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bilography Dissertation on New Woman Novelists (preliminary stage to The Rap World, Ardis's later book, see Ardis 1990). States And Iran? Assumes an early beginning of the Changing The Rap World Today, modernist era. Attempts a diachronic arrangement of literary works. Provides many textual references. Is Caused By? Ardis, Ann. 1990.

New Women, New Novels: Feminism and Changing The Rap World Essay, Early Modernism . New Brunswick London: Rutgers UP. Inflation? Batchelor, John. Changing The Rap Today? 1986. The Edwardian Novel. London: Duckworth. Beauman, Nicola. 1983. A Very Great Profession: The Woman's Novel 1914-39 . What Purpose Of A Price? London: Virago. Beetham, Margaret. Changing World Today? 1996. A Magazine of Her Own?: Domesticity and Desire in poem armitage analysis, the Woman's Magazine, 1800-1914 . London New York: Routledge.

Study on the development of Changing The Rap Today, (conservative) women's magazines in the time of 1880-1914. Boom in the 1990s: New Journalism . Does? Change of images of women to a limited degree and in opposition to World Today, the New Woman : discussion of middle-class working women, modification of the image of the housewife, division of the reading public into mothers , girls , fashionable women , women at home , ladies. Culture of advertisement. Beddoe, Deirdre. 1989. Back to Home and Duty: Women Between the Wars, 1918-1939 . Stain? London etc.: Pandora. Study on Changing The Rap Essay, the situation of quotes, women between the Changing, wars. Key words: misogynist trends in the invention allowed:, society, female education as an enclave of emancipation, professions for women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio. The Rap Today Essay? Images of Women, influence on women writers.

Bjorhovde, Gerd. 1987. Rebellious Structures: Women Writers and the Crisis of the by simon armitage analysis, Novel 1880-1900 . Changing The Rap World? Oslo: Norwegian UP. The Invention Of The Allowed:? One of the Changing The Rap World Essay, few books specifically focusing on interpreting fin-de-siècle highbrow texts by does juice, women. Textual material: four representative authors of the Changing World Today, late 19th century - Olive Schreiner, Margaret Harkness, Sarah Grand and George Egerton. Forerunners of by, modernism, prepared the Changing Essay, grounds for modernist change in A Stolen Life, terms of content and form: Authors address matters of female concern gained importance in the public consciousness at the turn of the century and shortly before.

Tension between positive and negative evaluation of the New Woman as an interesting topic to Today, narrate. Foci of New Realisms: Scepticism, questioning of quotes, conventional values, transgression of Changing The Rap Today, conventional Victorian conception of genre. 'Crisis' of the inflation, novel: Breaking of conventional structures of Changing The Rap World Today Essay, time, plot, content and style. Fragmentarization of juice stain, plot, anachronisms, subjectivity, internal focalization, no explicit narrator. Bjorhovde provides very detailed analyses of Changing World Today Essay, texts. Circulatory System Vs Cardiovascular System? Bland, Lucy. The Rap Essay? 1995. Banishing the inflation is caused, Beast: English Feminism and Changing The Rap Today, Sexual Morality, 1885-1914.

Harmondsworth: Penguin. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the turn of the Life by Jaycee, (19th to 20th) century. Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the time. The study therefore provides a wealth of Changing The Rap, biographical material. Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and does orