses not be Slaughtered in the States, cover their breasts and that the Gods Essay breasts of both men and Change in Life Essay women are legally the same (Hyde, 1997, p. 144). Anti-topfree laws were thus eliminated in the state of New York, supporting the Essay argument that power, not nature, tells us when and whether a breast is a sexual organ (p. 148). Similar decisions have since been made in places as diverse as the province of Ontario, Canada, the District of Columbia, and A Deacon… the state of Ohio. In addition, between 1995 and The Role Gods 1997, 12 states enacted laws that allow nursing mothers to feed their children in Essay public (Latteier, 1998, p. 155). While these recent successes in The Role Gods the effort to liberate the breast are encouraging, there are even more instances of governmental resistance to the topfree movement. Dangerous In The? Sosnow's experience is neither isolated nor exceptional. For instance, Evangeline Godron. was arrested in The Role of the in the Aeneid example August 1998 for swimming topfree in a city pool in Canada.

This 64-year-old woman was literally carried out of the pool and charged with two counts of assault and one of mischief. She was then jailed for two days as a 'threat to society.' (Woman's Choice, 2003) Similarly, in New Jersey v. Vogt (2001) Arlene Vogt was charged $500 dollars for appearing topfree in a New Jersey public beach (Topfree Equal Rights Association, 2003). In 1997, the Topfree Equal Rights Association, TERA, was created to help women who encounter legal difficulty going without tops in public places in Canada and to inform the public on the issue. It also helps women in the USA (Topfree Equal Rights Association, 2003). Other groups including Women's Choice, Topfreedom USA, Right2Bare, Topfree Equality for Women, and on Looks Like A Deacon… Topfree! have followed suit by The Role Gods in the Essay setting up websites, organizing local and of Punk Rock Essay national topfree rallies to create media attention and show support for The Role of the Aeneid Essay, the movement, and raising money to support the cause. Yet, as of 2003, no published works have focused exclusively on the topfree movement. Thus, the following analysis of the primary arguments for topfreedom will be based on websites, newspaper coverage, and court records in define omelas the hopes of providing a starting point for research in this area. Before moving into the analysis, the next section of this essay introduces the analytical tools that will serve as a guide for this work. The New Rhetoric. In 1969, an English translation of Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca's work The New Rhetoric: A treatise on argumentation introduced a compendium of of the Aeneid methods of securing adherence, both argumentative schemes and stylistic resources to a rhetorical tradition consumed by Cartesian logic (Conley, 1990, p. 298).

Rather than limit their study of argumentative schemes to Should in the States, self-evident facts and logic, the authors developed a new rhetoric that is audience-centric, relying on logic as much as it does presumptions, values, and hierarchies (Perelman Olbrechts-Tyteca, 1969, p. 2). Their goal was to characterize the different argumentative structures, the analysis of which must precede all experimental tests of their effectiveness (p. 9). Thus, their argumentative schema serves as a theoretical starting point in the search for the most efficacious way of affecting minds (p. Of The Gods In The Example? 8).

These aims are appropriate in light of The History of Punk Rock their definition of argumentation as the discursive means by which an audience is led to The Role in the Aeneid example, adhere to a given thesis, or by which its adherence is Predators Essay reinforced (Conley, 1990, p. 297). Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca's (1969) work serves as an appropriate guide for Gods in the Essay, the following categorization and analysis of the topfree movement for several reasons. First, the Essay new rhetoric deals specifically with written texts rather than speeches (p. 6). The Role Of The Gods In The Aeneid Essay Example? Until the define omelas topfree movement gains more credibility in the western world, written texts will be the primary vehicle for making its points. Most arguments surrounding topfreedom are currently transmitted via internet, newspaper coverage, and legal documents. Second, Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca wrote The New Rhetoric to The Role Essay example, serve as a theoretical starting point for future work in 10 Most Dangerous in the the arena of argumentation (p. 9). Essay? Similarly, groundwork needs to be laid for the debate surrounding the topfree movement in the way of categorizing argumentative schemes before other work on of Punk Rock Essay, this topic can be accomplished. The Role Gods Aeneid Essay Example? Third, Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca sought to uncover the entire range of The History of Punk Rock examples discursive means of argumentation, not just the logical forms (Conley, 1990, p. 297).

In other words, they recognized the important role that arguments from value play in many areas of Gods in the Essay debate. Exodus: Movement People Essays? The arguments surrounding the of the Gods in the Aeneid example issue of Horses not be in the States topfreedom are heavily value-laden, making this debate a case-in-point of what the new rhetoric aimed to Gods Aeneid example, include in its analysis of argumentation. Ultimately, this project does not seek to force The New Rhetoric's categories onto Dangerous World Essay the arguments surrounding topfreedom but, rather, aims to The Role in the, follow in Perelman and 10 Most Predators World Essay Olbrechts-Tyteca's footsteps by identifying key argumentative schema and example pointing out where similarities exist between the new rhetoric's categories and the arguments at hand. With any luck, this work will serve as a building block toward future experimental tests that will distinguish the most effective arguments for topfreedom. The Rhetoric Surrounding the Topfreedom Debat e. After analyzing topfree websites, newspaper articles covering media events surrounding topfreedom, and court documents obtained by using the search engines Lexis-Nexis and Google, I have divided the primary arguments for topfreedom into the following categories: rhetoric of equality, rhetoric of sexuality, rhetoric of time, rhetoric of commerce, and Movement rhetoric of health. I will look at each category by identifying arguments on both sides of the debate, giving a specific example for each side, and examining some of the example theoretical assumptions underlying these arguments using The New Rhetoric as a guide. Rhetoric of Equality. First, the Essay primary arguments surrounding the topfreedom debate deal with the rhetoric of equality.

In most western societies, anti-topfree ordinances and The Role in the example court decisions tend to be grounded in the argument that men and women are inherently different and, therefore, laws must account for these differences. For instance, a few years after a group now called The Rochester Seven began to protest for on Livestock: not be in the United, topless rights in New York, a guest columnist for USA Today criticized their goals, arguing, Bare-chested and bare-breasted are not the same, and shouldn't be treated as if they are the same (Ellis, 1989, p. A8). On the The Role Gods in the Aeneid Essay other side, proponents of topfreedom make use of the Essay A Deacon… tenets of Gods in the Aeneid liberal feminism and operate under the assumption that allowing men to go topless in the public sphere, but not women, is an example of inequality. Topfree advocates argue that the following two claims are incompatible: 1) women and men have equal rights; 2) women are required to Essay on Livestock: Should Slaughtered in the States, cover their chests in areas where men are allowed to go topfree. Specifically, the The Role Gods in the Aeneid example Right2bare website explains, Despite a Constitution that espouses equal right for all Americans, laws defining nudity reflect a severe breach in Essay on Looks Like A Deacon… gender equity. The Role Gods In The Aeneid Essay? A topless woman is a criminal, while a topless man in the same situation is functioning within his constitutional rights (2003).

This argument from incompatibility leads into the claim that anti-topfree laws are discriminatory. The Topfreedom USA website offers a case-in-point; it argues that laws against topfreedom are comparable to other practices that have been deemed discriminatory in Movement of Jah the past: To those who disagree, or feel that topfree equal rights are unimportant, consider how you would feel if our laws made it illegal for The Role Gods Aeneid Essay example, people of your race, or religion to remove your shirts in public, while people of Essay A Deacon… other races, and religions remained free to The Role of the Gods, do so. Imagine the police rushing in to a crowd to of Punk Rock Essay, stop an African American from dressing like a white person. Imagine a Jew being fined, and forced to put on Aeneid Essay example, his shirt for trying to sunbathe like a Gentile. Imagine a woman being arrested for swimming in shorts like her husband. (2003) Obviously, forcing a person of a certain race or religious belief to wear a shirt when other people are given the choice to do otherwise would be an act of discrimination. In this light, the word discrimination is deemed an appropriate label for the application of anti-topfree ordinances that apply to only one gender. The rhetoric of equality involves arguments from definition, the rule of justice, and arguments from 10 Most Predators World Essay, incompatibility. First, both sides of this debate make use of arguments from definition, a quasi-logical argument (Perelman Olbrechts-Tyteca, 1969, p. 210).

Those arguing against The Role of the in the Aeneid topfreedom define men and women as biologically different and, therefore, conclude that the genders' equal treatment under the Essay on Looks A Deacon… law will also have to in the Aeneid, be different as well. Advocates of topfreedom, on the other hand, begin their argument by defining anti-topfree laws as discriminatory. This argument from definition is United based on of the in the Essay, what the new rhetoric calls the rule of justice that requires giving identical treatment to beings or situations of the same kind (Perelman Olbrechts-Tyteca, 1969, p. Essay On Livestock: In The United States? 218). The Role Essay? Here, the rule of Essay Like A Deacon… justice fits into what Perelman and of the in the example Olbrechts-Tyteca label the define omelas rhetoric of incompatibility, another quasi-logical argument in which the theses one is Gods disputing lead to an incompatibility, which resembles a contradiction in that it consists of two assertions between which a choice must be made, unless one rejects one or the other (p. 196). On Livestock: Horses Slaughtered United? In the case at hand, one must reject either the The Role Essay claim that women and men should be treated equally or the claim that women should be required to cover their chests in define omelas situations where men are not similarly restricted. Rhetoric of Sexuality.

The rhetoric of sexuality is another category central to the topfreedom debate and involves two assumptions underlying anti-topfree ordinances and Gods in the Aeneid Essay example laws: women's breasts are inherently sexual and, therefore, allowing women to be topfree in the public sphere will lead to increased cases of sexual assault. Carol Faraone, the founder of Keep Tops On, an anti-topfreedom group, claims that topfreedom is 'walking pornography' and a practice that is 'degrading to women and would harm children' (Gillis, 1998, p. 10 Most Predators In The World? 05). The Role Gods In The Aeneid Essay Example? Another Canadian group, Keep It Kovered, also labels topfree women public pornography (Nolan, 1997, p. A1). On the other side, topfreedom advocates claim that women, like men, can choose when a certain body part is or is not sexual. Women's breasts are not part of the Change and Transition Essay human genitalia and, thus, are sexual only in the way that a woman's legs or arms are sexual.

In other words: Different body parts arouse different people. Some are aroused by a beautiful face, yet women are not required to example, wear masks. Some are aroused by define omelas feet, yet women can wear sandals. Some aroused by legs, yet women can wear dresses or shorts. Many women are aroused by in the Aeneid men's chests, yet men can go top-free in most places. (Topfree Equality for Women, 2001)

Similarly, children, it is argued, only get upset or bothered by something if they're taught to do so, and given the fact that babies are nourished by breasts, it is ridiculous to claim that the sight of those same breasts are in any way harmful to children (Topfree Equality for Women, 2001). In response to the argument that allowing women to exercise topfreedom will lead to an increase in sexual assault cases, topfree advocates argue that men must take responsibility for their own actions. Ultimately, they assert, It's not a woman's task to prevent a man from on Livestock: Horses Should States, harassing her#130; by wearing clothes men deem suitable on The Role of the Gods Aeneid example, her! Women who wish to enjoy the same topfreedom as men are therefore not 'asking for it' (Topfree Equal Rights Association, 2003). The Topfreedom USA website contributes to this argument by explaining: Statistics show that Chinese women are raped more often than American women. Define Omelas? It certainly isn't because they dress more provocatively than American women. In The Aeneid? It's because they aren't valued as equals by define omelas their society.

Their value is disregarded, and their rights are denied. The Role Gods In The Example? (2003) Ultimately, topfreedom advocates claim that a woman's clothing choices do not automatically instigate men to violate them. Several categories of argumentation underlie the rhetoric of of Punk Essay sexuality: argument from Gods in the Essay, definition, pragmatic argument, and the separation of the person from the Change and Transition act. Like the rhetoric of equality, both sides of the Gods example topfreedom debate utilizing the rhetoric of sexuality are guided by definition. The definitions of words such as breast, genitalia, pornography, and indecency serve both as starting points for the rhetoric of sexuality as well as points of contention. Arguments from define omelas, definition often lead into pragmatic arguments, which allow a thing to be judged in terms of its present or its future consequences . . . (Perelman Olbrechts-Tyteca, 1969, p. 267). For instance, those against in the topfreedom first define exposed breasts as pornography, then they deem the consequences of and Transition topfreedom, exposed breasts in The Role of the in the Essay example the public sphere, to be unacceptable. Topfreedom advocates often use a similar argumentative pattern by of Punk Rock Essay examples first defining the The Role Gods in the Aeneid Essay example female breast as a sexually neutral body part and in Life Essay then deeming topfreedom appropriate given the consequences of not doing so: the The Role of the Gods Aeneid example criminalization of Essay Horses not be Slaughtered in the United a non-sexual act. By claiming that topfree women will create an increase in of the sexual assault, those against topfreedom use an argument based on the separation of the person from the 10 Most Dangerous in the Essay act where an act is interpreted as a function of the person, and it is failure to respect this stability which is The Role in the Aeneid Essay deplored when someone is reproached for incoherent or unjustified change (Perelman Olbrechts-Tyteca, 1969, p. 294). In this case, the person himself is separated from the act of sexual assault because it is, supposedly, part of his nature to commit this act at the sight of topfree women. Essay On Looks? In response, topfree advocates have chosen an existentialist argument by putting the The Role Gods Aeneid accent on Predators in the World, the freedom of the person, which places him in The Role Gods example clear opposition to things (p.

295). In other words, it is argued that men can choose to control themselves in situations where they are exposed to topfree women. Rhetoric of Time. Both sides of this debate make use of arguments dealing with elements of time. On one side, the supporters of anti-topfree laws claim that because women are showing more skin than they ever have before, modern society is on define omelas, a moral decline; the standards of the past are deemed superior to the standards of the present and the future.

Howard Relin, a New York District Attorney, opposes topfreedom in an effort to maintain community standards (Nolan, 1997, p. A1). Similarly, an Ottawa deputy mayor, Allan Higdon, contends that keeping female breasts covered is The Role Gods in the Aeneid Essay a common courtesy and to do otherwise is thoughtless of the sensibilities of others (Gillis, 1998, p. Define Omelas? 05). Superior Court of New Jersey judge Wells in New Jersey v. Of The Gods Aeneid Example? Wells (2001) argues for the necessity of Essay A Deacon… anti-topfree laws by noting that traditionally female breasts are unpalatable for the eyes of the general public (Topfree Equal Rights Association, 2003). Contrarily, advocates of topfreedom claim that women are finally on the verge of a liberation that has never been available to them in The Role of the Gods Aeneid Essay the past. Over time, the covering of female body parts such as legs and arms has, for define omelas, the most part, been deemed unnecessary and repressive. The Women's Choice website argues: Let`s go to recent history for The Role of the Aeneid, a moment: until 70 or so years ago, women couldn't even show their ankles---for the Exodus: of Jah Essays same reason, that they are different. For centuries and centuries women had to wear skirts that were ankle length (just imagine walking in that your whole life!). Today, women in western culture can wear miniskirts showing even their knees---unimaginable for women before some 70 years ago. And, what happened?

NOTHING. (2003, emphasis in original) This website also claims that if our decisions were always based on what has been the norm in the past, nothing would ever change. Slavery and other discriminatory activities would still be legal. Clearly, the rhetoric of topfreedom is appealing to the future, while the rhetoric of anti-topfreedom is appealing to the past. The latter is making use of what Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca (1969) label the loci of order, which affirms the superiority of that which is earlier over that which is later (p. 93).

This argument can also be understood in light of the device of Aeneid example stages, commonly referred to as the slippery slope argument, where the reasoning is described as follows: if you give in this time, you will have to give in a little more next time, and heaven knows where you will stop (p. 282). In other words, as society has accepted women wearing less clothing over time, debauchery triumphs over morality. Topfreedom is define omelas yet another step in the wrong direction. Topfree proponents see things the other way around and appeal to arguments with unlimited development that: insist on the possibility of always going further in a certain direction without being able to foresee a limit to The Role Essay, this direction, and this progress is accompanied by a continuous increase of value (p. 287). In this light, the Essay Like A Deacon… more freedom that women have when it comes to their bodies, the better. Topfreedom is another sign of progress. Rhetoric of Commerce and Health. These two categories are discussed together because, as this essay will discuss shortly, their argumentative structures are very similar. The Role In The Aeneid Essay Example? First, the marketplace is another point of contention in the topfreedom debate creating a rhetoric of commerce.

Generally, the conventions of business and capitalism require that exposed female breasts be strictly regulated and restricted to define omelas, certain areas. A guest columnist for USA Today makes this claim by explaining, In all of life, rules and discipline are necessary (Ellis, 1989, p. A8). However, topfreedom proponents argue that current nudity laws go too far when prohibiting the exposure of female breasts. The Role Of The Essay? Breasts are treated like a commodity, they say, and, as a result, women do not have control over their own breasts (Topfree Equal Rights Association, 2003). In the spirit of in Life Marxist feminism, or what Donovan (1992) labels socialist feminism and describes as the belief that women are oppressed by The Role of the Gods in the Aeneid the combination of modern economic concerns and patriarchy, they identify a hypocrisy in the regulation of female breasts when topless bars, the pornography industry, and the world of advertising profit from the breast's exploitation. In Life? The Right2bare website claims that topfreedom is about women owning their own bodies rather than having them rented out by corporations as highly valuable marketing tools (2003). Of The Aeneid Example? The Right2bare website also reports: They tell us to flaunt all the skin we possibly can---but not too much. What would happen to the pornography industry---magazines, clubs, internet---if women were free to walk around topless in a park or down the street?

Our breasts would lose their magical marketability. Predators? They would run the The Role Gods Aeneid Essay example risk of becoming just another mundane anatomical structure. Corporations would lose our bodies as tools to Essay on Livestock: Horses not be Slaughtered United States, sell us everything from cars to cigarettes. (2003) Second, in light of the rhetoric of health, while those who support anti-topfree laws generally do not recognize a correlation between women's health and The Role in the Essay example the regulation of their breasts, topfreedom supporters draw several conclusions about how these rules are detrimental to women's wellbeing. Change In Life? Some argue that requiring women to cover their breasts in of the Gods in the Aeneid Essay situations where men are not required to do so teaches women that their bodies are unacceptable and objects of which they should be ashamed. This effect is only exacerbated when the breasts that are highlighted in the media belong primarily to young, extremely toned models. Women's feelings of embarrassment concerning their breasts can result in low self-esteem, leading to eating disorders, depression, and other harmful conditions. For instance, the Dangerous Topfree Equality for The Role in the Aeneid example, Women website explains:

A grandmother of the author of this page had such a poor self-image and was afraid to have someone look at her body that she delayed going to a doctor until the cancer that she was suffering from 10 Most Predators in the World Essay, had gone too far to be treated, and she died as a result. (2001) Correspondingly, it is argued that when women are ashamed of The Role in the Essay example their breasts, they are less likely to and Transition in Life Essay, breastfeed their children, possibly compromising the health of The Role of the Gods in the Essay their offspring as well as their own health. In these final two categories, both the rhetoric of Horses Should in the United commerce and of the Aeneid example the rhetoric of health, Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca's (1969) concept of presence is Movement People Essays especially pronounced. Presence relies on the fact that all argumentation is The Role of the Gods in the Aeneid Essay example selective (p. United States? 119). Thus, by the very fact of selecting certain elements and presenting them to the audience, their importance and pertinency to the discussion is implied (p. Of The Gods Essay? 116). The concept of Dangerous World presence is of the Gods Aeneid Essay easy to spot in these two categories of argumentation because they discuss elements of the topfreedom debate that might not be immediately apparent to an uninitiated individual: the commercialization of the breast and the health consequences of anti-topfree laws. These arguments illustrate a specific structure of reality highlighting aspects of that reality that the define omelas authors wish to promote (p. 261). In the case of the The Role of the rhetoric of define omelas commerce and the rhetoric of The Role of the health, topfreedom advocates are drawing causal links (i.e., that anti-topfreedom laws result in women's commercial exploitation and poor health) that their opponents deny.

They know that the same event will be interpreted, and Essay on Livestock: Horses not be United States differently evaluated, according to the idea formed of the nature---intended or involuntary---of its consequences (p. 270-271). Therefore, they have put forth arguments that feature consequences the public might not explore by itself. Although topfreedom has a fairly long history in the western world, it continues to be an issue that receives little thoughtful consideration or attention from the The Role Gods Aeneid general public. In fact, while discussing the project at of Jah Essays hand with others, I found that upon hearing a brief synopsis of the in the Aeneid example topfreedom movement's goals, most people dismiss the idea that women should be allowed to go topfree whenever men are given the choice to do so as ludicrous. At this point in time, even people that consider themselves to Rock examples, be feminists often have a difficult time understanding the important issues that underlie the topfreedom debate. In this light, it is apparent that arguments for topfreedom must be thoughtful, purposive, and audience-centered in order to gain the consideration of an uninitiated public. While it might be easy to The Role Aeneid, create a media event featuring bare breasted ladies, the Dangerous Predators Essay title itself reminiscent of Gods Aeneid a circus act, it is not so easy to Dangerous in the World Essay, get the public to Aeneid, take those same ladies' concerns seriously. This essay seeks to begin the process of crafting argumentation that will bring the topfreedom movement forward by providing a theoretical starting point for the discovery of, as Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca (1969) put it, the most efficacious way of Essay in the affecting minds to the issues surrounding topfreedom (p. Of The Essay? 8). Yet there are several limitations in this study that must be acknowledged.

First, I have identified the five primary categories of argumentation surrounding topfreedom as the rhetoric of equality, rhetoric of define omelas sexuality, rhetoric of time, rhetoric of The Role of the Gods Aeneid commerce, and rhetoric of of Jah Essays health. However, there are also many secondary arguments surrounding the topfreedom debate that have yet to be addressed but are beyond the scope of of the Gods Essay example this essay. Similarly, there are many complementary issues such as naturism and examples exhibitionism that need to be analyzed in light of the of the Gods example fight for topfreedom but are, again, beyond the scope of this work. In The Essay? Second, more emphasis has been placed on the arguments for The Role in the Aeneid Essay, topfreedom than the arguments against topfreedom in this essay. However, this is less of a biased oversight than a response to the number of define omelas anti-topfreedom arguments circulating in the public sphere. Currently, because the status quo has not been in danger, arguments supporting these laws are few and far between. However, as more people join the topfree movement, anti-topfree arguments will, in response, become more prominent.

Clearly, the topfreedom movement is The Role Gods in the Essay ripe with research opportunities. Beyond the define omelas ideas mentioned above, future research must also continue to organize these arguments as the conditions surrounding this issue change. Perhaps most importantly, scholars will need to The Role of the in the Essay, build from these theoretical categories to decide which arguments best interact with and inform audiences in various situations. Equal attention must be paid to and Transition in Life Essay, the arguments that uphold anti-topfree laws and ordinances so that we can both understand them and respond to them. Ultimately, topfreedom as an idea is making its way into the agenda of public discourse and must continue on that path in The Role of the example order to achieve the important goals that it upholds. Accad, E. (2001). The wounded breast . On Livestock: Horses Slaughtered In The United States? Chicago: University of Illinois. American Cancer Society. Breast cancer: facts figures 2001-2002 . Of The Aeneid Essay Example? (2002).

Atlanta, Georgia: ACS. Ayalah, D., Weinstock, I.J. Change And Transition In Life Essay? (1979). Breasts: Women speak about The Role Aeneid Essay example their breasts and their lives . New York: Summit Books. Conley, T. (1990). The History Examples? Rhetoric in of the in the the European tradition . Of Punk? Chicago: University of Chicago. Donovan, J. (1992). Feminist theory: the intellectual traditions of American feminism , 2nd ed. New York: Continuum. Ellis, T. Of The In The Aeneid Essay Example? (1989, July 6).

Face-off: Going bare-chested; Good taste is not discrimination. On Looks A Deacon…? USA Today , p. A8. Gillis, M. (1998, July 5). The Role In The Essay? Tempest in a d-cup: Topless debate chills as novelty of baring it all wears thin. Essay On Livestock: Should Not Be United States? The Ottawa Sun , p. 05. Heat of The Role Gods Aeneid 89.3 Degrees Ushers in Exodus: Movement of Jah People Essays Summer (1934, June 22). The New York Times , p. 3. Hyde, A. (1997). Bodies of law. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Latteier, C. (1998). Breasts: The woman's perspective on of the Essay, an American obsession . New York: Harrington Park Press. Maine, M. (2000). And Transition Essay? Body wars: making peace with women's bodies . Carlsbad, CA: Gurze Books. Nolan, M.K. (1997, August 11). Topless women?

Not in conservative Hamilton. Hamilton Spectator , p. A1. Perelman, C., Olbrechts-Tyteca, L. Of The Gods In The Aeneid? (1969). The New Rhetoric: A treatise on argumentation (J. Wilkinson P. Weaver, Trans.). Notre Dame, IN: University of on Livestock: Horses Should in the United States Notre Dame. Aeneid Example? (Original work published 1958) Topfree Equal Rights Association. (2003). Retrieved April 1, 2003, from http://www.tera.ca/index.html . Topfree Equality for Exodus: Essays, Women. (2001). Retrieved March 22, 2003, from http://www.ohnuderec.org/Topfree/tf.html . Yalom, M. (1997). Of The Gods Aeneid Essay Example? The history of the breast . New York: Knopf. Copyright 2003 by Essay on Livestock: not be Slaughtered in the Robin E. Jensen.

BARING OUR BREASTS. by Oquawka (Janie Rezner) This article was written in September 2004. The author lives in California. I recently stood with a small group of barebreasted women holding aloft signs that read, Letting Children Starve is Indecent and other like messages, on a Sunday afternoon in downtown Mendocino. I was responding to the outrageous reaction to the bare breast by the high and The Role of the Gods Essay mighty of this country: John Ashcroft ordering the covering of a statue of and Transition in Life a bare-breasted woman, the big to-do because someone's breast was seen for a moment on TV. I was responding to the efforts of the The Role Gods in the Aeneid Essay patriarchal powers to diminish and vilify this very wonderful attribute of women which allows them to feed their children from their own body. The folks in power strive to The History, wipe out The Role Gods Aeneid example, any honouring of the maternal, and Exodus: Movement have been doing so for almost 5000 years.

Nothing new there, of course. Ammachi, the Indian saint, speaks at length about this loss. The maternal breast is very political. Of The Gods In The Aeneid Essay Example? It's about women taking back their own bodies---making birthing and nursing and feeding the norm, rather than war and Rock death, whose images are an everyday occurrence for our growing children. Rather than honouring scenes of The Role Gods Aeneid example violence and of Jah the taking of life, how about honouring the scenes of the giving of life? Nurturing rather than warring! I sent some of The Role of the Gods in the Aeneid Essay my photos and recent writings to Christopher Titmuss, international Buddhist meditation teacher in England, who leads meditation retreats around the world. He is also an activist. The History Of Punk Rock Essay Examples? His response was: I loved the article and the photos. To wake up consciousness, we have to be bold.

We live in a society which has an obsessive fetish about women's breasts---particularly around size, shape, and age. In The Essay Example? A huge money-making industry feeds the fetish from porn to the operating table. It's big business. All credit to you and your women friends for 10 Most Dangerous Predators Essay, baring the truth. Love and longing for the breast are quite a natural instinct, since our first and primary life experience is being nursed at The Role Gods in the our mother's breast. Profound comfort, stimulation, satisfaction, a sense of security like none other while being held in our mother's arms---and most of all nourishment, without which we would have died.

These deep, primal feelings all spring from the Should not be Slaughtered United States baby's connection to of the Gods, the breast. We can see how this natural expression of seeking comfort that lives on in a man's intimate relationship with a woman has been perverted, like most primal feelings in this current patriarchal world. Riane Eisler says, We have to change the conversation. I'm hoping this issue and the deeper truth and Essay Horses Should not be in the States reality that surround it will be brought more into the public eye. That's what we are all about, as conscious human beings on earth, aren't we?

Not only doing our best to change the bigger conversation to the real concerns that are facing us, but for some of in the example us, bringing awareness of what our history as humans has been, and how we must come back into balance, if we are to survive. As we now live, with one half of humanity controlling and having ultimate power over the other half, with the Sacred Feminine dominated, her voice silenced, her wisdom scoffed at, a huge gap exists in and Transition in Life Essay our inner and outer life. The anxiety and violence increase, life moving faster and faster, stimulation coming in at Gods in the example us from all directions. All to dull the Essay on Livestock: Horses not be Slaughtered United pain of a world gone awry, a world without love and compassion. ONE SMALL STEP FOR TOPFREEDOM. by a girl in Edmonton, Alberta.

This article was written in May 2004. In the summer of 2003, at the age of 14, I struck my first blow for topfreedom by The Role Aeneid example wearing only a bikini bottom at define omelas a beach at Gull Lake, Alberta. The Role Of The Gods In The Essay? Though small in on Looks Like scope, it was a large personal move because I had dared to The Role Gods Aeneid Essay, exercise my right and go barebreasted in public. I say dared because, though legal, this is Exodus: Movement of Jah not yet socially acceptable, and I could have caused a disturbance and been subjected to ridicule and harassment, as so many women have in other places. I dropped my top on our beach blanket next to my father and ran for The Role of the example, the water with my girlfriend (her top still on) beside me for moral support. What would happen now? Was I ready for this? Regardless of age, other girls seemed to express shock or envy; the boys expressed surprise and interest. No one said anything to Like A Deacon…, me, and no one called the police. One couple nearby smiled and gave me a thumbs up.

There was only one dissenting voice, a friend of of the example my mother#130; who thought I was breaking the law. Define Omelas? It was my father who told her that it was legal in The Role Aeneid Essay Canada for a woman to go topfree anywhere a man could, and offered to show her the proof when we got home. She didn't seem impressed; but I remained topfree for the rest of our stay. So I got away with it and am still getting away with it on a regular basis. Perhaps Albertans are not the rednecks we are portrayed as in the media; perhaps we are more open and progressive than people give us credit for.

Of course, these are the same media that pilloried Janet Jackson when she flashed her semi-nude breast for a split second during a show that also presented with impunity scantily clad and suggestive dancers, half-dressed gladiatrixes, and erotic or demeaning song lyrics. Women's breasts are sexual and men's are not because men say so, hetero men anyways. But anyone familiar with the gay community will know that men's breasts may be just as sexual as women's. Essay On Looks Like A Deacon…? So why the controversy? I think women have not achieved topfreedom, some 75 years after men have done so, because their breasts and bodies have been a moneymaking commodity for so long. The Role Essay Example? If you don't believe this, take a closer look the next time you pass a magazine stand. Women's sexualization is used to sell everything from cars to candy bars. 10 Most Dangerous Predators World Essay? A financial resource of this magnitude must be protected. Perhaps Janet should have surrounded herself with topfree male dancers and The Role Essay example suddenly exposed both breasts---and then have the FCC explain the double standard. That would have been one giant leap! Note: the define omelas legality as mentioned above is probably correct for The Role of the Gods, all of Canada but has not been specifically established in some provinces, including Alberta.

Note: Topfreedom has been legal for women throughout New York State since July 7, 1992. I have included a photo of define omelas my significant other (Linda Marszalkowski) at Lawson Park, Cheektowaga, New York, enjoying the warm and Gods in the Aeneid example sunny weather last summer. The newspaper never did a story on Linda because the police department finally found that she was acting within her legal rights removing her shirt in the town park. But they weren't happy about telling me this. I talked to the police department after we got home.

Apparently, they told complainers that Linda wasn't doing anything wrong. But it didn't begin so easily. That day we took a short walk through the park and stopped for a picnic. Two park maintenance guys approached and told us that Linda had to put her shirt back on or she was going to be arrested. I explained that she wasn't doing anything wrong and Change and Transition Essay showed them the documentation to support that.

They said they were going to call the cops. I decided because the of the Gods newspaper wasn't going to do the story that I was going to find out myself how many police departments in the towns around the area knew the law. Buffalo said that if she was spotted, she would be arrested. Tonawanda said that they knew it was legal---but gave me an attitude. Lancaster said that even if it wasn't legal, they wouldn't mind. West Seneca said that they knew that it was legal but they thought that there was some restriction about define omelas school yards. Kenmore gave me a hard time and finally said that if I knew the answer ahead of time then why did I call, and The Role Aeneid Essay example why would I want my girlfriend running around without a top on anyways. Orchard Park said that they didn't know but took the name of the police chief in Cheektowaga to verify what I was telling them. Amherst said that they didn't know but also took the police chief's name to verify.

They thanked me for Exodus: Movement People, informing them. Other towns around Buffalo either said that they were going to check or never got back to Gods in the Aeneid example, me. It really disturbs me that the on Livestock: Should Buffalo police department, the The Role of the in the Essay example largest in the area, initially didn't know the law and, even after hearing what I had to on Looks Like A Deacon…, say, said that Linda would be arrested anyways. WAL-MART IS WRONG. by Julia Goforth. This letter was sent to Wal-Mart's American head office in December 2002. I have decided that I will no longer be shopping at The Role Gods Essay any Wal-Mart or Sam's Club store.

I am greatly disturbed by 10 Most Predators the positions that Wal-Mart has taken recently. I am appalled that Tamie Dragone of Lincoln, Kansas had to face horror and The Role Gods in the Essay example humiliation because of photos of her child that she entrusted to Wal-Mart. There is Essay on Looks Like case law that outlines what is considered child pornography---it must meet four qualifications. Across the The Role Gods in the Aeneid Essay US and Canada, woman are fighting for and winning the right to define omelas, be topfree in The Role of the Gods example public as men are because the female breast is not a sexual organ and in Life Essay is not indecent or sexual by nature. Many states recognize that to deprive a woman the in the Aeneid Essay right to be topfree in public while men are allowed to Essay Should not be in the, be is discrimination based on sex, and have laws protecting women's rights, including the right to be topfree. States that haven't moved into that still don't require a girl younger than the age of 10 to of the Gods Essay, wear a top in Like public, e. g. at of the Gods example a public swimming pool. The corporation's support of The History Rock Essay examples its over-zealous employees is absurd. I question the mindset of this employee if he/she found the photos of a three-year-old old to The Role of the Gods in the, be erotic. (Incidentally, some counties in Arkansas refuse to respond to Horses Should not be Slaughtered States, a call about a woman being merely topfree in public.) To assume that nudity is automatically sexual ought to be an insult to us all.

We are all nude. Most of us have been indoctrinated into of the example, believing our bodies are shameful and dirty and The History need to be covered, and that uncovering them is sexual, regardless of one's age. But now, pulling pregnant Midge off the The Role of the Aeneid shelves because some customers feel it is sending the wrong message to children---this is utter nonsense. It's Barbie herself that sends the wrong message to children. Change And Transition Essay? If Barbie were real, due to The Role of the in the Aeneid Essay, her proportions she would not be able to walk upright. Define Omelas? She would be skeletally malformed and obviously nutritionally deprived. However, her friend Midge, waiting until marriage to become pregnant and Gods in the example still having her husband and Essay son, is being pulled from the shelves. The Role In The Aeneid Example? As a mother of six, I agree that this doll would be an asset to my children. In child play-therapy, it could help a child work through issues regarding the pending arrival of a new sibling or the abuse witnessed of its pregnant mother. There are so many benefits to having this doll that I can't believe that it is Horses Should United States being pulled from the shelves. The irony to The Role Gods in the Aeneid, me is that the on Looks A Deacon… toy, magazine, and electronics sections of The Role Gods in the Wal-Mart and Sam's Club are filled with things that promote violence, including destruction and murder, and titillate by showing the peek-a-boo cleavage of women in on Livestock: Horses Should Slaughtered in the United States order to sell a product.

And I won't even begin to discuss the bathing suit section. Please. Wal-Mart purports to be family-centered and of high morals, which is the supposed reason behind the photo policy, but this is just a marketing ploy. I would rather drive farther and pay higher prices to a corporation that carries whatever in order to blatantly make a profit but doesn't lie to me by pretending to of the Aeneid Essay, be moral and to have integrity. I remember how Sam would do spot checks in the stores to make sure customers were receiving good service. Essay On Livestock: Horses Should Not Be In The? It was about the customers, balanced with the profit motive. Of The Gods? I doubt Sam would have handled either of these incidents the way they were handled. Wal-Mart will no longer be getting any of my money.

And as an advocate for women and children recovering from Essay on Livestock: Horses Should Slaughtered, abuse, I will advise my colleagues of my decision and the reasons behind it, and encourage them to follow suit. The Role Of The Gods Essay? As a leader in female equality, I will advise my associates similarly. As an activist against Essay on Looks Like child pornography, I will also advise all those I come into contact with in Gods Aeneid example this realm. I am committed to my decision, as it directly and indirectly affects my children as well as the society in which they grow up in. Cette lettre était écrite par Isabelle, étudiante québécoise de 22 ans qui terminait sa deuxième année de baccalauréat. La cause des femmes que vous défendez m'intéresse beaucoup car, été après été, j'en souffre énormément. J'ai crié ma colère et ma révolte publiquement au sein des différents organismes, mais ils n'ont pas voulu m'écouter. À présent, je dois dire que je n'attends plus rien de cette société qui est, de toute évidence, très réfractaire aux changements. Mon but, pour l'instant, est de terminer mes études et m'en aller vers des lieux plus cléments et compréhensifs, où j'aurai enfin droit d'exprimer mes goûts et mes désirs librement, sans contrainte m'interdisant d'être ce que je suis, en me culpabilisant et me traitant comme une criminelle si je fais ce que les hommes ont toujours fait, tout ceci simplement parce que je suis une femme. Je dois toujours être sur mes gardes, ne jamais provoquer les pauvres hommes qui ne pensent qu'à saliver sur notre corps (si on se comporte de la même façon qu'eux); et agir de façon toujours conforme, sans jamais réprimander. Autrement on se fait pointer du doigt mais sans, pour autant, se faire entendre . . On Looks Like A Deacon…? . L'an dernier [2001], mon conjoint et moi avons écrit un texte qui, à notre avis, était complet et expliquait bien le droit que devraient avoir les femmes de se promener torse nu et ceci, aux mêmes endroits autorisés pour les hommes. Of The In The Essay Example? Nous avons posté notre lettre aux ministères de la justice (Québec et Canada), à la charte des droits et libertés de la personne ainsi qu'à la condition féminine Canada.

Mon conjoint a également fait de nombreux téléphones pour savoir où en était rendu le dossier mais malheureusement, personne ne le savait et rien n'a avancé. Voilà la lettre écrite par Isabelle et son conjoint: Nous vous écrivons pour vous dire à quel point nous trouvons injuste de voir qu'encore aujourd'hui, au Québec, dans notre société, les femmes n'ont pas le droit de se promener le torse nu, aux mêmes endroits que les hommes. Define Omelas? Après tout, l'été, lorsqu'il fait chaud, n'est-ce pas la même chaleur pour les femmes alors pourquoi ces dernières se voient refuser le droit de sentir l'air frais sur leur peau et de se faire bronzer uniformément, au même titre que les hommes? Vous ne pensez pas que si une femme est mieux dans sa peau le torse nu et qu'elle se sent plus confortable, elle devrait obtenir ce droit fondamental qu'ont toujours eu les hommes, c'est-à-dire le droit d'être enfin libre elle aussi? Ce n'est pas évident de toujours sentir un haut de bikini qui nous serre constamment la poitrine et vous ne pouvez pas vous imaginer jusqu'à quel point une femme peut être déprimée lorsqu'elle voit des hommes faire ce dont elle a toujours rêvé et que elle, vu qu'elle est née femme, elle se voit refuser ce droit.

Pourquoi est-ce légal pour un et illégal pour l'autre? Pourquoi est-ce naturel pour un et indécent pour l'autre? Bref, pourquoi considérons-nous une femme qui est bien dans sa peau avec le corps qu'elle a comme une criminelle, ni plus, ni moins? Tout ça est complètement illogique et représente une énorme injustice sociale car n'oublions pas que 100% des humains ont des seins, les femmes les ayant toutefois quelque peu plus développés. Quoi de plus normal qu'une femme qui allaite son enfant? Le sein est une source de vie et non un objet sexuel dédié à faire seulement plaisir aux hommes. Quand est-ce que les femmes pourront enfin cesser d'être dominées par les hommes et avoir une fois pour toute leur place dans cette société malade et discriminatoire à l'extrême? Nous ne voyons pas pourquoi cette situation est permis aux hommes et interdit aux femmes étant donné qu'en Europe, en République Dominicaine, dans les Antilles Françaises et beaucoup d'autres endroits, les femmes qui veulent se promener le torse nu peuvent le faire sans avoir de compte à rendre à personne ni obtenir de billet d'infraction. Nous pensons que c'est de la discrimination pure et simple vis-à-vis le droit des femmes. On brime leur liberté en ne les mettant pas égales aux hommes.

Il faudrait que la justice se fasse aussi au Québec puisqu'il y a un jugement basé sur la charte des droits et libertés de la personne qui interdit de faire une telle discrimination par rapport au sexe et que si une femme ne fait qu'avoir le torse nu comme un homme, aux mêmes endroits que celui-ci, en n'incitant pas les autres à avoir des contacts physiques ou sexuels avec elle, elle devrait avoir les mêmes droits que cet homme. La charte des droits et liberté est valide dans tout le Canada et mentionne clairement qu'en autorisant de faire une chose à quelqu'un qu'on interdit à une autre et ceci, à cause de son sexe, il s'agit là d'une situation très discriminatoire! Pour beaucoup de personnes, c'est totalement inacceptable de permettre quelque chose à un sexe et de l'interdire à l'autre. Pensez à nouveau aux endroits où toutes les femmes ont le droit de se promener les seins nus. The Role Of The Gods In The Aeneid? Ces femmes sont bien dans leur peau et les hommes s'y sont habitués et ne les remarquent même plus.

N'oublions pas que ce qui est érotique est ce qui est caché et que si toutes les femmes avaient le droit de se promener le torse nu, les seins ne seraient pas plus érotiques que le torse des hommes et, de ce fait, il y aurait sans doute beaucoup moins d'agressions sexuelles car les seins cesseraient enfin d'être considérés comme des objets sexuels, n'ayant toujours servis qu'à amuser les hommes. Au début, les gens regarderaient mais ça ne prendrait pas beaucoup de temps et les gens s'y habitueraient. Les hommes ne demandent pas aux femmes si leur torse nu les dérange alors pourquoi les femmes devraient-elles demander la permission aux hommes pour le faire? Ce n'est pas logique tout ça et pour ce qui est des enfants, n'oublions pas que ceux-ci adoptent le système de valeurs propre aux adultes, à la société, et que si les adultes informeraient et éduqueraient sainement leurs enfants par rapport à l'anatomie féminine et masculine au lieu de faire une aliénante phobie collective du torse nu des femmes, les enfants grandiraient dans tout cela et ne seraient pas plus dérangés de voir une femme torse nu qu'un homme actuellement. C'est sûr que tout changement comporte son lot de dérangements. 10 Most Dangerous Predators World? à la première femme qui a porté un pantalon. Elle faisait scandale à cette époque et maintenant, toutes les femmes en portent. Dans un même ordre d'idées, la première femme qui a porté un bikini a fait tourner bien des têtes elle aussi et aujourd'hui, quoi de plus normal pour une femme qui a chaud que d'en porter un? Nous pensons que tout est une question de mentalité et de société et que cette vieille mentalité désuète doit changer au plus vite. Ce n'est vraiment pas juste pour les femmes que de voir pleins d'hommes le torse nu sans avoir droit à ce privilège. In The Aeneid Essay Example? Comme mentionné plus haut, il y aurait sûrement moins de viols si les femmes se promenaient les seins nus sans être gênées car les seins deviendraient vite fait une partie du corps comme une autre, au même titre que le torse masculin et donc, beaucoup moins excitante pour les hommes qu'à l'heure actuelle. Alors, il va de soit qu'en 2002, il est grand temps que ces lois et règlements changent et permettent enfin aux femmes de se promener torse nu comme bon leur semble, du moins, aux même endroits autorisés pour les hommes.

Si les hommes ont le droit d'avoir le torse nu dans un endroit public, les femmes devraient avoir ce droit aussi ou si ce n'est pas le cas, les responsables de cet endroit devraient interdire le torse nu à tout le monde, ceci pour ne pas traiter les femmes de façon inférieure et discriminatoire. Sur ce, nous aimerions grandement avoir de vos nouvelles pour savoir ce que vous en pensez et ce que vous comptez faire afin de remédier à cette situation tout à fait pathétique. KEY WEST'S FANTASY FEST. by Bruce Frendahl. Bruce Frendahl is a member of the Board of Governors of the B.E.A.C.H.E.S. Foundation, located in Miami Shores, Florida. Define Omelas? He and his wife Judy visited the Gods in the Essay example October 2002 Fantasy Fest, known for some years for its topfree women, or at least for women attempting to of Jah, be topfree, in a variety of of the Gods example situations. I felt that a barrier had come down. Not that a woman could now feel free to be topfree on Duval Street at high noon on an average day, but at Movement People Essays least the enforcement of of the Gods Aeneid Essay discriminatory laws against females typical of the state of Florida would magically be suspended for one brief if wild and crazy evening in the streets of Key West.

Whether the define omelas reason be Key West's finest finally giving in to the commercial demands of the Gods Aeneid example residential artist community---or the lack of sufficient vocal protest from the Essay local religious extremists---or the of the in the Aeneid Essay example townwide revelation that women should be treated equally to Movement, men, especially if it could somehow be rationalized that there was an artsy side to the end result---or a realization that most of the arrests or citations or police enforcement encounters were a result of The Role of the in the Essay example forcing reluctant women to Dangerous in the, keep a fabric covering across their chests (both on floats and in the massive costumed crowd, admittedly inebriated to varying degrees)---or a combination of in the Aeneid Essay all these factors, and others of define omelas which we know not . . Aeneid? . it happened. It will likely continue to happen, as long as women express their collective preference to Essay on Looks Like, do so, artists continue to in the Essay, make money from it, and law enforcement personnel realize that an arbitrary dress code (at least this aspect of it, on this particular night) is archaic and silly. Such a code is Exodus: Movement Essays better left to peer pressure and natural community standards. Key West has a wild and woolly history of of the Gods Aeneid pirates, bootleggers, drug smugglers, societal outcasts, eccentric artists and writers, ne'er-do-wells, and others outside the mainstream. Considering the Essay town's seedy history, to deny this simple and innocuous pleasure on the craziest night of the year in Key West would be foolhardy to most independent observers. Not that the Aeneid example act of a woman being artfully topfree falls anywhere near those other activities. But it is consistent with the traditionally independent attitude of the Conch Republic. For women, it represents a little progress in gaining more control over their own bodies. And that's a good thing for everyone. by Claire Braz Valentine. This piece of work began circulating on People, the Internet in the spring of 2002 after US Attorney General John Ashcroft spent more than US$8000 to hide a breast on a statue in the Hall of Justice in Washington, DC.

Hear the author read this work (recording from Santa Cruz, California, March 2002) by going here. John, John, John, you've got your priorities all wrong. While men fly airplanes into skyscrapers, dive bomb the pentagon, while they stick explosives into their shoes, and then book a seat right next to us, while they hide knives in their luggage, steal kids on school buses, take little girls from their beds at night, drive trucks into our state capital buildings, while our president calls dangerous men all over the world evildoers and Gods in the Aeneid Essay example devils, while we live in the threat of biological warfare, nuclear destruction, annihilation, you are out buying yardage to save Americans from the appalling, alarming, abominable aluminum alloy of evil, that terrible ten foot tin tittie. You might not be able to find Bin Laden, but you sure as heck found the hooter in the hall of justice. It's not that we aren't grateful, But while we were begging the A Deacon… women of Afghanistan To not cover up their faces, You are begging your staff members to Just cover up that nipple, to save the of the American people from that monstrous metal mammary. How can we ever thank you? So, in your office every morning in your secret prayer meeting, while an American woman is sexually assaulted every six seconds, while anthrax floats around the 10 Most in the World post office and in the Essay settles in the chest of senior citizens, you've got another chest on your mind. While American sons arrive home in of Punk Essay examples body bags, and heat seeking missiles fly around a foreign country looking for in the Aeneid Essay, any warm body, you think of another body.

And you pray for in Life, the biggest bra in the world, John, because you see that breast on the Spirit of The Role Gods in the Justice in the spirit of your own inhibited sexuality. And when we women see our grandmothers, our mothers, our daughters, our granddaughters, our sisters, ourselves, when we women see that statue, the Spirit of Justice, we see the spirit of strength, the spirit of Essay on Looks survival. Of The Essay? While every day we view innocent bodies dragged out of rubble, and women and children laid out like thin limp dolls and baptized into death as collateral damage, and the hollow eyed Afghani mother's milk has dried up underneath her burqa in Horses not be famine, in shame, and her children are dead at her breast. While you look at that breast, John, that jug on the Spirit of in the Aeneid Essay Justice, and Change and Transition Essay deal with your thoughts of lust and sex and nakedness, we see it as a testimony to motherhood. And you see it as a tit.

It's not the The Role of the Aeneid Essay example money it cost. It's the message you send. We've got the right to live in freedom. We've got the Horses Should not be right to cheat Americans out of millions of dollars and then just not want to tell congress about it. The Role Gods In The Essay Example? We've got the right to drop bombs night and A Deacon… day on a small country that has no army, no navy, no military at all, because we've got the right to bear arms, but we just better not even think about the right to bare breasts.

So now, John, you can be photographed while you stand there and talk about bombs and guns and Aeneid Essay example poisons without the breast appearing over Dangerous Predators in the Essay, your right shoulder, without that bodacious bosom bothering you. And we just wanted to of the Gods Aeneid, tell you in the Spirit of define omelas Justice, in The Role of the in the Aeneid example the Spirit of Truth: John, there is Change still one very big boob left standing there in The Role of the Aeneid Essay that picture. YORK, MAINE: CAN WE SAY AVOIDANCE? by Julia Goforth. Julia Goforth is a former Vice-President of the define omelas Topfree Equal Rights Association. The Role Gods In The Essay Example? She wrote this article in early September 2001. In late July 2001, I visited York, Maine.

It is define omelas a busy, tourist-filled town, quaint and friendly, with miles of beach on of the Gods example, the Atlantic Ocean. What a beautiful place to be! I sought to find out what to expect from law enforcement officials in the area should I decide to enjoy the beach in my usual manner. While walking across a parking lot near Short Sands Beach, I saw a man officer and a woman lifeguard speaking with each other. I approached them and explained that I was visiting from Essay, Ontario and The Role of the Gods in the Aeneid Essay example planned to spend time on the beach in in Life my monokini bathing suit (bottom only). I asked if I would encounter any problems from the police department.

Seeming to be surprised by my question, they both answered Yes. The Role Gods Essay? The police officer stated that not wearing a top could get me charged with disorderly conduct. The lifeguard said there was no dressing or undressing allowed on the beach, and define omelas that the The Role of the Gods example city had an ordinance against being without a top on the beach, with a fine of define omelas $50. I asked where I could get the exact wording of these statutes and ordinances. Again, they seemed surprised at my question, but directed me to the police station just down the road. So I paid a visit to the Town of York police department. Officer Scott Cogger offered to assist me. When I stated what I was looking for, he said that he was terribly busy and suggested I come back the next day. The Role Aeneid Essay? I smiled and said I didn't mind waiting for him to and Transition in Life, finish what he was doing. After a few minutes, a dispatcher offered to Gods Essay example, help me. I made my request known to him.

Then he politely declined to help. About 15 minutes later, Cogger returned with some photocopied papers for Exodus: Movement of Jah, me, representing things that I could be charged with. He requested that if I planned to be on the beach without a top, I do so on a weekend so that the officers on in the Aeneid Essay, duty on and Transition, weekdays would not have to handle the call. He also suggested that I go to Kittery Point Beach because it would look better on The Role Gods Aeneid example, the front page of the paper than York Beach. Back at my campsite, located directly behind the and Transition Essay police department, I read the applicable laws.

Here are the relevant parts: Maine Law Section 17A. 854. Indecent conduct. 1. A person is guilty of indent conduct if: A. In a public place, 1. The actor engages in a sexual act, as defined in Gods Essay example section 251; or. 2. The History Rock Essay Examples? The actor knowingly exposes the actor's genitals under circumstances that, in fact, are likely to The Role Aeneid Essay, cause affront or alarm. 501.

Disorderly conduct. A person is guilty of disorderly conduct if: 1. In a public place, he intentionally or recklessly causes annoyance to others by on Livestock: Horses Should Slaughtered United States intentionally [sic]: A. Making loud and unreasonable noises; B. Activating a device, or exposing a substance, which releases noxious and offensive odors. C. Engaging in fighting . . . 2. In a public or private place, he knowingly accosts, insults, taunts, or challenges any person with offensive, derisive or annoying words, or by gestures or other physical conduct . . Gods In The Essay? . The city ordinance spoken of is the ordinance prohibiting obscenity for commercial gain. Article 1 of the ordinance states its purpose as to prohibit any commercial enterprise from presenting or engaging in any obscene exhibitions for profit.

It is not intended to suppress or inhibit the define omelas free exchange of ideas of artistic expression. The Town of York has enacted this ordinance for the purpose of promoting and protecting the general welfare, public safety, public order, and morals. Article 2, Section 5 of this ordinance defines obscene as any conduct of a sexual nature and The Role in the example continues to outline what would be considered of a sexual nature: anything. A. which, to the average individual applying contemporary community standards, considered as a whole appeals to the prurient interest; B. which presents in a patently offensive manner actual or simulated ultimate sexual acts, sodomy, beastiality, excretory functions, masturbation, direct physical stimulation of the Movement unclothed genitals, flagellation or torture in context of The Role of the Gods Aeneid Essay example ultimate sexual acts, lewd exhibition of the Essay on Livestock: States human male or female genitals, pubic area, buttocks, or the female breast below the top of the nipple; and. C. which considered as a whole lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.

Article 3 outlines what is prohibited: any commercial enterprise is prohibited to present or engage in an obscene exhibition for profit; or to solicit, permit, promote, or assist any commercial enterprise or person to present or engage in Gods any obscene exhibition within the Town of York. Violating this order, incidentally, carries a fine of $500 for each offense. The lifeguard was off a bit in Movement People Essays her figures. Come to think of it, she was off a bit in a lot of this ordinance. In my interpretation, if I'm sunbathing or frolicking with my children in the surf, none of the above material applies. Even if I'm selling promotional materials for TERA on the beach, Article 2, Section 5, part C seems to address, and protect, my activity. Unfortunately, I left York at sunrise the following day and was unable to The Role in the Essay, test my theory. But there is always next summer.

Stay tuned! by Kayla Sosnow, posted 2001 October 25. Kayla Sosnow wrote this about Judge Joe Williams while she spent 20 days in jail for not wearing a shirt in a forest in Florida. For a photo of her singing/chanting this poem, go here. With a country twang. Chorus: (But) (still) Well I'm just sittin' here in jail Wondrin' how did I fail Why am I held without bail All I did was be female and wondrin' Why is Essay on Livestock: not be Slaughtered United States it that the judge Is refusing to budge If I could just give him a nudge: See, it's only The Role of the in the Aeneid Essay example, about pudge! But in court you can't speak free You got to Essay on Livestock: States, pay a lawyer's fee For the in the priv'lege of giving up your voice There really ain't much choice So I made me a plan To get access to this man He'll let me out of the joint Once he understands my point And in this fantasy I invite him for Dangerous in the Essay, herb tea And far from the halls of The Role Essay example justice I ask what all the fuss is Well, thoughtfully he sat Then said . Of Punk? . Of The Aeneid? . Dangerous Predators In The Essay? Mine are flat, yours fat . . . And I think it's really shitty That you showed the world your titties. But then I explained to him our quest To gain freedom of the breast You see judge they aren't dirty You'll get used to that they're purty And who was it to decide That by law females must abide Our bodies in shame we must hide That seems most undignified! But if you are a man You're exempt from this ban And in freedom you can Enjoy a tan and land and The Role sand. Then I asked what next will be If they find our face sexy And he finally came to see With new eyes he looked at People Essays me and said, I must loosen up these ties That kept me hypnotized by lies I admit I've been unwise Now my consciousness must rise.

With that he handed me the key And said, You're out of jail free! A week later he wrote And from his note I quote You have changed how I feel This prejudice must heal Good luck on your appeal I support your cause with zeal! Copyright 2001 by Kayla Sosnow. WHAT'S WRONG WITH MY BREASTS? by Ann-Marie, 2001 August 07. Ann-Marie lives in The Role Gods in the Aeneid Essay example Texas. The following is Change and Transition in Life taken from a longer essay.

I see breasts every day. Mine. So does my husband. Every woman has them. So why is it such a horrible thing when they are seen on television? We see men and boys taking off their shirts every day, in the movies and on television, but as soon as a woman takes off hers, parts of the picture become mosaic, or she pulls a bed sheet over in the Essay, her chest. Why? The funniest part is the controversial nipple. That's pretty much what's being hidden here. In Pennsylvania, at a strip bar, the dancers have to Essay Horses Should not be Slaughtered, wear pasties over their nipples.

Doesn't matter how large her breasts are, as long as the nipples are covered. Now, I don't know about you, but I think it's the curve and fullness of the breast that is so pleasing to the eye. Nipples be damned! To cover nipples with pasties, especially glittery pasties, simply draws more attention to the whole breast. Obviously, this does nothing for the equality of men and women. Quite frankly, to Gods, be told that I have to Exodus: Movement People, cover my nipples simply because I do not have a penis is The Role Gods in the example insulting. Yeah, we're different . . . but we're equal.

If a man can take off his shirt and define omelas not have his nipples blurred out on television, a woman should be able to example, do the same. So ours look a little different . . Define Omelas? . The Role Gods? they're a little bigger . Not Be Slaughtered? . . SO WHAT?! All women have them. All husbands and boyfriends see them. All children still nursing see them. All other women see them in changing and locker rooms. Do you honestly think that we all try to cover up in the locker room? And don't get me started on The Role of the Gods in the Aeneid Essay example, the whole breastfeeding in People Essays public issue. Anyone with a problem with that should try eating his or her dinner in the toilet and see how they like it. In The Example? A woman has two reasons to bare her breasts: the same reason any man would and to feed her child!

Through this censorship, we are sending very mixed signals to our women and girls: that they should be ashamed of and hide their breasts at the same time they are taught by fashion magazines that they should enlarge and display them. Define Omelas? What hypocrisy! We're also sending a signal to men and boys that they cannot control themselves at the sight of example a breast. Do men commit assault as a result of seeing bare female breasts on PBS or in a movie? Yeesh! I'm not saying that I want to walk around everywhere topfree. It's someone telling me that I cannot do something because I am a female that I question it at all---especially when female breasts serve a distinct purpose that requires occasional exposure.

Restrictions like this are ridiculous, illogical, and unfair. They need to be tested, pushed, and broken. If you are going to blur a woman's breasts on television, you might as well come into my home and Change and Transition in Life digitize my breasts while I shower and change my clothes. CANADIAN TIRE ATTIRE. How I used a non-policy to begin educating the police and others. by Julia Goforth, 2001 July 07. This is of the in the Essay example a report of an incident on June 30, 2001 at about 11:00 in a small city north of Toronto, Ontario. 10 Most Dangerous World Essay? The dry approach reflects the author's calm, cool control. I went into a Canadian Tire store on Yonge Street in Newmarket with one female and two male friends. Of The Gods Essay Example? One of the Horses Should not be Slaughtered United States men and I were topfree, while the other two chose to wear shirts. After a half hour of browsing and purchasing, Mr.

Allen Dodds, Retail Manager, approached me with Ms. Tanis Pottage, Manager, and of the in the Aeneid example another store employee. Mr. Dodds told me I was going to have to World, put my shirt on. I informed him that there was no sign indicating that I had to wear a shirt while in the store. Gods Essay Example? He stated that Canadian Tire is private property and I had to put a shirt on or leave the Change and Transition Essay store. I asked if this was a store policy. He said it was. I requested to of the example, see the policy in writing.

He said that it was not written anywhere. As I put on my shirt, I said I found it curious that the store would have unwritten policies. I asked him to please put this one in writing for me, and that a hand-written copy would be acceptable. He then accused me of creating a disturbance with his customers. I pointed out define omelas, that I was merely shopping and Gods Essay was not creating a disturbance of any kind. He said that other customers were bothered by my being without a shirt. I told him that I was not responsible for Exodus: Movement People Essays, other peoples' behaviour, only my own. The Role Of The In The Essay Example? He excused himself and went outside to talk to the police. When he returned, he informed me that the police said that he didn't have to give me anything in writing.

I understood that he didn't have to, but I was requesting that he do so as a courtesy. He refused. The topfree man with me was never told to define omelas, put his shirt on The Role of the Gods Essay example, by any of the Exodus: Movement of Jah People Canadian Tire employees. Taking note of this, I asked Mr. Dodds, Is this a gender issue?

He said, Yes. Gods Aeneid Essay Example? For confirmation, I asked, So, because I am a woman, I have to wear a shirt in your store? He paused a moment, then said, I don't want to get into this. I don't want to argue about it. I stated that I didn't want to argue either, but that I wanted clarification. Then he informed me that there was a police officer outside and that he would come in and charge me.

I asked what I would be charged with, since I wasn't doing anything illegal. He said he didn't know---whatever the officer wanted to 10 Most Dangerous Essay, charge me with. I replied that I would be charged if he pressed charges, so I would like to The Role in the Aeneid Essay example, know what he was planning to have me charged with. He threatened once again to People, bring in the police. I encouraged him to The Role of the example, include the officer in our discussion.

Stunned, he excused himself to speak with the officer. Upon his return, he informed me that the officer would be in to talk with me shortly. Then Mr. Dodds left, not to be seen again during the rest of the Essay on Looks Like A Deacon… incident. After about of the Aeneid Essay 15 minutes, York Regional Officer Goddard, badge #1030, appeared. The officer, the of Punk other woman and the topfree man in Gods Aeneid Essay example my party, and Movement of Jah People Essays I all joined Ms. Pottage in the office in the customer service area. Of The Gods Aeneid Example? Officer Goddard clarified, The manager told you to in Life Essay, put your shirt on. I said, Yes.

After a pause, he asked, So what is the problem? I said there was no problem, merely that I had put on my shirt when I was told to, but that I was asking for their store policy in writing regarding the wearing of The Role of the Gods Essay example shirts, since it was not posted. I suggested that to require me to wear a shirt while allowing men to be without one was illegal. Officer Goddard informed me that my being without a shirt was drawing attention from the other customers; that was the reason I was confronted. I pointed out that if my son had a gross deformity that drew attention, I would not be asked to cover him or leave the store. The officer agreed. I then pointed out that this was basically the define omelas same kind of thing. He said he understood, but that this was a cultural thing. The Role Gods Example? I compared it to Dangerous World, the cultural act of discrimination based on race or religion. He offered, Well, it's going to take some time for society to change.

I explained that that's exactly why I exercise my right to be topfree, that I want to reclaim our breasts and have them viewed as something other than mere sexual playthings. I am helping not just women but men as well, by changing how they view women in general. Officer Goddard said that the store did not understand the laws about women being able to go without a shirt, and that because the law was so new, even the police were unsure how to handle this type of situation. [Ed. Of The Gods In The Aeneid Essay Example? note: the law was only 4.5 years old at this point!] I recalled that I had once encountered an officer who was so unsure what to do that he begged me to put my shirt on long enough for him to get into The History Essay, his cruiser and leave. That sort of action weakened the in the Aeneid police's position and effectiveness in the public eye. I informed Officer Goddard that as Vice-President of the Change Topfree Equal Rights Association, I would like the opportunity to help the police deal with the public when they receive a call regarding a topfree woman. I asked whom he would recommend that I get in touch with to example, arrange an informative presentation.

I didn't want to tell anyone how to Exodus: People, do their job, just offer more viable options on ways to deal with the The Role in the Aeneid issue that keep everyone happy without violating anyone's rights. He suggested that I speak with the Like Chief at York Regional Headquarters. As the discussion came to of the in the Essay, an end, Ms. Essay On Livestock: Horses Should Not Be Slaughtered United? Pottage stated that they would contact Canadian Tire's corporate office and institute a shirts required policy in all Canadian Tire stores. I thanked Officer Goddard and Ms. Pottage for their professional attitudes, then asked the officer for directions to of the Gods Aeneid Essay, another store. He gave me the directions and then asked, Am I going to 10 Most Predators World Essay, be getting a call from that store in a little bit? BEAUTY AND THE BREAST: AN ART EXHIBITION.

by Allison Roberts. Allison Roberts, a student at Aeneid example Bellevue Community College, Washington, coordinated its art show Beauty and the Breast on June 1, 2001. The History? For more on that day's presentations, go here . Although I do not consider myself an The Role Aeneid Essay activist, I felt compelled to of Punk Rock Essay, work on this project from the moment I heard about it. Maybe my perspective will inspire people a little, or at least inspire some thought about topfreedom, sexualization, and body image. In the in the US today, the Essay on Livestock: not be Slaughtered United States average 7-year-old girl has been on at least two diets. Of The In The Aeneid Essay Example? Younger and younger girls are influenced by our culture's constant pressure to conform to an unrealistic body expectation.

I have heard teenagers talking about TV movies that chronicle women's battles with eating disorders; and instead of being sickened, saddened, or moved by these stories, they look to them for more tips on how to starve themselves. A recent documentary on 10 Most Dangerous Predators in the, bulimia stated that the Gods in the Aeneid Essay no. 1 inspiration for girls with eating disorders is the movies and on Livestock: Should not be Slaughtered in the United States books intended to stop them. They think they're glamorous. Virtually every woman I know has resorted to Gods in the Essay example, drastic measures to obtain what our culture teaches is the ideal body. What we consider that body to be is probably a very sick one. Eating disorders and Horses not be Slaughtered United serious negative body image are destroying tomorrow's women. Now, how does this tie into Gods in the example, topfreedom? Even at the age of 27, I have probably seen only define omelas, 10 or 15 pairs of real breasts. Most of my knowledge about breasts comes from of the in the example, movies and and Transition Essay magazines.

But actresses use body doubles to give the of the Essay example illusion of a more perfect body, and photographs of models have been airbrushed to on Looks A Deacon…, remove any unsightly bumps or discoloration. Aeneid Essay Example? These women, whom we consider ideal, represent a mere 1% of society. When girls as young as 12 talk about getting breast implants based on Exodus: People Essays, this standard, I say we have a serious problem. The Role Gods In The Essay Example? Three 14-year-old girls have told me separately that they need breast enlargement surgery, with nothing to base their body hatred on but a stolen copy of Playboy. How can a girl who has little to no idea what real breasts look like be expected to accept her own body as normal and natural? How can we teach our children that our bodies belong to us and are perfect as they are, if we are also teaching them that their breasts are merely dangerous sexual objects to be hidden? How can we say that to and Transition in Life Essay, view a woman's breasts will damage children, when it is so clear what not seeing them is doing? Allison Roberts and her painting American Woman. We pulled this show together in just under two weeks. I was overwhelmed by the response from the artists I contacted---by their support, enthusiasm, creativity, and inspiration. It was both a gift and a pleasure to work on the show, to spend even two weeks on something I believe in passionately.

THE KAYLA SOSNOW INTERVIEW. by Peri, 2000 March 30. In 1996, Kayla Sosnow was taking part in a Rainbow Gathering at Osceola National Forest in Florida. The Role Gods In The Aeneid Example? There were many topfree women at this gathering, and Kayla felt perfectly comfortable in her surroundings. But when she and a male friend left the define omelas festivities to The Role Gods in the Aeneid, fill up their water jugs, she was jolted back into the reality of life here in The United States---where every person is supposedly created equal. Even though there were several topfree men in the area (including her male companion), a passing forest ranger singled her out for harassment. He told her that her bare chest was illegal, and that she would have to put on a top. Really? Kayla responded. Do you have a local law about this?

Her question flustered the ranger, and he went back to his radio. The History Of Punk Rock Essay Examples? Soon after, three Sheriff cars pulled up. Aeneid Example? The Sheriffs were not interested in discussing the situation. Kayla was told that she must cover up or go to jail. At this point, her male companion suggested that maybe she had just better put on her top. Now, let's all pause for a moment and put ourselves in this situation. You are enjoying time with friends in a beautiful national forest.

Suddenly, you find yourself facing jail time. There is only one way to escape the situation: you must agree to abide by a law that is obviously discriminating against you simply because of Exodus: Movement Essays your sex. The Role Of The Aeneid? What would you do? What's wrong with this photo? Kayla Sosnow chose to go to jail. Define Omelas? She was handcuffed and driven to a county jail. She was to The Role example, spend four days there, and because she refused to plead guilty, she ended up serving another sixteen days after conviction. When speaking about Topfreedom, people often shrug and say that it isn't really a big issue; there are, after all, more important issues to worry about. But if topfreedom is such a small, unimportant issue, why in the world are we sending topfree women like Kayla Sosnow to jail?

Taking away a person's freedom by incarceration is never a small issue. Inequality between the Essay on Livestock: Horses not be in the United two halves of humanity (the male and the female) is Essay example never a small issue. On Looks Like? State-sanctioned sexual discrimination and police-enforced sexual harassment is Gods example never a small issue. Kayla's actions were not premeditated: she simply found herself in an intolerable situation and felt compelled to stand up for what she believed in. And Transition Essay? Kayla was not raised in an atmosphere that specifically encouraged topfreedom, but she was raised in The Role of the in the Aeneid Essay example surroundings that respected social activism. Social activism is actually prescribed in Judaism, says Kayla, who has been involved with many different civil rights movements, because our people were once slaves in 10 Most Dangerous in the Essay Egypt. Criminalized for being a woman! Kayla Sosnow in handcuffs. Kayla also considers the topfreedom movement to be a women's health movement. Women are not getting screened for breast cancer because of our attitudes about breasts.

Women are not doing their breast self exams because of our negative attitudes about breasts. And women are dying because of this. Of The In The Essay Example? Also, women are not breastfeeding their babies---I can't believe that our society is still making women feel uncomfortable about Change and Transition such a natural process! I asked Kayla how she responds when people tell her that men will not be able to control themselves if women walk around topfree. It always surprises me when I talk about this issue, she answered, that the discussion always turns to men, how men will feel, what men will do. Aeneid Essay? That is not the issue here. Essays? This is The Role of the Gods Essay example about women choosing for themselves.

Kayla believes that the general public could handle the Exodus: Movement situation just fine if the government would get out of the way. Gods Essay Example? She has tested this theory by being topfree around her house. She has answered the door topfree to Essay Like, letter carriers, courier drivers, and even a clergyman. All of these men were able to control themselves just fine. In fact, she said with calm assurance, people are a lot more ready for this than we give them credit for.

Kayla came to this conclusion in the years after her arrest, when she received widespread support for her appeal. She actually won this appeal last year [1999], and is now involved in a suit against The Role of the in the Aeneid Essay the state of Florida. The American Civil Liberties Union of The History Rock Essay Florida has filed this lawsuit on The Role of the Gods Aeneid, behalf of on Livestock: Horses not be in the Kayla and of the in the Aeneid nine other females---including a nine-year-old girl. It is very encouraging to see that a reputable organization like the ACLU is offering support on this issue! Because of her leadership in the topfreedom movement, Kayla has a unique perspective on the progress that has been made in recent years.

The more I talk about this issue, the more I hear about women who have been arrested for being topfree. This has not been organized: it is a grassroots movement! Many, many different women are starting to get fed up and are saying that they don't want to Exodus: of Jah People Essays, take it any more. The Role? I want women to know that they can choose to challenge these laws. We don't have to take it anymore! Throughout my interview with Kayla, I was struck by her calm but fearless attitude about topfreedom. 10 Most World? Obviously, they picked the wrong woman to harass at The Role of the Gods in the that Rainbow Gathering.

Or perhaps this was the right woman! Although we are sorry that Kayla had to Change Essay, go through her horrendous legal battle, we are eternally grateful that she chose to stand up and fight for all women's equal rights under the law. She will continue to inspire other women to question the unfair laws that keep women from reclaiming ownership of their own breasts. Read on for more topfree inspiration! Q: How do you respond when people say that topfreedom is not safe for women? A: The evidence does not bear this out. When was the The Role of the in the Essay last time you heard of a topfree woman being attacked on Essay on Livestock: Horses United States, a nude beach, topfree beach, or nudist park?

Concert or festival, even? Any topfree woman anywhere? Never! I have never heard of one! And I've heard of lots of of the Gods Essay topfree women! Not only does the Movement People evidence not bear this out, but neither does my personal experience. I have gone topfree plenty, and have never been attacked. There is an The Role Gods Essay example element of strength to going topfree, while at the same time exposing the Essay Horses world to the soft and nourishing parts of women that for The Role of the Gods in the Aeneid Essay example, too long have been devalued in favour of the tough competitive ideal of our society.

There is also an element of openness to The History of Punk, going topfree which seems to inspire people to treat me with the The Role of the in the Essay utmost respect and dignity, even admiration. People have thanked me for acting on behalf of in Life Essay equal rights. Speaking of equal rights, statements about men misbehaving show a profound lack of respect for The Role of the Gods Essay, them. Essay? Believe it or not, men really can control themselves in The Role Gods Essay the presence of a topfree woman! Q: How do you respond when people say that topfreedom is inappropriate for children to witness?

A: Silly rabbit, breasts are for kids! It is so unfortunate that in our society the media have fetishized breasts so much that they have been co-opted away from their owners and away from children. Do you realize how many children miss out on the nourishing benefits of breastfeeding? All because of the view that this statement represents, that breasts are sex objects, meaning that they are for men, not women and Essay children. Q: Do you have any advice for women who might want to try being topfree in public but haven't quite got up the courage? A: Pick a place you think is mellow and of the Gods Aeneid free of The History examples legal hassles---a natural spot, maybe---and use your judgement. The Role Gods In The Aeneid? Then, you know how you take off your shirt at night to go to bed? It's just like that. Really. Just like you've been doing since you were a kid.

You just take it off. Once it's off, it's off. People can handle it, and noticing that, you'll be able to handle it too. I'll bet there'll be a surprising lack of fanfare. Once you've tried it, and felt the and Transition sun and wind on your body, you'll never want to of the in the Aeneid Essay, be encased in a hot, sweaty garment again. Why do you think men go topfree? It feels better. Define Omelas? Let's not be denied! I AM NOT A SEX OBJECT.

I OWN MY OWN BODY. by Allison Ezell, 2001 April 10. In April 2001, Allison Ezell began a project to decriminalize women's exposed breasts in Indiana. Her website operated for a couple of years. I can't tell you how great it feels to be doing what I am doing. Gods Essay Example? It is almost cathartic, like I am purging myself of define omelas years and years of bullshit and body propaganda that I internalized. And I am trying to help other women.

I have been involved in The Role of the Gods Essay several activist endeavors. There are an infinite number of worthy causes to promote in this world. But I have found one that gives me peace. This issue is so personal to me. I don't have to adjust or apologize or explain or be ashamed. I am not a sex object. I own my body. It is not government property.

The fact that I have to wear a shirt to cover my breasts because they are obscene or because they might entice men to violence is beyond me (even though the overwhelming evidence does not support this notion). It is they who have the problem but I am the 10 Most Predators in the Essay one whom they legislate. Women will never be able to accept their bodies as long as we are expected to keep covering up and concealing and The Role Aeneid example hiding from the world with makeup and bras and and control top pantyhose and Essay on Looks A Deacon… $60-a-jar wrinkle cream. If we all walked around naked and unadorned for a little while and The Role of the Gods Aeneid Essay turned off our TVs, would we still believe that everyone has to look like a Barbie (or a Ken for that matter)? Would women still force themselves to puke? Would we still spend over $80 million a year on diet bullshit? How in Exodus: Movement of Jah People Essays the world will women be able to love and accept their very bodies if every other part is either flawed or criminal? YOU CAN THINK FOR YOURSELF. In April 2001, Whitney McCleskey began a project to decriminalize women's exposed breasts in The Role in the Aeneid Alabama.

Her website is under construction. On January 24, 2002, she gave birth to Victoria Eve, whose photo from Winter 2002 this is: Out of my own curiosity, I've been investigating the define omelas social problems surrounding topfreedom for almost two years now. I have learned that it is difficult for most people to improve their perspectives on The Role Gods in the Aeneid, something which their culture has taught them to view with contempt. But it can be done. Most of define omelas us grow up in societies which place restrictions on The Role Gods Aeneid Essay example, women's breasts, saying that the mere exposure of one is morally threatening to the welfare of the public. We adapt to define omelas, this belief without question. The Role Of The Example? Our media reinforce it through ads, movies, and TV programs. Basically, people believe women's breasts are indecent, obscene, and immoral, because that's what their culture's mainstream has trained them to believe.

In all of in Life my questioning, I've found no one who has ever been able to tell me what it is about the human female breast that is so immoral, obscene, or indecent. Gods Example? Nor has anyone ever been able to produce anatomical facts supporting the general concept that women's breasts are primarily for Essay, sex. I've concluded that the female breast is the most misunderstood part of the The Role of the Gods Aeneid human anatomy. The sight of one (that's not being used for sexual or commercial purposes) is only detrimental if you want it to be. Immorality, indecency, and obscenity, like beauty, are all in the eye of the in Life Essay beholder. Basically, you can think for yourself. You can purge yourself of the misleading impression promulgated by the state and mainstream media.

Personal opinion is one thing the state can't outlaw, the media can't censor. The Role Gods Essay Example? Instead they induce the general population into seeing women's breasts perniciously. Like? Women's topfreedom is in itself harmless. Our freedom to choose our standpoint is precious. For many people topfreedom is The Role of the Gods in the Aeneid also precious, a freedom that men have but women do not.

Ask yourself (not your government or the 10 Most Dangerous Predators in the World Essay media), Are women's breasts really nocuous to society? TOPFREE AS YOU WANNA BE! by Peri, 1999 September 7. When I was 16, I spent a summer in Mexico. One of the girls I met there had just returned from example, Spain. A hundred percent of the women who had frequented the beach outside her hotel were topfree.

My friend felt very conspicuous with her top on because people were constantly staring at her. Still, she was uncomfortable taking off her top because she came from a different culture. But after a few days, she became weary of being the object of define omelas so much attention. So she took off her top. She noticed the difference immediately; there were no more stares directed her way. This story demonstrates that people stare at The Role Gods Aeneid Essay what they consider to be different or odd. In a culture where topfreedom is and Transition in Life Essay accepted and even expected, people will stare at the unusual sight of Gods a woman wearing a top. In a culture (such as ours) where topfreedom is neither accepted nor expected, people will stare at a woman who is not wearing a top. The deciding factor is not the woman's breasts, but the context in which they are seen. Unfortunately, our society does more than simply stare: we also harass, ticket, and even arrest women who are simply trying to 10 Most in the World, exercise the same topfreedom that men enjoy.

This can be seen in the case of The Moscow Three, a trio of The Role Gods in the Aeneid women who dared remove their shirts last year during the The History of Punk Essay examples 32 degree heat of a summer day in Moscow, Idaho. The Role In The Aeneid Example? For this crime, the three women (Lori Graves, Natalie Shapiro, and Stacy Temple) were hauled off to Exodus: Movement Essays, the local jail in The Role Gods Aeneid example handcuffs--while their topfree, male companions stood by, barechested and unharassed. Essay Like A Deacon…? If this is not a blatant example of discrimination, I don't know what is! The prejudice against topfree women is due in part to the sexualization of the female breasts. Of The Gods In The Aeneid Essay? Since women are not allowed to bare their breasts in on Looks Like nonsexual situations, our society immediately associates bare breasts with sexuality. The Role Gods Aeneid Essay Example? Now, I am not saying that men would cease to be aroused by Essay on Livestock: Should not be Slaughtered States breasts if we all walked around topfree. Of course some would! Just as some men are aroused by The Role Gods in the Aeneid long hair, or bare legs, or blue eyes. Should we respond to this potential arousal by shrouding ourselves in shoulder to Slaughtered States, floor garments? Should we cover our hair and faces, leaving only a small opening to see the world?

This has been the solution in of the Gods Aeneid example some cultures, but it's not a solution I much like! Instead, we can demand that our society grow up and learn to deal with the Change in Life existence of our physical bodies. The Role Of The Gods In The Aeneid Example? We must teach society that bare breasts are not an World Essay invitation to be touched, just as we teach that short skirts are not an The Role of the Gods Essay invitation to be raped. When we look at the larger picture, we see that sexual violence against women is perpetuated by our present system: a system that legally sanctions women to be topfree only when they are performing striptease acts or serving men drinks in 10 Most Dangerous World a topless bar. In my town, a woman cannot walk down the of the Aeneid Essay street topfree, but she can take off her shirt in a bar for paying customers. This hypocrisy encourages men to Essay Horses Should Slaughtered United States, think of breasts as sexual objects: mere sexual commodities to be bought and Gods in the sold! Modern society often has a short memory, so people do not remember that men gained their topfree rights fairly recently.

If you look at those old black and white photos of turn-of-the-century bathing suits, you will notice that the men's nipples were also covered. It wasn't until Clark Gable bared his chest in a film in the thirties that men began to go topfree in on Looks A Deacon… great numbers. A few old timers probably fainted, but I'm sure they eventually revived and got on with life. Now male topfreedom is so commonplace that few men would consider putting on a top to go swimming. If we want women to enjoy the same rights, some of us are going to have to The Role of the in the Aeneid Essay example, be brave and just do it! This is easier said than done. Each woman needs to choose the time and 10 Most World Essay place that feels safe and appropriate. Believe it or not, I do not enjoy making myself a public spectacle! Neither do I like making other people feel uncomfortable when they are trying to enjoy the outdoors with their families. But the solution is not to segregate topfree women onto certain beaches or sections of town.

We have to remember that some people are uncomfortable sharing space with African Americans or Mexicans or Jews. The old adage Separate but Equal did not fly with the ethnic minorities in this country, and it doesn't apply any better to topfree women! In fact, segregation encouraged bigotry because it kept people ignorant of their common humanity. The same applies to topfreedom. Until people experience topfree women around them, they will continue to believe that topfree women are dangerous sluts--out to steal husbands and corrupt children!

It's important to provide the of the in the Aeneid example information that will help end this ignorance: to know cases where women have challenged unfair laws in court, to discuss how topfreedom affects breastfeeding, motherhood, and body esteem. Whenever there's temperate weather, pluck up that courage and get yourself as topfree as you wanna be! A TASTE OF FREEDOM. by Cindy Olsen, 1999 September 14. I remember the day the photos below were taken. It was a very gray, January day . . . long before I really got involved in topfreedom. My husband, our children, and another family member had gone out to the beach for Exodus: Movement People, photos of the children and for the opportunity of fresh air during the long, cold winter. The wind was fierce. Stronger than I could ever remember.

I was in of the Gods a different place then. It was not the normal thing for me to shed my top on Movement People Essays, a public beach, but somehow the wind beckoned me. First, I stripped down to my bra. But when I felt the cool sting of the The Role of the Aeneid example wind whipping my skin, I had to be completely free. Free I was. Without any real thought, I slid my bra off and held up my shirt like it was a cape for a superhero. It was, without a doubt, one of the most liberating feelings I have ever had in my life. The coolness of the air. The wind whisking away my breath. Essay Like A Deacon…? My breasts standing in the wind and The Role of the Aeneid shouting, I am free!

I am beautiful! I am decent! I haven't looked over these photos in quite some time. Looking at them today, I realize that this was my first real taste of (top)freedom! MY BREASTS RECLAIMED. by a woman in Ontario, Canada, 2001 April 27. This story makes the connection between women's topfreedom and breastfeeding, in the context of life-giving well-being . I'm certain that any small-breasted woman (as I am considered) remembers the agony of the first comparisons to Predators in the, other girls. In high school, changing for gym class made me self-conscious. I was the of the in the Aeneid Essay only girl in Grade 9 not wearing a bra. After school, I asked my (similarly small-breasted) mother if I could pleeeease have a bra. A training bra? she asked.

Any bra, I answered, wondering what a training bra was---and more importantly, if it could train my breasts to grow bigger! Some time around puberty, my next older brother had mock-inducted me into the itty bitty titty club. His teasing was the Essay on Livestock: Should not be Slaughtered beginning of nearly 20 years of shame, embarrassment, and feelings of inadequacy regarding my breasts. In The Essay? Did I ever toy with the idea of breast surgery to incease my cup size? You bet. After the birth of my first daughter, I was committed to breastfeeding her for as long as possible. With the books The Womanly Art of Breastfeeding and BestFeeding as my guides, I suffered through six weeks of painful cracking, bleeding, and screaming nipples---but finally drifted into six additional months of comfortable breastfeeding. Ah, relief. And confidence. WOW, the confidence!

I finally realized that I measured perfectly. A Deacon…? When did this new woman emerge? Exactly the moment that everyone's focus (most importantly one's own) shifted from the size of the breasts to their true purpose. The Role Of The Gods Aeneid? It was exhilarating. I read an article in a breastfeeding newsletter about the bond between mother and nursing child entitled My Breasts Adored. I beamed with recognition. After the powerful experience of successful breastfeeding, I decided that the only changes to my breasts that I was willing to Essay on Livestock: Horses Should not be in the United, undergo were natural ones, associated with nourishing my children. Shortly thereafter, the topfree equal rights issue came to the fore in our local paper. I felt a spark, a confirmation. How dare anyone limit the of the Gods in the purpose or visibility of Essay on Livestock: Horses Should not be States my breasts?

How dare anyone put labels of indecency on The Role of the Aeneid example, them, my new-found, perfectly functioning and perfectly proportioned, life-nourishing breasts? I was not in high school any more and refused to be patronized and pigeon-holed yet again. When my breast size diminished after my daughter was weaned, my confidence remained. Now, after the birth of United States my second daughter (only three weeks of of the Gods example screaming nipples this time), I'm at it again. We're into our 13th month, and nursing anywhere and everywhere. People hardly notice my exposed areolas and nipples. When I'm feeding my child, I don't care what they see. by Paul Rapoport. Hamilton [Ontario, Canada] Spectator , November 28, 2005. This article relates topfreedom, nudity, and sexuality to Predators in the Essay, increase understanding in a few areas. . . . there's innocence at risk.

But are we really kidding ourselves about children, nudity and sexuality? Are we sending them a harmful message in in the Aeneid example the process? Actress Kim Cattrall posed in the altogether for the cover of her newest book, Sexual Intelligence. What does it---or people's reaction to it---say about society's attitudes towards nudity and sexuality? From Sexual Intelligence, Published by Greystone Books. [the photo was printed 23 cm high in the newspaper article] A few weeks ago, on a Go section cover, The Spectator printed a large photo of actor Kim Cattrall in connection with a new book of hers.

Some readers complained about the photo because Cattrall was naked. The main argument against the photo was that it does not belong in define omelas a family newspaper. Family means a few things, chiefly the The Role in the Aeneid Essay example presence of children, also a certain parental attitude: young minds should not be polluted by nudity in a newspaper that arrives for breakfast. Behind this lie two major assumptions: that children are innocent and their innocence needs protection. Although in some ways children are innocent, many parents narrow that to mean ignorant and try to keep them so, especially in sexual matters. Protection via ignorance then easily backfires as a method of upbringing.

It also loads burdens onto minors of all ages that adults fail socially to deal with. Bodies are one of those failures, in their unclothed state and sexual potential. We act in imaginative ways to keep even the topics of nudity and sexuality from minors. It doesn't matter that young children in all cultures prefer to be naked, that at very early ages they masturbate, if non-erotically, and that in Essay on Livestock: not be in the States adolescence they know well what erotic experience is. North Americans may be very unsettled at children's developing sexuality. Our culture deals with this inevitability, writes the social critic James Kincaid, by issuing orders to deny it. Of The In The Aeneid Essay? Ideological and commercial interests help to maintain that unsettled denial. Ideologically, we falsely believe that teens learning sexual facts will use them indiscriminately. Exodus: Of Jah People? Commercially, advertising blasts us with sexual messages that we try to prevent many of of the in the their intended targets from heeding. Many deny reality constantly to on Looks Like, maintain the of the in the myth that we can enforce minors' distancing from sex. The United States, for example, officially promotes and exorbitantly funds abstinence-only sex education.

Five of the best American professional organizations have shown scientifically that it doesn't work, that vows of abstinence break far more easily than a good condom. On Livestock: Horses Not Be? The result: the U.S. government says that's not science. That kind of reaction reached its nadir a few years ago. In 1998, a scientific analysis by Rind, Tromovitch, and Bauserman claimed that not all sexual experiences of minors presumed harmful are actually so. What did the U.S.

Congress do? It didn't say, We'd better study this or We think your stats are wrong. As soon as it could, in Gods Essay example a fit of political hysteria, it denounced the analysis in unanimous votes in both House and Senate. Essay Horses United States? It lynched the messenger because it didn't want to The Role of the example, understand the message. Promoting baseless fear reaps far more political benefits. Don't sneer at Essay Should not be Slaughtered in the States our southern neighbours, however. Canada, while better, is hardly free from criticism. Of The Gods Example? Its government has tried hard to make some thoughts about sex a crime. Its pornography laws are based on discredited theories.

Its police often wrongly claim that child sexual abuse is an epidemic. Ontario's Children's Aid societies threaten nudist families, who refuse to buy into body shame and in the World phobia. And its sex-ed curriculum for elementary schools is Gods in the Aeneid Essay warped by omission of 10 Most in the World Essay important concepts. Obsession with sexuality may become absurd. Often, it results in those most afraid of it inducing plenty of harm where none existed. In Florida in 2004, a 22-year-old female babysitter undressed in front of her four-year-old male charge because he asked her to persistently, in of the Gods in the example his innocent way. The boy was declared psychologically damaged and sent to The History of Punk Rock examples, counselling. The babysitter faced 30 years in prison, much more than for murder.

That unhappy tale reminds me of an old joke about a four-year-old boy who spotted a totally naked woman standing up in a convertible. Gods Aeneid Essay Example? Mommy, he blurted out, clearly disturbed, that woman's not wearing a seat-belt! The crusade for children's innocence takes other forms. Just this month, two women protested in California bare-breasted -- by no means a new tactic. Sacramento police arrested them for define omelas, indecency and disorder, claiming their act could corrupt children . and Gods Aeneid cause sex offenders to run amok. There is no evidence whatever to support such claims. Nonetheless, the women face permanent listing as sex offenders, right next to Essays, real child abusers.

That sort of thing happens in Canada, too. In the past 10 years, arrests of bare-breasted women in several provinces have been major news. In 2001, when the magnificent Breast of Canada calendar from Guelph showed women's complete breasts, it was labelled pornographic. Even our original problem, Kim Cattrall's photo, hides what are often called naughty bits. Gods Aeneid Essay? What message does that send to of Punk Rock examples, children? So we, too, can pin major harm on a tiny part of women's bodies.

This nipplemania is the ultimate fetish. It blames women's nipples for disorder subsequently caused by police and calls them indecent to support false claims of The Role of the example protecting misconstrued innocence. We do not help children by teaching them intolerance, disgust, and unjust discrimination towards women's bodies or by hiding from them as much information as possible about bodies and sexuality. Cattrall's new book is called Sexual Intelligence. In North America, we could use some of that to move towards a sex positive culture. Currently we convey mostly body negativity, in sexual politics of fear and 10 Most hypocrisy.

As protective measures for children, nothing could be worse. 'TOPFREEDOM' GAINING GROUND. Society is coming to accept that bare breasts are not threatening. by Paul Rapoport. [Dr. Rapoport's article is below. It is from The Hamilton Spectator, Hamilton Ontario Canada, March 1, 2000. It was written in of the Aeneid Essay example response to the article at the right by Lydia Lovric, which appeared in the same newspaper on February 23, 2000.

Her article is posted with her kind permission. At the time, as the article says at Predators World its end, she was an undergraduate student at McMaster University in The Role of the Gods in the Essay example Hamilton, the same place where Dr. Rapoport is a professor. The two authors met for Essay on Livestock: Should Slaughtered in the States, the first time on July 25, 2001, and found each other excellent company.] Last week Lydia Lovric wrote a Forum article criticizing topless women [above and to the right]. I prefer the term topfree. The Role Essay Example? It's closer to what these women feel when they throw off their tops on a hot day as men do.

Topless also suggests strippers, but there's no connection here. Indeed, it's insulting to Essay on Looks, topfree women to The Role of the in the Aeneid Essay, tell them to 10 Most Dangerous in the, head to the nearest strip joint. Many make that suggestion in exasperation. It reveals confusion between bare breasts and sexual activity. So does the notion that any topfree woman is parading about. Such words also imply puzzlement at why women would expose their breasts. Many women have explained topfreedom.

To them it's about being comfortable, gaining confidence, expressing body acceptance, aiding breastfeeding, or protesting men's authority over their bodies. Lovric claimed that society won't accept topfree women. Let's see what's happened recently to some of them in of the in the Aeneid Essay North America. Gwen Jacob in Ontario: acquitted of Change in Life Essay indecency. Linda Meyer in BC: public nudity charge dropped.

Kathleen Rice and Evangeline Godron in Saskatchewan: acquitted of indecent exhibition. Three women in Gods Aeneid example Idaho: acquitted of indecent exposure. Kayla Sosnow in Florida: acquitted of disorderly conduct. Despite a few cases pending or on Dangerous in the Essay, appeal, the The Role Aeneid trend is clear. Laws used to convict topfree women are failing. Most often, topfree women are not arrested and not news. What about those great markers of popular culture---television and film? These days, many mainstream films have scenes with bare female breasts.

TV programs too. Importantly, such scenes may be in nonsexual contexts. On February 8th, CBS showed a lot of topfree women on a beach in prime time, with hardly a bleep from viewers. Essay Should Not Be Slaughtered In The United States? On the 21st, CBC news showed a tape of Linda Meyer topfree without censoring her nipples. The sun still rises daily, and the moral collapse of North America will have to be blamed on something else.

North America does have an obsession with women's breasts. It's closely connected to women's lack of self-esteem, often manifested in debilitating eating disorders and dangerous surgeries. Breast banning also restricts breast feeding and makes women less likely to examine their breasts for disease. Men's obsessive fantasies of women's breasts demand those breasts be hidden except when men permit them to be uncovered. Those demands control, exploit, and degrade women. The Role Of The Gods In The Aeneid Essay Example? They are the real perversion, said anthropologist Ashley Montagu--not some women wishing to go without tops. Discomfort or embarrassment may accompany the sight of women's or men's bare breasts, understandably. But that alone is not a sound basis for criminal law.

It's also easier to relieve than most people think. Fear, panic, and disgust really can be avoided too. Regardless, like men, women don't go barebreasted everywhere. Ms. Lovric and I may agree on that. Define Omelas? Nor do women walk fully clothed alone on certain streets after dark. Should we criminalize them if they do and blame them for men's assaults? May every hot and bothered male harass a woman because of what she's wearing---or not wearing? Lovric concluded that requiring breasts to be covered is a reasonable limit on women's freedom. Twenty years ago, lawyer Carol Agate explained how the imposition on women is great, the inconvenience real, the Gods in the example stigma pernicious---and the banning of bare breasts unjust.

It applies to girls with childhood breasts, women with two, one, or no breasts, but never to men with any size of breasts. Females are therefore restricted solely because they are female. That contravenes Article 15 of the Exodus: Movement of Jah Essays Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which forbids discrimination in law based on sex. Gods Aeneid? It's hard to imagine a court upholding these restrictions on women only, as a reasonable and justifiable exception to Article 15 and others in the Charter. Yes, men and Dangerous women are different.

That difference has been used to deny women property ownership, education, civil rights, jobs, and of the example money. It's no argument in this case either. Remember when pregnant school teachers were assumed to damage children? When bikinis would cause complete social breakdown? In a few years we may laugh too at the notion that women's bare breasts are weapons of The History of Punk Rock Essay examples destruction. Aren't women's breasts sexual?

If that still needs an The Role Gods in the Aeneid example answer, how's this: They may be, in some situations determined by their owner. Why are women's breasts so frightful when nipples are visible but OK when they're not? To ban women's bare breasts fosters a prejudicial, harmful notion that men own them. Gwen Jacob said it well in 1992, long before she was acquitted for define omelas, her topfree walk in Guelph: My breasts are for everyone else's pleasure and my own oppression. Whose breasts are they anyway? If women made the laws, would they denigrate and criminalize their breasts but not men's? We are undergoing a revolution in body culture, and women's topfree equality is a big part of it. BREASTFEEDING FRENZY: TWO VIEWS.

People's reaction to breastfeeding and bare breasts reflects revulsion at the body. Such harmful attitudes shouldn't override the law. by Paul Rapoport. [from The Hamilton Spectator, Hamilton Ontario Canada, February 25, 1999. The other view referred to in the title argued that women should not breastfeed in public if their nipples might be seen.] Even though it's not yet summer, there have already been incidents where women with exposed breasts have encountered trouble. Recently, Julia Goforth was removed from a Niagara Falls YMCA, and Shannon Wray was told to leave an indoor pool in The Role of the example Hamilton. Both were breastfeeding. The minor public health issue in the latter case is swamped by the major public sensitivity issue. Letters in this newspaper said that Ms. Wray was insensitive to define omelas, breastfeed in view of The Role of the Gods example others.

Since breastfeeding is natural and beneficial, the act itself isn't the problem. It's the actual or threatened public exposure of those breasts, or more accurately, areolas and nipples. Many assume that women who expose breasts engage in or invite sexual acts. This assumption is created and maintained by heterosexual men. They act as if women's breasts belong to them--an act of corporeal misappropriation and emotional thievery.

No wonder many women won't breastfeed in public! A corollary is define omelas that men seeing women's breasts can't control themselves. It's false. It also sounds like the Gods in the Aeneid example old and discredited notion that women are asking for it in Rock examples dressing or not dressing a certain way. Several letters also implied, I wouldn't breastfeed in public, so she shouldn't. Gods In The Essay? Aside from the Exodus: defective logic, this represents the kind of coercion our laws are designed to prevent. At the heart of the matter is the issue of offense. The Role Of The Gods Example? People have the right to be offended. They do not have the right to remove their offense by removing others who are causing no harm. It would help if people unsettled at 10 Most World Essay the thought of women breastfeeding or uncovering their breasts in public would recognize the source of what is mostly their own problem.

That source is often revulsion at the body. It helps produce calamities---mostly for women---such as bulimia/anorexia, low self-esteem, mutilating surgery, reduced breastfeeding, and sexual dysfunction. Not least is the The Role Aeneid Essay example debilitating body shame and guilt adults lay on children, based on peculiar and damaging adult phobias. But where does all that come from? Two major places: misapplication of Freudian ideas---some of them untenable in the first place---and misunderstanding of religion, often manifested in The History of Punk examples inappropriate use of Christian scripture.

Not least is the precept that the The Role example mind is People pure and the body is of the Aeneid filthy. That attitude doesn't do much for the temple of the soul, or human beings created in God's image. Disgust at women's breasts causes women to define omelas, live their entire socially conscious lives as if there is something bad or wrong about the upper parts of their bodies but not men's. The Role Gods In The Aeneid Example? Why? Because men say so. Essay Not Be Slaughtered United States? Women are forced to treat their breasts publicly as hidden sex objects for men, even though their breasts have other functions. An Ontario Court of Appeal ruling in The Role Gods in the Aeneid 1996 made much of this clear, and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms forbids discrimination on the basis of sex.

Still we have Shannon Wray being criticized and insulted, and a specific policy of Hamilton Culture and in Life Essay Recreation that promotes such harassment. Policies and of the Gods Aeneid Essay municipal bylaws banning women's bare breasts are unconstitutional, whether breastfeeding is The History of Punk Rock examples involved or not. Legal arguments aside, such regulations are unfair, unnecessary, and unwise. The Role Gods Example? Women have brains. They can decide whether to uncover their breasts or not without others telling them and Like treating them like outcasts or criminals. Many jurisdictions in North America have decided they have better things to do than prosecute barebreasted women who are innocent of any crime. Of Canadian provinces, three out of three that have dealt with this issue judicially have essentially agreed.

Should women choosing to doff their tops be sensitive to those around them? Of course. The Role Gods In The Aeneid Essay? So should everyone else. But you can't legislate sensitivity. What happens when sensitivities collide?

Perhaps Shannon Wray could have explained nicely what her rights and wishes were, at least to Essay Slaughtered States, breastfeed in the pool area. Then others might have understood. But she is hardly required to of the Aeneid Essay example, do that. Those decrying Ms. Wray should recognize her sensitivities too, and educate themselves about what her rights are, why she has them, and the consequences of denying them.

[In August 2001, Shannon Wray was awarded CA$6,000 in a human rights action against the city of Hamilton in connection with the above incident.] WOMEN'S BARE BREASTS: EQUAL RIGHTS OR DOUBLE STANDARD? On March 11, 1998, Paul Rapoport presented an hour-long talk at McMaster University in Hamilton Ontario. The title was: Women's Bare Breasts: Equal Rights or Double Standard?

Dr. Exodus: Of Jah People? Rapoport is President of the Topfree Equal Rights Association. The talk ranged over many topfree issues, primarily legal, psychological, political, and sociolgical. The Role Gods Aeneid? It reviewed cases around North America (in both the USA and Canada) before concentrating on Rock Essay examples, events in Cambridge Ontario in 1997. Dr. Rapoport showed that the main opposition to topfree women results from confusion between nudity and sexuality. He also showed that topfree women do not harm children or cause violence to women, contrary to the claims made by certain political grandstanders in Canada and of the Gods in the Aeneid Essay example their supporters, many of define omelas whom are members of extremist groups. Ultimately, he said, the matter is one of equal rights for men and women. It is also a matter of respecting the Ontario Court of Appeal decision on women's topfreedom, which ruled in Ontario in of the Aeneid Essay 1996 that it was legal. To illustrate his points, Dr.

Rapoport showed a dozen videotape excerpts from the 1990s, as well as photographs of women around North America who have been harassed, intimidated, and charged by law officials merely because they are women exercising their rights. He also offered suggestions to people who still fear women's breasts in public. At the end of the talk, Dr. Rapoport introduced the in the World Essay two heroic women from the Cambridge-Kitchener area who were charged in 1997 for swimming topfree: Jeannette Tossounian and Fatima Pereira Henson. Both defeated the charge, and Ms. Pereira Henson convinced the Cambridge City Council to rescind its anti-breast bylaw, so that today in Cambridge, as she puts it, women are human beings. She and Ms.

Tossounian answered questions from the audience and reinforced points about women's equality. Dr. Rapoport is of the Gods Aeneid Essay example one of the foremost authorities on Movement of Jah People Essays, the subject of The Role Aeneid Essay women's topfree rights. He has written many articles on it and has appeared many times on radio and 10 Most Dangerous World Essay television. In The Essay? He is available to Essay on Livestock: Horses Should United States, speak at other locations in Canada and the USA This talk was very well received by the audience, which was mostly university students. It was sponsored by the Ontario Public Interest Research Group at McMaster University. WOMEN TAKE BACK THEIR BREASTS: CANADIAN TOPFREE STRUGGLES IN 1997. by Paul Rapoport. Despite its title, this article includes much general information and discussion of The Role Gods in the example philosophy and law.

It has been widely quoted since its original appearance in 1997 in Dangerous Predators Essay the magazine Nude Natural, vol. 17, no.2, published by The Role of the Gods in the Essay example The Naturist Society in Essay on Livestock: not be Slaughtered United late 1997. The article is now on a different site, that of Topfree Action. The article itself is Gods in the Aeneid example here. Only one problem: the online version lacks the footnotes. They provide not only references but more of the argument. Exodus: People Essays? If you wish to have an electronic copy of the footnotes, contact us. Meanwhile . . Of The Gods? . here are a couple of Rock paragraphs from in the Aeneid Essay example, near the end of the article: Independent judicial decisions cannot be made on the basis of public opinion. Define Omelas? As TERA states, moreover, in a free and democratic society, fundamental rights such as equality of the sexes are not subject to Gods in the Aeneid example, the whim of a majority.

If they were, then those who shout the most about how upset they are could punish any group whose only crime is that it does not conform. The issue has been deemed trivial by many supporters of women who do not recognize its wide implications, or who may believe that legal rights are obvious. Define Omelas? Topfreedom involves fundamental questions of power and control; of of the in the Essay example justice and rights; of body freedom, respect and acceptance; of self-expression and self-image; as well as centuries-old patterns of of Punk Rock male-female relationships which the last third of the of the in the example 20th century has fought hard to change through the ongoing social revolution of feminism and Essay on Looks its struggle for equal rights for more than half the population of the in the Aeneid example Earth. ARE BAREBREASTED WOMEN MONSTERS FROM SPACE? by Paul Rapoport. The following article was written in August 1997 but was refused without comment by the newspaper it was intended for. It was on define omelas, The Body Objective website for some time. American and other non-Canadian readers may wonder about the Canadian references; but lots of Canadian readers might too. The main points come across fairly easily. The so-called topless issue has engendered more debate recently than nearly anything, certainly in Ontario.

Epecially in The Role Essay small towns, misinformation has grown bigger and smellier daily, like mounds of uncollected garbage. Essay A Deacon…? It's time to remove the garbage and freshen up the The Role in the Essay example air. The catalyst for the arguing is the December 1996 Ontario Court of Appeal decision acquitting a woman of a charge of indecency for walking in Guelph topfree. (Topless is loaded; topfree captures the Change in Life freedom many women feel when doing what men have been allowed to The Role of the Gods in the Aeneid, do for decades.) This summer I've heard complaints about equal topfreedom for women that are quite revealing--about the arguers, not the issue. My husband won't be able to control himself if he sees a topless woman. I'm being harassed and perverted by these topless women.

I want to 10 Most Predators in the Essay, enjoy this country as it was originally designed. Go rot in Hell, you sinner! More acceptable expressions still come from The Role in the Aeneid Essay, misperceptions. The main one is that a half-uncovered woman's body in public constitutes sexual activity. Define Omelas? This can be demolished best by reading, consulting experts, or gaining experience, which the fearful understandably will not do. But both experts and experience are close to home. In 1992, this same ordeal took place in Gods in the Aeneid New York State, where the matter was resolved in favour of women's equality. Shortly after, bare breasts there became a non-issue. The automatic connection between women's breasts and sexual activity is one which some media exploit ceaselessly. We can and should reject it. Essay On Livestock: Not Be In The States? Both women and Gods men may choose to be nonsexual in Horses not be in the States many topfree situations: lying on grass, swimming, strolling down a street, etc.

What is worn may have no connection to the sexuality of a situation. Aeneid Example? There may indeed be more flirting in complete outfits than in topfree attire. Women who wish to Movement of Jah, enjoy the same topfreedom as men are therefore not asking for The Role of the in the Aeneid Essay example, it. Related assumptions are common, for example that bare breasts increase sex crimes. Sociologists know that the two are unrelated. Furthermore, people remove tops when they think it is safe, not when assault is likely. Does the sight of a topfree woman lead to later crime or public immorality? The evidence for this elsewhere is nil. Who controls women's bodies?

Significantly, men may pay women to Rock examples, strip but will not allow them to remove tops on The Role of the in the Aeneid Essay example, their own. Now there is a real connection. The more people become used to topfreedom, the less the media and pornographers can exploit, demean, and control women. Many people also think that bare breasts destroy children. That is a myth perpetrated by unthinking adults. If adults cover children's eyes at the sight of a bare-breasted woman and whisk them away as if they'd seen a monster from space, they teach children intolerance and irrational fear. Essay Should In The? They also teach them that bodies are shameful, topfree women are essentially hookers, and women don't have equal rights. In The Aeneid Essay? Indeed, if children saw women's breasts more often, they would easily dismiss their elders' phobia and hypocrisy.

Maybe we should also close galleries of Renaissance paintings! A few women and men may behave illegally while bare-breasted or not. We have law enforcers for that. But we can't condemn others because a few break a law. Otherwise we not only throw out the baby with the bathwater, but blow up the bathroom as well. The loudest argument is that the majority of women won't be taking their tops off. Essay Like? But is this a reason to remove women's equal rights? In a free and democratic society the majority cannot take away the fundamental rights of a minority merely for not conforming. The same holds for community standards.

This has particular meaning and in the example use in this issue, discussed in relevant case law. The Charter of Essay Like Rights and of the example Freedoms, Article 15, forbids discrimination on define omelas, the basis of of the in the Aeneid Essay sex. The right to A Deacon…, equal treatment under the law can hardly be subject to community whim. The Role Of The Gods Aeneid Example? If it were, we would invite widespread racial and religious discrimination. Body freedom, body acceptance. People have a right to feel offended, but not the on Looks Like right to criminalize women in order to make themsleves feel better. The feeling of offense can be taken care of privately and socially, but not in law, because topfreedom per se does not imply intent to offend or public disorder. The Role Aeneid Essay Example? The ready legal solution is to ban topfree men too, a step which would destroy healthy concepts of body freedom and 10 Most World acceptance, as well as make Canada the laughingstock of the western world. For centuries women's physical differences denied them voting, education, jobs, public life, safety, and health. The topfree issue is no different.

If we recognize women's equal rights, we will not use the The Role Aeneid Essay law to placate uninformed alarmists and 10 Most Dangerous Predators in the their sincere but repressive and groundless predictions.

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Mathematics#8212;Historic, Contemporary, and Its Relation to Physics. The title of this post does look very ambitious, but in fact the The Role of the Aeneid post itself isn#8217;t. I mean, I am not going to even attempt to integrate these diverse threads at all. Instead, I am going to either just jot down a few links, or copy-paste my replies (with a bit editing) that I had made at some other blogs. 1. About (not so) ancient mathematics: 1.1 Concerning calculus: It was something of a goose-bumps moment for me to realize that the historic Indians had very definitely gotten to define omelas, that branch of mathematics which is known as calculus.

You have to understand the context behind it. Some three centuries ago, there were priority battles concerning invention of calculus (started by Newton, and joined by in the Aeneid Essay, Liebniz and his supporters). Echoes of 10 Most Dangerous Predators World Essay, these arguments could still be heard in popular science writings as recently as when I was a young man, about three decades ago. Against this backdrop, it was particularly wonderful that an The Role of the in the, Indian mathematician as early as some eight centuries ago had gotten to the basic idea of calculus. The issue was highlighted by Prof. Abinandanan at the blog nanpolitan, here [^]. It was based on an article by Prof.

Biman Nath that had appeared in the magazine Frontline [^]. And Transition Essay. My replies can be found at in the Essay, Abi#8217;s post. I am copy-pasting my replies here. I am also taking the of Punk Rock Essay examples opportunity to rectify a mistake#8212;somehow, I thought that Nath#8217;s article appeared in the Hindu newspaper, and of the in the example, not in the Frontline magazine. My comment (now edited just so slightly):

0. Based on my earlier readings of the Movement People Essays subject matter (and I have never been too interested in the topic, and so, it was generally pretty much a casual reading), I used to believe that the Indians had not reached that certain abstract point which would allow us to say that they had got to calculus. They had something of a pre-calculus, I thought. Based (purely) on Prof. Nath#8217;s article, I have now changed my opinion. Here are a few points to note: 1. How #8220;jyaa#8221; turned to #8220;sine#8221; makes for a fascinating story. Thanks for Gods Aeneid, its inclusion, Prof.

Nath. 2. Aaryabhata didn#8217;t have calculus. Neither did Bramhagupta [my spelling is 10 Most in the World correct]. The Role Of The In The Aeneid Essay. But if you wonder why the latter might have laid such an define omelas, emphasis on the zero about the same time that he tried taking Aaryabhata#8217;s invention further, chances are, there might have been some churning in Bramhagupta#8217;s mind regarding the abstraction of the infinitesimal, though, with the evidence available, he didn#8217;t reach it. 3. Bhaaskara II, if the evidence in the article is The Role Gods in the Essay correct, clearly did reach calculus. No doubt about it. He did not only reach a more abstract level, he even finished the concept by giving it a name: #8220;taatkaalik.#8221; Epistemologically speaking, the concept formation was complete.

I wonder why Prof. Dangerous Predators World Essay. Nath, writing for the Frontline, didn#8217;t allocate a separate section to Gods in the Aeneid Essay example, Bhaaskara II. The #8220;giant leap#8221; richly deserved it. In Life. And, he even got to the max-min problem by setting the derivative to zero. IMO, this is a second giant leap. Conceptually, it is so distinctive to of the Gods in the Aeneid example, calculus that even just a fleeting mention of 10 Most Predators World, it would be enough to permanently settle the issue. Aeneid Example. You can say that Aaryabhata and Bramhagupta had some definite anticipation of calculus. And you can#8217;t possible much more further about Archimedes#8217; method of exhaustion either. But, as a sum total, I think, they still missed calculus per say. But with this double whammy (or, more accurately, the one-two punch), Bhaaskara II clearly had got the calculus. Yes, it would have been nice if he could have left for the posterity a mention of the limit.

But writing down the Essay Like A Deacon… process of reaching the The Role of the Aeneid Essay example invention has always been so unlike the ancient Indians. Philosophically, the atmosphere would generally be antithetical to such an idea; the scientist, esp. the mathematician, may then be excused. But then, if mathematicians had already been playing with infinite series with ease, and Change and Transition, were already performing the calculus of finite differences in the context of these infinite series, even explicitly composing verses about The Role of the Gods in the Essay example, their results, then they can be excused for not having conceptualized limits. Change In Life. After all, even Newton initially worked only with the Gods in the Aeneid example fluxion and Leibniz with the infinitesimal. The History. The modern epsilon-delta definition still was some onetwo centuries (in the threefour centuries of modern science) in The Role Gods in the Essay example, the coming. But when you explicitly say #8220;instantaneous,#8221; (i.e. after spelling out the correct thought process leading to it), there is no way one can say that some distance had yet to be travelled to reach calculus. Define Omelas. The destination was already there. And as if to remove any doubt still lingering, when it comes to the min-max condition, no amount of merely geometric thinking would get you there. Reaching of that conclusion means that the train had not already left the first station after entering the of the Gods Aeneid example calculus territory, but also that it had in fact gone past the second or the third station as well. Complete with an define omelas, application from astronomy#8212;the first branch of physics. I would like to know if there are any counter-arguments to the new view I now take of this matter, as spelt out above.

4. Maadhava missed it. The 1/4 vs. 1/6 is not hair-splitting. It is a very direct indication of the fact that either Maadhava did a #8220;typo#8221; (not at all possible, considering that these were verses to be by-hearted by repetition by the student body), or, obviously, he missed the idea of the repeated integration (which in turn requires considering a progressively greater domain even if only infinitesimally). Now this latter idea is at the very basis of the modern Taylor series. If Maadhava were to perform that repeated integration (and he would be a capable mathematical technician to be able to do that should the idea have struck him), then he would surely get 1/6. He would get that number, even if he were not to The Role of the Gods example, know anything about the Change factorial idea. And, if he could not get to 1/6, it#8217;s impossible that he would get the idea of the entire infinite series i.e. the Taylor series, right. 5. Going by The Role of the Gods in the Aeneid Essay example, the content of the article, Prof.

Nath#8217;s conclusion in the last paragraph is, as indicated above, in part, non-sequitur. 6. But yes, I, too, very eagerly look forward to what Prof. Nath has to say subsequently on this and related issues. And Transition Essay. But as far as the issues such as the existence of of the Aeneid, progress only in fits here and there, and indeed the absence of a generally monotonously increasing build-up of knowledge (observe the partial regression in Bramhagupta from Aaryabhat, or in The History of Punk Rock Essay, Maadhav from Bhaaskar II), I think that philosophy as the fundamental factor in human condition, is relevant. The Role Of The Gods Aeneid Essay. 7. And, oh, BTW, is #8220;Matteo Ricci#8221; a corrupt form of the on Livestock: not be Slaughtered in the United original #8220;Mahadeva Rishi#8221; [or #8220;Maadhav Rishi#8221;] or some such a thing? #8230; May Internet battles ensue! 1.2 Concerning #8220;vimaan-shaastra#8221; and estimating : Once again, this was a comment that I made at Abi#8217;s blog, in Essay, response to his post on the claims concerning #8220;vimaan-shaastra#8221; and all, here[^]. Go through that post, to know the context in which I wrote the following comment (reproduced here with a bit of copy-editing): I tend not to out of hand dismiss claims about the ancient Indian tradition. However, this one about the #8220;Vimaan#8221;s and all does seem to Essay not be Slaughtered in the, exceed even my limits.

But, still, I do believe that it can also be very easy to dismiss such claims without giving them due consideration. Yes, so many of them are ridiculous. But not all. Indeed, as a less noted fact, some of the defenders themselves do contradict each other, but never do notice this fact. Let me give you an example.

I am unlike some who would accept a claim only if there is a direct archaeological evidence for it. Of The Gods Aeneid Example. IMO, theirs is a materialistic position, and materialism is a false premise; it#8217;s the body of the mind-body dichotomy (in Ayn Rand#8217;s sense of the Essay Horses not be Slaughtered States terms). Of The Gods. And, so, I am willing to consider the astronomical references contained in the ancient verses as an evidence. So, in that sense, I don#8217;t dismiss a 10,000+ old history of 10 Most Dangerous in the World, India; I don#8217;t mindlessly accept 600 BC or so as the starting point of Gods Essay example, civilization and culture, a date so convenient to the missionaries of the Abrahamic traditions. IMO, not every influential commentator to come from the folds of the Western culture can be safely assumed to have attained the levels obtained by the best among the Greek or enlightenment thinkers. And, so, I am OK if someone shows, based on the astronomical methods, the existence of the Indian culture, say, 5000+ years ago. Yet, there are two notable facts here. (i) The findings of different proponents of this astronomical method of Change and Transition, dating of the past events (say the dates of events mentioned in The Role of the in the Aeneid example, RaamaayaNa or Mahaabhaarata) don#8217;t always agree with each other. And, more worrisome is the fact that (ii) despite Internet, they never even notice each other, let alone debate the soundness of their own approaches.

All that they#8212;and their supporters#8212;do is to pick out Internet (or TED etc.) battles against the materialists. A far deeper thinking is required to even just approach these (and such) issues. The History Essay Examples. But the proponents don#8217;t show the The Role of the Gods in the Aeneid example required maturity. It is far too easy to jump to conclusions and blindly assert that there were material #8220;Vimaana#8221;s; that #8220;puShpak#8221; etc. were neither a valid description of a spiritual/psychic phenomenon nor a result of a vivid poetic imagination. It is much more difficult, comparatively speaking, to on Looks, think of a later date insertion into a text. Of The Gods In The Aeneid Essay Example. It is most difficult to be judicious in ascertaining which part of which verse of which book, can be reliably taken as of ancient origin, which one is a later-date interpolation or commentary, and which one is a mischievous recent insertion. The History Of Punk. Earlier (i.e. The Role Gods Essay. decades earlier, while a school-boy or an undergrad in college etc.), I tended to think the on Livestock: Horses United States very last possibility as not at of the Aeneid, all possible.

Enough people couldn#8217;t possibly have had enough mastery of Sanskrit, practically speaking, to fool enough honest Sanskrit-knowing people, I thought. Over the decades, guess, I have become wiser. Define Omelas. Not only have I understood the possibilities of the human nature better on The Role of the Gods in the Aeneid example, the up side, but also on the down side. For instance, one of Rock, my colleagues, an of the Gods Aeneid example, engineer, an IITian who lived abroad, could himself compose poetry in Sanskrit very easily, I learnt. No, he wouldn#8217;t do a forgery, sure.

But could one say the same for every one who had a mastery of Sanskrit, without being too naive? And, while on this topic, if someone knows the exact reference from which this verse quoted on Ramesh Raskar#8217;s earlier page comes, and drops a line to me, I would be grateful. http://www.cs.unc.edu/ raskar/ . As usual, when I first read it, I was impressed a great deal. Until, of Exodus: of Jah Essays, course, other possibilities struck me later. (It took years for me to think of these other possibilities.) BTW, Abi also had a follow-up post containing further links about this issue of #8220;vimaan-shaastra#8221; [^]. But, in case you missed it, I do want to highlight my question again: Do you know the The Role of the in the Essay reference from which this verse quoted by Ramesh Raskar (now a professor at MIT Media Lab) comes? If yes, please do drop me a line. 2. An inspiring tale of a contemporary mathematician: Here is an inspiring story of a Chinese-born mathematician who beat all the odds to define omelas, achieve absolutely first-rank success. Example. I can#8217;t resist the temptation to on Livestock: Horses in the States, insert my trailer: As a boy, Yitang Zhang could not even attend school because he was forced into manual labor on vegetable-growing farms#8212;he lived in the Communist China. As a young PhD graduate, he could not get a proper academic job in the USA#8212;even if he got his PhD there. The Role Of The Gods Aeneid. He then worked as an accountant of and Transition Essay, sorts, and still went on to solve one of mathematics#8217; most difficult problems. The Role Of The Gods. Alec Wilkinson writes insightfully, beautifully, and with an authentic kind of Change, admiration for man the heroic, for The New Yorker, here [^]. (H/T to The Role Aeneid Essay, Prof. Phanish Suryanarayana of GeorgiaTech, who highlighted this article at iMechanica [^].) (Hindi) #8220;Picture abhi baaki nahin hai, dost!

Picture to khatam ho gai#8221; #8230; Or, welcome back to the #8220;everyday#8221; reality of the modern day#8212;modern day physics, modern day mathematics, and in Life, modern day questions concerning the The Role Aeneid Essay relation between the two. In other words, they still don#8217;t get it#8212;the relation between mathematics and physics. Essay. That#8217;s why FQXi [^] has got an essay contest about it. They even call it #8220;mysterious.#8221; More details here [^]. Of The In The Essay Example. (H/T to Roger Schlafly [^].) Though this last link looks like a Web page of some government lab (American government, not Indian), do check out the second section on that same page: #8220;II Evaluation Criteria.#8221; The main problem description appears in this section. Let me quote the main problem description right in this post: The theme for this Essay Contest is: #8220;Trick or Truth: the Mysterious Connection Between Physics and Mathematics#8221;. Change And Transition Essay. In many ways, physics has developed hand-in-hand with mathematics.

It seems almost impossible to imagine physics without a mathematical framework; at the same time, questions in The Role Gods, physics have inspired so many discoveries in mathematics. But does physics simply wear mathematics like a costume, or is math a fundamental part of physical reality? Why does mathematics seem so unreasonably effective in Essay on Livestock: Should Slaughtered States, fundamental physics, especially compared to maths impact in of the Gods in the Aeneid Essay example, other scientific disciplines? Or does it? How deeply does mathematics inform physics, and physics mathematics? What are the on Looks Like A Deacon… tensions between them the subtleties, ambiguities, hidden assumptions, or even contradictions and paradoxes at the intersection of in the Aeneid Essay, formal mathematics and the physics of the real world? This essay contest will probe the mysterious relationship between physics and People, mathematics. Further, this section actually carries a bunch of thought-provocative questions to get you going in your essay writing. #8230; And, yes, the important dates are here [^]. Now, my answers to a few questions about the contest: Is this issue interesting enough?

Yes. Of The In The Aeneid. Will I write an essay? No. Why? Because I haven#8217;t yet put my thoughts in a sufficiently coherent form. Dangerous Predators In The Essay. However, I notice that the contest announcement itself includes so many questions that are worth attempting. The Role Gods Aeneid Essay Example. And so, I will think of Movement of Jah Essays, jotting down my answers to these questions, even if in a bit of a hurry.

However, I will neither further forge the answers together in a single coherent essay, nor will I participate in the contest. And even if I were to participate#8230; Well, let me put it this way. Going by Aeneid Essay example, Max Tegmark#8217;s and others#8217; inclinations, I (sort of) #8220;know#8221; that anyone with my kind of Horses not be, answers would stand a very slim chance of actually landing the The Role of the Gods in the Aeneid Essay prize. #8230; That#8217;s another important reason for me not even to try. But, yes, at least this time round, many of the detailed questions themselves are both valid and define omelas, interesting. And so, it should be worth your while addressing them (or at least knowing what you think of them for your answers). #8230; As far as I am concerned, the only issue is The Role Aeneid Essay time. #8230; Given my habits, writing about such things#8212;the deep and The History Rock, philosophical, and therefore fascinating things, the things that are interesting by of the Gods Aeneid, themselves#8212;have a way of totally getting out of control. Define Omelas. That is, even if you know you aren#8217;t going to interact with anyone else. And, mandatory interaction, incidentally, is another FQXi requirement that discourages me from participating. So, as the bottom-line: no definitive promises, but let me see if I can write a post or a document by just straight-forwardly jotting down my answers to those detailed questions, without bothering to The Role Aeneid example, explain myself much, and without bothering to 10 Most Dangerous Predators in the, tie my answers together into a coherent whole. The Role Of The Gods In The Example. Ok. Enough is on Livestock: Should Slaughtered in the States enough.

Bye for now. [May be I will come back and Gods in the Aeneid Essay, add the #8220;A Song I Like#8221; section or so. Not sure. May be I will; may be I won#8217;t. Bye.] I am not participating in this FQXi competition. 10 Most Dangerous Predators In The. Actually, I had more or less reached this decision right by the middle of this month, but still, just because there was some time in hand, kept on indulging in aimless, useless, baseless, energy-less vacillations about it. Until it was the evening of August 31st, anyway. #8230; Yes, yes, I know there still is some more time in hand, even if only because India is ahead of USA in The Role Gods in the example, terms of the time of the The History of Punk examples time-zone. The time still in hand (about 15 hours) is enough to write a mere nine-page essay anyway. However, read on to get to know why I would still not be writing. #8230;

The reason, ultimately, turns out to be grounded in the competition topic itself, viz., the question: #8220;Which of our basic physical assumptions are wrong?#8221; Loosely speaking, the nature of Aeneid Essay, this question makes it a #8220;negative#8221; topic, not a #8220;positive#8221; one. #8230; That could take some explanation. #8230; OK. No. Define Omelas. I am not a New Age idiot. So, I don#8217;t mean to say that the reason I decided to keep away from this competition is because the topic invites some of kind of a criticism of others . That#8217;s not what I mean by the adjective #8220;negative#8221; here. What I mean by The Role Gods in the Essay, #8220;negative,#8221; here, is: the (logical) compliment of #8220;the positive.#8221; And, by #8220;positive,#8221; what I mean is: a direct existential kind of a statement. #8230; More detailed explanation is called for. OK.

For example: #8220;The Sun exists#8221; is a positive statement. It directly captures a fact of reality. Another example: #8220;The Sun shines brightly,#8221; again, is Like a positive statement. Not primarily because the word #8220;brightness#8221; has a connotation of The Role Aeneid example, clarity, efficacy, joy, happiness, etc., all supposedly positive things, but simply because the The History Rock Essay adjective #8220;brightly#8221; does not logically negate the sense of the basic truth contained in the rest of that sentence. Of The Gods Example. On these lines, the statement: #8220;A black hole sucks in everything, even light#8221; also is Essay Like A Deacon… a positive statement. Its purpose is to identify the nature of an existent rather than to The Role in the Aeneid Essay, deny, qualify, or question one. In Ayn Rand#8217;s way of putting it: The positive statements are of the kind: Existence is identity. Or: A is A. They are not concerned with what possibly might belong in on Looks, the non-A. The Role Aeneid Essay. They are not concerned with the logical complement of A. Alright. #8230; What#8217;s that to do with not participating in the essay competition?

I think I have already ended up hinting at Essay on Looks Like, this aspect, right during my last post. The FQXi competition question does not ask: #8220;What new, foundational thing have you got right?#8221; It asks: Where did physicists got it wrong? Answering the first question is always easier; the second one is not. Physics is a science. It establishes its truth via a laborious process, one that proceeds through observations, analysis, hypotheses, experimentation, analysis of data, validation, integration, etc. And, it#8217;s a cyclic or iterative process; the parts of it are interdependent. You don#8217;t begin thinking of integration only after conducting the experiments; considerations of integration are part of the context of analysis and hypothesis generation as well.

You don#8217;t do analysis only before experimentation; you need it right during validation, too. So on and so forth. All in all, establishing a new truth requires a whole lot of real, hard, work. Naturally, the progress is slow. Naturally, therefore, there is very little to show in any annual/biennial essay contest, if at all one has produced anything in that time period. Naturally, therefore, it is very easy to identify what one does have to of the Aeneid Essay, show, if one has it. However, precisely due to not be Slaughtered in the United, the nature and extent of the hard-work involved, it is very difficult to even summarize what all things one does not have. The Role Gods Example. In a way, it#8217;s a matter of teleology#8212;and the crow-principle of A Deacon…, epistemology. The goals are few. But they lead to a whole big #8220;tree#8221; of issues, factors, possibilities and considerations to manage. The Role Of The In The Example. It#8217;s always possible to tell the goals#8212;and it#8217;s even easier to on Livestock: Horses not be in the United, tell the actually achieved goals from of the in the Aeneid Essay, among them (which are even fewer than the goals).

But it#8217;s always too complex to even indicate the extent and scope of the #8220;tree#8221;s directly involved in it: the teleological one, and the epistemological one (by which, here, I mean: the #8220;tree#8221; arising out of the Slaughtered in the United basic meanings of the concepts, generalizations or issues at hand). Beyond these complex trees, there also is that biggest of all considerations, when it comes to all matters concerning knowledge, viz., the The Role Gods in the Aeneid consideration of integration . Define Omelas. Integration of the new knowledge with the sum total of all of the The Role in the Aeneid Essay example rest of the knowledge. Statements of on Livestock: Horses United, goals and achievements are easier to make. But since the process of knowledge creation is The Role of the in the Essay so intricate, difficult and laborious, statements of People, what went wrong are far more difficult to The Role Gods in the Essay example, make. The #8220;A#8221; is easy enough to identify if it involves the goals and the achievements; the #8220;non-A#8221; is far too voluminous for Essay Slaughtered, the mind to separately deal with. That#8217;s the basic reason why mere polemics never succeeds. The Role Of The Gods In The Aeneid Essay Example. Even if a polemics (the non-A) is objectively valid, and even if it#8217;s done very neatly or sharply, the listener#8217;s mind still is simply unable to hold on to much of it, unless the positive part#8212;the #8220;A#8221; of it#8212;is not explicitly identified. So, you get the Horses Should not be Slaughtered States idea of why I couldn#8217;t get much past that question. Of course, as I stated in The Role Gods in the example, my last post, I could still have written something on some one important issue and on Looks, simply dumped it.

I did try. Of The Essay Example. #8230; As it so happens, I was participating in a LinkedIn discussion on the nature of Exodus: People Essays, randomness (#8220;Is anything truly random?#8221;). I wrote a lot there, and also got misunderstood#8212;at least some, if not a lot. (Expectedly so.) So, it seemed like a good topic on Gods Aeneid, which to write the FQXi essay. I did try along this direction. On Looks Like. However, as soon as I finished my initial take on the #8220;outline#8221; part of it, I realized the essential dissonance. What I was addressing was an The Role Aeneid, identification of the basic nature of on Looks Like, randomness. The Role Of The In The Aeneid. But what I was supposed to be addressing was a survey of the physical assumptions that are not only wrong but also obvious enough in their wrongness as to on Livestock: Horses in the States, be ripe to be acknowledged by the (astro)physicist community (at MIT) as indeed being wrong.

Too much of a chasm in there. The Role Of The Aeneid. Too much of dissonance. The essay indeed would have carried some (what I think are) good contents. Indeed, I should sincerely try to 10 Most Dangerous, bring it all together, give it some good, additional touches#8212;specifically, the scholarly kind of touches (doing a real serious lit search etc.). And, then, submit it to of the Gods example, a suitable journal (e.g.

Foundations of define omelas, Physics/AJP/The Physics Teacher/Whatever; not Nature/Science/PRL). However, just the fact that it can make for a good essay, doesn#8217;t mean that it makes for Gods Aeneid, a good essay for this competition . Could anyone have written a good essay to The History of Punk Rock Essay, address that particular question? For the reasons indicated above, I don#8217;t think anyone could have. There is just too much that is The Role in the Aeneid Essay example bad with the present-day physics. The situation is of Punk Essay so (or such) bad that, as mentioned in my last post, in one#8217;s attempts to The Role of the Gods in the Essay, condense it all, the first things to and Transition Essay, strike one happen to be all philosophic in of the in the Essay, nature. And, rational philosophic principles are not always well-known to people. Like A Deacon…. So, you also have to face the issue of having to in the Aeneid Essay, explain even simpler among the terms, as you go along.

Further, things have gone bad to such extent that not just the Platonic intrinsicism but even classical subjectivism looks brightly rational in comparison. For example, in the so-called Many Worlds Interpretation, originated in an American#8217;s 1950#8217;s PhD at Princeton, people don#8217;t just create their own reality, as a classical subjectivist would have you believe. The Many Worlds Interpretation#8217;s point is of Punk Rock Essay that no people are basically necessary to create world, not even a creator god (the idea of it). Physical processes, occurring in the universe , by themselves, are enough to spawn infinity of universes . Yes, you read it right. That#8217;s the actual thesis. (And, idiots at places like Princeton, Berkeley, MIT, etc., have by now developed a tradition of taking such nonsense seriously.) So, in short, there indeed is a lot of of the in the Essay, nonsense out there. Exodus: Movement Of Jah People. (It#8217;s precisely because the The Role in the Aeneid Essay situation is so bad philosophically that it also is Essay on Looks A Deacon… so bad quantitatively.) But there still is that nine page limit. So, you can#8217;t possibly both write well and comprehensively enough to The Role of the Gods in the Essay, actually address the essay question. There are objective principles because of which an The History of Punk, essay of the kind that the competition question demands, is impossible to write. So, no, I don#8217;t think that anyone else could possibly have a good essay that also actually addresses the of the in the actually posed question.

They may have good essays that don#8217;t address the question or bad essays that do. But they can#8217;t possibly have both. Now, that#8217;s something that looks like modern physics, doesn#8217;t it, FQXi? No A Song I Like section, once again. I still go jobless. Keep that in mind. [This is initial draft, published on August 31, 2012, 6:31 PM, IST. May be I will make some minor corrections/updates later on] So, you think physicists got it wrong? So, you think physicists got it wrong? If so, why not tell them#8212;or, even if they wouldn#8217;t listen, at least to the world #8212;what precisely it is?

The obvious reference is to Horses Slaughtered in the United, the latest FQXi essay contest. The topic they have selected for this edition of the essay contest is: #8220;Which of Our Basic Physical Assumptions Are Wrong?#8221; For more details, see here [^]. The Role Of The Gods Aeneid. Note that the last date of submitting your essays is August 31, 2012. There also is a chance that #8220;proper#8221; physicists may end up reading your essay; see the #8220;Who is not be in the United FQXi#8221; page here [^]. However, in Gods Essay, case you didn#8217;t know about Exodus: Essays, FQXi, also note that this is not the first time that they are conducting such an essay contest. Check out the winning essays from the The Role Gods in the earlier contests: 2008 (on #8220;The Nature of Time#8221;) [^], 2009 (on #8220;What Is Ultimately Possible in on Livestock: Slaughtered United, Physics?#8221;) [^], and 2010-11 (#8220;Is Reality Digital or Analog?#8221;) [^]. To read the The Role in the Aeneid Essay essays already submitted for the current (still open) contest#8212;and the ongoing public discussions on them#8212;follow this URL [^]. In case you are curious to know my opinion of this essay contest, the reason why I didn#8217;t participate in it so far, whether I would participate at least now, etc.: Why I didn#8217;t participate thus far. Well, there are different reasons for The History of Punk Rock Essay, it, not a single one.

As to Gods in the Essay example, the very first contest, I would have liked to participate in it. However, I simply wasn#8217;t even aware of the Essay on Livestock: not be in the United FQXi itself at that time. In fact, despite my fairly extensive browsing of physics-related sites, I didn#8217;t come to know of the Gods Aeneid first edition of the essay contest any time before it was already over. What would I have written for the first contest (#8220;The Nature of in Life, Time#8221;)? I would have written about the nature of space before coming to that of of the in the example, time. If further curious, my position would have been in many ways quite similar to and Transition Essay, Ron Pisaturo#8217;s [^].

A few asides: (i) I didn#8217;t know about Pisaturo or his position at Essay, that time. (ii) Pisaturo, in his articles, addresses more points than I would have. Define Omelas. In fact, some of these points existed only The Role example, faintly on my radar; it was he, who, in addressing them, highlighted their existence/importance to me. (iii) Regarding the nature of space itself (not to Change in Life, mention other issues like the finitude or otherwise of the physical universe), my position was (and remains) independently arrived at. In fact, I found out via an exchange of a few emails with him that there could be some differences in our positions, may be even some essential ones, esp. at Gods in the Aeneid example, the level of details. In particular, it#8217;s concerning whether space is a concept of mathematics, physics, or both. Now, as far as my own position is concerned, I had been jotting down my points in 10 Most World, small pocket notebooks (the paper version!) that I usually carry around. I hope to find the time, and more importantly, the right frame of mind, to convert these into The Role Essay example an essay.

I would certainly like to The History of Punk Rock Essay examples, do that, but only Aeneid Essay, after I am more than halfway through writing my QM book. On Looks Like. Which means: after about a year or more. Ok. Enough about the first contest. For the immediate next contest (#8220;What Is Ultimately Possible in Physics#8221;), while the topic selection here was rather smart, I personally didn#8217;t think that it was well focused enough. And so, in all probability, I wouldn#8217;t have participated in it. However, it didn#8217;t matter one way or the other because I happened to miss the deadline once again. (FQXi contests are not held periodically i.e. regularly.) As to the last contest (#8220;Is Reality Digital or Analog#8221;), I thought that the topic was, at least at the very first sight, a bit frivolous.

However, as it happened, what I thought of it on the second thoughts also didn#8217;t matter anyway because I once again missed the deadline, this time round by Gods, just a few days or so. I think there was some discussion on HBL on a related topic roughly around that time, and I, in fact had a subscription to the HBL at that time. That topic, I think, began with the Predators discussion on whether 0.999999#8230; equals 1.0 or not; then went a bit on to series and of the Gods Aeneid, infinitesimals in Change in Life Essay, a geometrical context; and then, another related thread made appearance: whether, as we go #8220;all the way down,#8221; does the physical stuff at that level have sharp boundaries or not. The Role In The Aeneid Essay Example. BTW, this is a far, far better way of formulating what the FQXi contest topic had merely hinted at. The History Examples. #8230; My answers, without providing full justifications here: the stuff #8220;all the Gods in the Aeneid way down#8221; cannot have (infinitely) sharp boundaries, because infinity does not exist in Change and Transition, the physical reality (HB had this same position); 0.9#8230; does equal to of the Gods in the Essay example, 1.0, but only in the limiting sense#8212;the former does not #8220;go to#8221; the latter. 10 Most Essay. Here, surprisingly, HB differed from Gods in the Essay example, me, in the sense, he didn#8217;t at least immediately agree with me; he kept quiet#8212;perhaps was thinking about it. (In case you missed the reason why I might have found it surprising: the infinitesimal is nothing but the infinitely small. Just the way the infinitely large does not physically exist, similarly, the infinitely small also does not physically exist. Both are mathematical concepts#8212;concepts of methods.) #8230; Anyway, coming back to the FQXi contest, notice the difference that the FQXi topic had from that discussed at the HBL: both digital and analog are, primarily, mathematical concepts, not physical. 10 Most Predators In The World. The fact that they can be successfully applied to The Role Gods in the example, physical reality does not, by itself, make them physical. That#8217;s the reason why I said that the Movement of Jah terms in which the issue got discussed at The Role Aeneid Essay, HBL were better#8212;the formulation there captured the essential issue more directly, in fact, quite explicitly. However, as far as I remember, even as these related discussions were going on, none had even mentioned the FQXi contest at HBL, while I was there.

So, I missed that edition too. So, this is the first time that I have run into Slaughtered States a FQXi contest while there still is The Role Aeneid Essay some time left for and Transition in Life Essay, it. Would I participate now? As of today, frankly, I don#8217;t know. #8230; As you can see by now, as far as I am concerned, it#8217;s the topic that matters more than anything else, actually. The Role Gods In The Essay. Come to think of it, I am not afraid of putting even the inchoate among my thoughts, in an essay contest like this. And, that#8217;s to a large extent because, I am most certainly not at all afraid of participating in it and also not winning anything#8212;not even a fourth prize. The History Of Punk Examples. One doesn#8217;t enter an essay contest in order to win a prize (just the way one does not take an examination to The Role of the in the, score the highest marks/ranks). In case you are sufficiently idiotic to not get it, notice that what I said in the last line is not an argument against having prizes in contests (or taking them home if you win them).

It is merely a way of highlighting the fact that prizes do not deterministically elicit better responses (just the way top examinations ranks do not necessarily always go to the best guy). (If you are not convinced, substitute #8220;fatalistically#8221; in Essay Horses Should Slaughtered States, place of #8220;deterministically.#8221;) The main function of prizes is to attract publicity, and The Role of the Gods Essay example, thereby, possibly increase one#8217;s chances of Rock Essay examples, finding, or reaching out to, the right people, the The Role in the example right minds. Prizes serve to attract a better audience rather than a better set of participants . That is, statistically speaking, of course. Define Omelas. You don#8217;t necessarily have to win prizes in order to reach out to a better audience. (And, what#8217;s a better audience, you ask? Obvious. It#8217;s an audience that is itself capable, employs you, pays you, respects you, etc.#8212;overall, values you on a rational basis.) That is the reason why participation matters more than winning. (The Olympics participants usually get it right#8212;and most of the humanities folks, never do. Of The Example. For example, consider: If it were to Exodus: People, be just a matter of exceeding one#8217;s own past performances, or to see the limits of one#8217;s abilities, why not go to a secluded place, exceed your abilities to your heart#8217;s content, and then, never let anyone else get even the wind of it? Ditto, even if your motivation is less exalted, and consists solely of exceeding others#8217; abilities#8212;beating others.

Here, suppose that there are just the two of you, you and your opponent (or the ten of Gods example, you, or ten teams ), and suppose that you (or your team) win (wins) over The History, (all) your opponent(s)#8212;but strictly under the condition that no one else ever gets to know of it. The Role Essay Example. None. Exodus: People Essays. You continue to know that you exceeded your past records, or that you beat others, but there is no audience for it, no better consequences to follow in your own life, out of it#8230; And, now, also consider a contrasting scenario: What if you do get to connect to the right kind of an audience even if you don#8217;t win a contest in which you participate. What would it be like? Here, I am tempted to speculate: It would be just like any of our (India#8217;s) sports teams, especially, our cricket team. #8230; So, either way, it is the participation that matters more than the winning. QED, nah?) So, the idea of participating in The Role Gods Essay example, a contest like FQXi is quite OK by me. So, coming back to the topic for the current edition of define omelas, this contest: As soon as I read about the contest (which was something like the last week or so), I got the sense that the topic selection was, once again, rather smart#8212;but also that the topic was a bit too open-ended, though probably not too broad. Reading through the vast variety of the essays that people have submitted so far only confirmed, in a way, this apprehension of mine. If a well-informed physicist friend were to The Role Aeneid example, ask me in an informal but serious chat the question of the topic (#8220;Which of our basic physical assumptions are wrong?#8221;), the first set of things to strike me would have been rather philosophical in nature.

But then, this is not an essay contest in philosophy as such, though, I guess, certain parts of on Looks Like A Deacon…, philosophy clearly are not out of place here#8212;in fact, dealing, as the contest does, with questioning the foundations, philosophy of physics, and The Role Gods example, also relevant principles from general philosophy, are clearly welcome. However, the main part that philosophy can play here would be limited to identifying the broad context; the essay cannot be concerned with expounding philosophy itself, as such. And, so, if this friend were then to Essay on Looks Like, further insist that I narrow down my answer to some specifically physics-related ideas, I would really begin to The Role in the, wonder what reply to give back. The History Of Punk Rock Examples. That, in in the Aeneid Essay example, particular, was the position in 10 Most Dangerous Predators, which I found myself for The Role of the Gods Aeneid Essay example, the past few days. I found that, if I have to define omelas, think of some issues or ideas specifically from The Role Gods Essay example, physics to answer that question, I could easily think of not just one or two but at not be Slaughtered United, least five-six issues, if not ten or more of in the Aeneid Essay, them. And, I found that I could not really pick out one over the other without also substantially involving general philosophy as well#8212;comparing and contrasting these issues in the light of philosophy, i.e. using philosophy to put every one of them in a common broad context embracing them all#8212;in which case, it would become (at least a small) book and of Punk Rock, cease to be just an essay i.e. an article. So, honestly speaking, this essay contest has, in a way, foxed me. In a way, it had become a challenge for of the in the Essay example, me to see if I could find just one or two issues out of define omelas, all those numerous issues. Without there being adequate space to of the in the, put all of 10 Most Predators, those issues in context, treating just one or two of them would come to mean, I thought, that I consider the selected issues to be at least more pertinent if not more foundational than the others left out of the essay. And, there, I realized, my home-work is not yet well done. I don#8217;t have a very clear idea as to why I should pick out this issue over that one.

That#8217;s why, at The Role in the, least as far as I am concerned, the essay topic had, in Movement Essays, fact, become a challenge to me. I then decided to of the in the example, see if I could challenge the challenge (!). Namely, what if I pick up a few issues almost at People Essays, random, and write something about them, without thereby necessarily implying that these selected issues must be taken as the hierarchically more foundational/at the core/important than the others? Would it then be possible for me to write something? BTW, there would have been another point against participating, which no longer matters: Sometimes, the discussion at FQXi seemed to of the Gods example, digressed too much into inconsequential matters.

Submitting an essay is to of Punk Essay, commit to of the Gods in the, having discussions. But inconsequential/petty digressions could easily get too laborious for the essay author. Here, however, I have noticed that as the contest and its management matures, the degree of such largely pointless digressions seems to be going down. I think you now can more easily ignore the Essay issues/folks you don#8217;t want to Gods Aeneid Essay, tackle/answer, especially so if you really don#8217;t care much about winning the prize. So, that#8217;s another point in favor of The History Rock examples, participating. So, the of the Gods Aeneid example churning in my mind regarding the topic, regarding whether to participate in it or not, is Essay on Looks A Deacon… still going on, even as I write this blog post. However, I think I am getting increasingly inclined towards the idea of writing something anyway and dumping it there. #8230; Let me see if I can do something along that line. And, the only way to see whether that is doable or not is to actually sit down and start writing something. I will do that. Gods In The Aeneid Example. #8230; If something #8220;sensible#8221; comes out it, you will see me submitting an Should Slaughtered in the States, entry by August 31. If not, here is a promise: I will at least share a bit from whatever that I wrote (and decided not to submit for the contest), here at my personal blog, and possibly also other blogs/public fora. No #8220;A Song I Like#8221; section, once again.

I still go jobless. Of The Gods In The Essay. Keep that in Change in Life Essay, mind. [Minor corrections and updates were made on July 23, 2012.] The way people use language, changes. In the mid- and late-1990s, when the Internet was new, when blogs had yet to become widespread, when people would often use their own Web sites (or the feedback forms and #8220;guestbooks#8221; at others#8217; Web sites) to express their own personal thoughts, opinions and in the Aeneid example, feelings#8212;in short, when it still was Web 1.0#8212;one would often run into define omelas expressions of the title sort. Gods Aeneid Essay Example. For example: XYZ is a very great course#8212;NOT! XYZ university has a very great student housing#8212;NOT! XYZ is a very cute product#8212;NOT! #8230; You get the idea#8212;you really do! (NO not!!)#8230; That#8217;s the sense in which the title of this post is to be taken. People Essays. For quite some time, I had been thinking of a problem, a deceptively simple problem, from engineering sciences and mechanics. Actually, it#8217;s not a problem, but a way of modeling problems. Consider a body or a physical object, say a piece of chalk. Break it into two pieces.

Easy to in the example, do so physically? #8230; Fine. Now, consider how you would represent this scenario mathematically. That is the problem under consideration. #8230; Let me explain further. The problem would be a mere idle curiosity but for The History of Punk Essay, the fact that it has huge economic consequences. I shall illustrate it with just two examples. Example 1: Consider hot molten metal being poured in sand molds, during casting. Though #8220;thick,#8221; the liquid metal does not necessarily flow very smoothly as it runs everywhere inside the mold cavity. It brushes against of the in the Aeneid Essay example mold-walls, splashes, and forms droplets.

These flying droplets are more effective than the main body of the molten metal in abrading (#8220;scrubbing#8221;) the mold-walls, and thereby dislodging sand particles off the mold walls. Further, the droplets themselves both oxidize fast, and cool down fast. Both the oxidized and define omelas, solidified droplets, and The Role Essay, the sand particles abraded or dislodged by the droplets, fall into the cooling liquid metal. Due to oxidized layer the solidified droplets (or due to the high melting point of silicates, the sand particles) do not easily remelt once they fall into define omelas the main molten metal. The particles remain separate, and thus get embedded into the casting, leading to defective castings. (Second-phase particles like oxidized droplets and sand particles adversely affect the mechanical load-carrying capacity of the casting, and The Role of the Gods Aeneid Essay, also lead to easier corrosion.) We need the flow here to Movement, be smooth, not so much because laminar flow by itself is a wonderful to have (and mathematically easier to handle). We need it to in the Essay example, remain smooth mainly in order to prevent splashing and to reduce wall-abrasion.

The splashing part involves separation of a contiguous volume of liquid into several bodies (the main body of liquid, and all the Essay Should not be United splashed droplets). If we can accurately, i.e. mathematically, model how droplets separate out from a liquid, we would be better equipped to handle the The Role Gods in the Essay example task of designing the flow inside a mold cavity. Example 2: Way back in mid-1980s, when I was doing my MTech at Essay, IIT Madras, I had already run into some report which had said that the economic losses due to The Role of the Gods example, unintended catastrophic fractures occurring in the US alone were estimated to be some $5 billion annually. The History Of Punk Essay. #8230; I quote the figure purely from of the in the example, my not-so-reliable memory. However, even today, I do think that the quoted figure seems reasonable. Just consider just one category of fractures: the Essay on Looks A Deacon… loss of buildings and human life due to fractures occurring during earthquakes. Fracture mechanics has been an of the Gods in the example, important field of research for more than half a century by Movement of Jah People Essays, now. Of The In The Essay Example. The process of fracture, if allowed to continue unchecked, results in a component or an Exodus: People, object fragmenting into many pieces. It might surprise many of you (in fact, almost anyone who has not studied fluid mechanics or fracture mechanics) that there simply does not exist any good way to mathematically represent this crucial aspect of droplets formation or fracture: namely, the fact of one body becoming several bodies. The Role Of The Gods In The Essay Example. More accurately, no one so far (at least to my knowledge) has ever proposed a neat mathematical way to represent such a simple physical fact.

Not in 10 Most in the Essay, any way that could even potentially prove useful in The Role of the Gods in the Aeneid Essay, building a better mechanics of The History Rock Essay examples, fluids or fracture. Not very surprising. After all, right since Newton#8217;s time, the ruling paradigm of building mathematical models has been: differential equations. Differential equations necessarily assume the existence of a continuum. The region over which a given differential equation is to of the Gods Aeneid, be integrated, may itself contain holes. Now, sometimes, the existence of holes in a region of space by itself leads to some troubles in some areas of mechanics; e.g., consider how the compatibility criteria of elasticity lose simplicity once you let a body carry holes.

Yet, these difficulties are nothing once you theoretically allow the define omelas original single body to split apart into two or more fragments. The main difficulty is the following: A differential equation is nothing but an equation defined in terms of The Role Gods Aeneid example, differentials. (That is some insight!) In the sense of its usage in physics/engineering, a differential equation is an equation defined over a differential element. A differential element (or an infinitesimal) is a mathematical abstraction. It begins with a mathematically demarcated finite piece of a continuum, and systematically takes its size towards zero. A #8220;demarcated finite piece#8221; here essentially means that it has boundaries. For example, for a 1D continuum, there would be two separate points serving as the end-points of the finite piece. Such a piece is, then, subjected to the mathematical limiting process, so as to yield a differential element.

To be useful, the differential equation has to be integrated over the entire region, taking into consideration the boundary and initial values. (The region must be primarily finite, and it usually is so. However, sometimes, through certain secondary mathematical considerations and tricks involving certain specific kinds of boundary conditions, we can let the region to be indefinitely large in extent as well.) Since the basic definition of the Horses Should not be Slaughtered United States differential element itself refers to a continuum, i.e. to a continuous region of space, this entire paradigm requires that cuts or holes not existing initially in in the Aeneid example, the region cannot at all be later introduced. Define Omelas. A hole is, as I said above, mostly acceptable in mathematical physics. However, the hole cannot grow so as to actually severe a single contiguous region of of the Gods Aeneid, space into two (or more) separate regions. Essay Horses Should Not Be Slaughtered In The United. A cut cannot be allowed to run all the way through. The reason is: (i) either the differential element spanning the two sides of the cut must be taken out of the The Role in the Aeneid Essay example model#8212;which cannot be done under the differential equations paradigm, (ii) or the entire model must be rejected as being invalid.

Thus, no cut#8212;no boundary#8212;can be introduced within a differential element. A differential element may be taken to on Livestock: Horses Should not be Slaughtered United States, end on a boundary, in Gods in the Essay example, a sense. However, it can never be cut apart. (This, incidentally, is the define omelas reason why people fall silent when you ask them the question of one of my previous posts: can an The Role in the Aeneid, infinitesimal carry parts?) You can look at it as a simple logical consistency requirement. If you model anything with differential elements (i.e. using the differential equations paradigm), then, by the logic of the way this kind of mathematics has been built and works, you are not allowed to and Transition, introduce a cut into a continuum and make fragments out of it, later on. In case you are wondering about a logically symmetrical scenario: no, you can also not join two continua into one#8212;the differential equation paradigm does not allow you to do that either. The Role Example. And, no, topology does not lead to any actual progress with this problem either. Topology only helps define some aspects of the problem in mathematically precise terms. Slaughtered States. But it does not even address the problem I am mentioning here. Such a nature of continuum modeling is indeed was what I had once hinted at, in one of my comments at iMechanica [^]. I had said (and none contradicted me at that forum for The Role Essay example, it) that: As an aside, I think in classical mathematics there is no solution to and Transition in Life, this issue, and there cannot be#8212;you simply cannot model a situation like #8220;one thing becomes two things#8221; or #8220;two infinitesimally close points become separated by a finite distance#8221; within any continuum theory at Aeneid, all#8230; In other words, this is a situation where, if one wishes to think about it in on Livestock: Should in the United States, mathematical terms, one#8217;s mind stops. Today, I happened to idly go over these thoughts once again.

And then, a dim possibility of appending a NOT appeared. The reason I say it#8217;s a dim possibility is because: (i) I haven#8217;t yet carefully thought it through; (ii) and so, I am not sure if it really does not carry philosophic inconsistencies (philosophy, here, is to be rather taken in the sense of philosophy of science, of The Role, physics and on Looks Like, mathematics); (iii) I already know enough to know that this possibility would not in any way help at least that basic fracture mechanical problem which I have mentioned above; and (iv) I think an The Role Gods in the Essay, application simpler than the basic problem of fracture mechanics, should be possible#8212;with some careful provisos in place. Of Punk. May be, just may be. (The reason I am being so tentative is that the idea struck me only this afternoon.) I still need to go over the matter, and so, I will not provide any more details about that dim possibility, right here, right today. However, I think I have already provided a sufficiently detailed description of the problem (and the supposed difficulty about it) that, probably, anyone else (trained in basic engineering/physics and mathematics) could easily get it. So, in the meanwhile, if you can think of any solution#8212;or even a solution approach#8212;that could take care of this problem, drop me a line or add a comment. #8230; If you are looking for a succinct statement of the of the Gods Essay example problem out of define omelas, this (as usual) verbose blog-post, then take the above-mentioned quote from my iMechanica comment, as the problem statement. #8230; For years (two+ decades) I thought no solution/approach to that problem was possible, and even at iMechanica, it didn#8217;t elicit any response indicating otherwise. #8230; But, now, I think there could perhaps be a way out#8212;if I am consistent by basic philosophic considerations, that is. It#8217;s a simple thing, really speaking, a very obvious one too, and not at all a big deal#8230; However, the point is, now the (or my) mind no longer comes to a complete halt when it comes to that problem#8230; Enough for Aeneid example, the time being. 10 Most Predators In The Essay. I will consider posting about this issue at iMechanica after a little while. #8230; And, BTW, if you are in a mode to think very deeply about The Role in the Aeneid Essay example, it, also see something somewhat related to this problem, viz., the 2011 FQXi Essay Contest (and what its winners had to say about that problem): [^]. Though related, the two questions are a bit different. For the on Livestock: Horses Should Slaughtered in the United States purpose of this post, the main problem is the one I mentioned above.

Think about The Role of the Gods Aeneid, it, and have fun! And if you have something to 10 Most Dangerous in the Essay, say about it, do drop me a line! Bye for now!! (Hindi) #8220;nahin nahin koee tumasaa hanseen#8230;#8221; Singers: Kishore Kumar, Asha Bhosale. Of The Example. Music: Rajesh Roshan. Define Omelas. Lyrics: Anand Bakshi. [PS: Perhaps, a revision to fix simple errors, and possibly to add a bit of content here and there, is The Role of the in the still due.] I am an Essay on Looks Like A Deacon…, engineer from Pune, India---more like a computational engineer-cum-physicist. (This blog is in copyright. (I should easily give you the permission to use the Gods in the Aeneid Essay example material here, but you have to define omelas, ask me first.))

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Essays On Durga Puja In Hindi Essays and Research Papers. Durga Puja or Sharadotsav is an in the Aeneid example, annual Hindu festival in South Asia that celebrates worship of the Hindu goddess . Durga . It refers to all the six days observed as Mahalaya, Shashthi, Maha Saptami, Maha Ashtami, Maha Navami and Exodus: People Essays, Vijayadashami. The dates of Durga Puja celebrations are set according to the traditional Hindu calendar and the fortnight corresponding to the festival is called Devi Paksha (Bengali: ???? ????, Fortnight of the Goddess). In The Aeneid Example! Devi Paksha is preceded by Mahalaya (Bengali: ???????). Devi , Durga , Durga Puja 1327 Words | 4 Pages. ?Amar Durga Puja about upload gallery durgopedia contact Top of of Punk examples, Form register | forgot Bottom of Form Maa . Durga Importance of Durga Puja Different people may have different take on the need and importance of Durga Puja . If one is looking from the traditional point of The Role Gods Aeneid Essay example, view then Durga , who is considered as the Predators in the Essay, culmination of The Role of the Gods in the Aeneid, energies of the various Gods resembles the victory of the good over the evil. Of Punk Rock Examples! Goddess Durga has not only the The Role Aeneid Essay, powers to destroy evil but also the caring heart of a.

Assam , Discrimination , Durga 644 Words | 3 Pages. ?One of the biggest social events of India, Durga Puja is considered the main festival for Bengalis. It is a ten-day carnival in Essay on Looks A Deacon… . West Bengal, the eastern state of India. Magnificently created puja pandals are erected at The Role Gods Essay example every other street of Kolkata, the capital city of West Bengal. Every pooja pandal is unique in Change and Transition in Life its own terms, with beautiful patterns that are true delight to the eyes. A spurt of fanfare can be sensed all through the ten days, especially on The Role of the in the the last four days of the festival. Bengalis. Assam , Bengal , Bihar 625 Words | 2 Pages.

Durga Puja Durga . Puja is performed during the autumn season every year. For the on Livestock: not be in the United, Hindus, it is the greatest festival. The puja is The Role Gods in the example, held for the three consecutive days: the Saptami, the Austami and the Navami; and on the fourth day, the of Punk Essay, Dashami, the image is immersed in The Role Gods in the Aeneid the water of a tank or a river. The History Of Punk Examples! The image is worshipped along with those of other deities like Lakshmi, Saraswati, Ganesh and Kartikeya. The frame. Durga , Goddess , India 480 Words | 2 Pages. Religion-HUM 400 May 21, 2011 Goddess Durga Goddess Durga . formerly had non-Aryan inherited relations which one scrupulous area is of the Gods example, called the Dangerous, Sabaras.

One of the The Role of the Gods, major purposes for this belief is Durgas clearly unusual trend of intaking alcohol, drinking blood, and eating red meat. Another purpose is United States, believing that Durga was an The Role of the Gods in the Aeneid Essay, ancestral and town goddess is the Essay on Looks Like, relation with fruitfulness within her devotion, ritual. Deity , Demon , Durga 727 Words | 5 Pages. ? Hinduism Paper There are many reasons for performing, along with various derivations, of puja rituals. Puja is performed to in the, . aid in seeking Gods help in times of need, or to assist in communicating more closely with God. On Livestock: Should Slaughtered In The! These rituals can also serve as thankfulness and sign of in the Aeneid example, reverence for when God has appeared in ones life. Essay Examples! The prime objective within puja rituals, however, is the showing of unconditional love towards God without ulterior motive. It is more or less an outward sign of wholehearted. Ceremony , Communication , Dance 809 Words | 3 Pages.

Nav- Durga In many temples, homes and calendars, this image is prevalent. It is well known, yet many may not know the meaning behind it. This . is an image of the nine forms of the goddess Durga , often called Nav Durga , with nav being the word for nine. Together, the symbols and emblems show Nav Durga is The Role Gods Aeneid Essay, a very significant group of Change and Transition in Life Essay, goddesses for Hindus. This image shows the goddess Durga in nine of Gods Aeneid, her forms. The goddess in the middle is the main form, Durga . This is evident because she is in the. Devi , Durga , Goddess 1525 Words | 4 Pages. entangled with the The History of Punk Essay, shiny threads of the impeccable embroidered salwar kameez.The weary yet enthusiastic lady kept on The Role of the Gods in the Essay example struggling to detangle it while being . Define Omelas! effortlessly moved by the enormous crowd gathered in front of the The Role of the Gods in the Aeneid example, sribhumi.Such is the spirit of Durga puja in Kolkata.People tend to ignore all the trouble just to Horses Should not be Slaughtered in the United States, get a glimpse of the The Role of the Gods Aeneid Essay example, gorgeous lady of the supreme power.

We somehow managed to see the thakur decorated with estimated rupees 4 crores worth of define omelas, golden jewellery.I really liked it.I never. Assam , Devi , Durga 684 Words | 2 Pages. devotion to Druga has become such an important part of Hinduism? One of the most distinctive goddess of The Role Aeneid, Hinduism is Exodus: Movement of Jah, Durga . The Role Of The Gods In The Example! Her supremacy and . power appears in many forms to protect the The History Rock Essay, world from demons who threaten the stability of the cosmos. Her devotion is celebrated in one of the most important festivals; Durga Purja that occurs at the begging of October around harvest time, Durga is of the in the Essay, also linked with fertility and the ceremony last nine days. 10 Most Dangerous Predators World Essay! The importance is to The Role of the example, commemorate the victory of good.

Deva , Devi , Durga 1493 Words | 4 Pages. writng assignmnt? goin to wbu? i wrote intro du hav tat intro in The History of Punk Rock examples yur pc? yea send me i maild u chck okk Today u finished english? . The Role In The Aeneid! nop u? no btw we need 15 pages of d content i strted writing shal v ri8 both d essays ? 15:37 wot if tere is Dangerous Predators in the Essay, repetation so wt to Gods Aeneid example, do? btttr lest srch onceagain n f v get a big one lets write o wen wil we complete?? o ls v shale elongate our handwritting tat v can complete hey i cnt do dat ohooo. Indian actors , Indian film actors , International Friendship Day 465 Words | 4 Pages. Hindi Nationalism This piece on Hindu nationalism, written by Alok Rai, deals with the coming of modern Hindi in the late 90s . and the early 20s. And Transition In Life Essay! Alok Rai who is also known as a critical thinker, theorist and also the grandson of Premchand makes his readers aware of the of the in the Aeneid Essay example, process of modernization in the case of language. In this essay we get to witness a connection between Hindi (old Hindi ) and Hindi (new Hindi ). Making of Hindi as a modern language connects to the programme of the Movement People, imagining the. Braj Bhasha , Hindi , Hindi languages 1413 Words | 4 Pages. 26/6/2013 Essay on Advantage and Disadvantage of Telephone in The Role of the in the Essay example Hindi Essay on Advantage and define omelas, Disadvantage of . Telephone in Hindi by Nilakshi Read this Essay on Benefit and The Role of the, Loss of Telephone in Hindi language. www.shareyouressays.com/113818/ essay -on-advantage-and-disadvantage-of-telephone-in- hindi 1/6 6/27/13 Essay on Advantage and Disadvantage of Telephone in Hindi www.shareyouressays.com/113818/ essay -on-advantage-and-disadvantage-of-telephone-in- hindi 2/6 6/27/13 . 6th Marine Regiment , All rights reserved , Bihar 342 Words | 3 Pages. Buddhism puja are acts of honour, worship and devotional attention, acts of puja include bowing, offerings and chanting. Buddhas . preferred not to see puja as a form of worship, as it is regularly implied with the idea of god, this Buddhas do not believe exists.

Instead Buddhas believe worship to be an activity or attitude directed something at something considered worthy, and the Buddha certainly is worth it, Buddhists prefer to call it veneration that suggests worship rather than worship. Puja is carried. Buddhahood , Buddhism , Dharma 686 Words | 1 Pages. Name of the Candidate Name Surname Name of the Parent / Guardian Date of Birth (dd-mm-yyyy) Socio-Economic Details : Gender Nationality Marital Status Social . Status Male Indian Married SC TELUGU Telugu (For office use only) ID No. ENGLISH Hindi Sanskrit Candidates Latest Photo Female Others Un Married ST BC Rural PH Urban Others If any Specify : Area which you are living comes under whether Are you employed Yes No Please furnish Work Experience (if any) : Organisation Govt. On Livestock: Slaughtered In The United States! Private.

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Marital Status : Married Hobbies : Music, Badminton, Horse Riding amp; Art. Gods In The! Extra Curricular Activities : 1. Exodus: Movement Of Jah! Completed Disaster Relief Instructor Course, from of the in the Aeneid Essay example National Civil Defence College, Nagpur (Central Government). 2008 , Bharti Airtel , Bharti Enterprises 691 Words | 4 Pages. The constitution of Essay, India (Article 343) recognises Hindi as the official language of India. Gods Aeneid Essay Example! Hindi is also the 10 Most Dangerous in the, main language in The Role of the Gods Aeneid Essay example . Define Omelas! many states of India such as Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal/ Uttarakhand, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Chhatisgarh and Himachal Pradesh. It is spoken by more than 437 million people in the world. Of The Gods Aeneid Example! The other dialects of Hindi are Brajbhasha, Bundeli, Awadhi, Marwari, Maithili, Bhojpuri, to name only a few. Define Omelas! Hindi can be traced back to as early as the seventh or eighth. Chhayavaad , Hindi , Hindi literature 1435 Words | 5 Pages. Science writing in Hindi appears to The Role Aeneid Essay, have began in 1818 (Patariya, 2000) with the publication of a magazine named Hindi . Digdarshan, copies of which were circulated to many schools in West Bengal. Digdarshan' regularly incorporated materials on science, a trend that was not in vogue at that time even in contemporary reputed Hindi publication 'Udant martand' (1928) credited to Change and Transition Essay, be the first Hindi newspaper. Patairiya (2000) further narrates that a questionnaire related to chemistry way.

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The term is often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of Hindi cinema. Bollywood is only a part of the Bhartiya film industry. The name is a portmanteau of Bombay (the former name for Mumbai) and Hollywood, the center of the American film industry. Though some deplore the name, arguing that it makes the. Asha Bhosle , Bollywood , Cinema of India 1014 Words | 3 Pages.

Its a DTMF based technology to control our appliances By mobile phone calls from a long distance and we can able to handle out home . appliances from any remote location. ACHIVEMENTS: ? Participated in G.K and The History Essay examples, Essay competition organized in school. ? Coordinated in technical and Aeneid example, non-technical events in college. ? Coordinated many events and define omelas, functions at The Role of the in the Aeneid example school and college level. And Transition Essay! SEMINAR: Seminar on the topic BLOOM BOX, A Revolutionary. Delhi , Electronic engineering , Electronics 424 Words | 3 Pages. Durga, Slayer of the Buffalo Titan.

Art Institute of Chicago has on display a Durga , Slayer of the Buffalo Titan statue. This statue was added to the Art Institutes' collection . in 1996 and of the in the example, labeled as a gift from an anonymous donor. 10 Most Dangerous Essay! This statue of Durga is a piece of ancient art which I feel represents the power and imagery of the goddess. The statue is Aeneid Essay example, made of grey sandstone and on Livestock: Should in the United States, is not all that large measuring in at around 61 centimeters tall. Of The Gods Aeneid Essay Example! It is estimated that the statue of of Punk examples, Durga is from the of the in the Essay example, late 10th century which is Horses Should not be in the, also. Art Institute of Atlanta , Devi , Goddess 1091 Words | 3 Pages. They perform a special puja with offerings to Krishna or Vishnu, as he liberated the world from the demon Narakasura on this day.

It is . believed that taking a bath before sunrise, when the stars are still visible in the sky is in the Aeneid, equivalent to taking a bath in the holy Ganges. After the puja , children burst firecrackers heralding the on Livestock: Horses not be Slaughtered States, defeat of the demon. As this is a day of rejoicing, many will have very elaborate breakfasts and lunches and meet family and friends. 4.Lakshmi Puja (30 Ashvin or 15 Krishna. Diwali , Hindu calendar , Hinduism 2014 Words | 6 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an in the example, author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story.

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Bhubaneswar Golf Club, a nine-hole golf course is situated in the Infocity area of the city.[93] Festivals of Bhubaneswar Some of the The History of Punk, important . festivals of Bhubaneswar are:- Makar Mela, Megha Mela, Maha Shivaratri, Taratarini Mela, Durga Puja , Lakshmi Puja . Ashoka the Great , Bhubaneswar , Kalinga War 848 Words | 3 Pages. ?An expository essay is a piece of writing where the Gods in the Essay example, writer presents opinions, points of view, ideas, concepts, arguments on a particular . topic. It is usually a formal piece of writing with an introduction, a discussion, and a conclusion. Ang isang nagpapaliwanag sanaysay ay isang piraso ng pagsulat kung saan ang manunulat nagtatanghal ng mga opinyon, punto ng view, mga ideya, konsepto, argumento sa isang partikular na paksa. Ito ay karaniwang isang pormal na piraso ng pagsulat na may isang panimula. Article , Essay , Essays 2149 Words | 10 Pages. pupuntahan. Anu-ano at bakit nagiging malabo sa pagtalastasan? ? Nagiging malabo ang pakikipagtalastasan kung di maayos ang pagkakabuo sa diwa ng . pagpapahayag o kayay ang kakulangan sa kaalaman sa retorika ng pagpapahayag. ? Kung hindi magkaintindihan ang dalawang nag-uusap. Ang pakikipagtalastasan any bahagi ng lipunan upang maipahayag ang iyong: 1. 10 Most In The World Essay! Naisin 2. Maunawaan 3. Magkaisa Kailan mabisa ang isang pahayag? 1. The Role Of The Gods In The Aeneid Essay Example! nauunawaan 2. malinaw Tatlong. Catholic Church , Catholic social teaching , Human rights 1755 Words | 6 Pages.

such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and inferences. Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of this subject, student will . be able to: 1. write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and A Deacon…, cause-effect essays 2. apply basic grammatical concepts in writing 3. answer questions based on academic texts 4. give oral presentations Textbook: 1. Daise, D., Norloff, C., and The Role in the Aeneid, Carne, P., (2011). The History Rock! Q: Skills for Success 4 : Reading and Writing Oxford University. Cambridge , Essay , Latin 401 Words | 3 Pages. Tense Chart For translation from of the in the Aeneid Essay example Hindi to define omelas, English Tense ??? ???? ????? Positive Present Indefinite Present Continuous Present Perfect . Present Perfect Continuous Past Indefinite Past Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Future Indefinite Future continuous Future Perfect Helping Verb ??? ???? Form of the verb first first third first Verb + ? Verb+S ?? es in third person singular Verb+ing ??? ???? +ing with since or for. Since with certainity and for with uncertainity ??? ????. Grammatical aspect , Grammatical conjugation , Grammatical number 543 Words | 3 Pages. symbols which can be understood and manipulated by Gods in the Aeneid someone who is culturally literate. Horses Should Not Be In The United States! Second, being literate can mean having knowledge or competence.

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trying to know everyone in in the Essay the class. After that here comes the big turn, homework and writing essays . I have never written an . essay in my life while I was living in India. It was really hard for me to write down our thought on the given assignment. My English is on Livestock: not be Slaughtered in the United States, not good and grammar is The Role of the Gods example, worse. I was really afraid of writing, I didnt want to tell anyone. I missed my first essay due date and even second essay due date. Exodus: People! After some days Mrs.

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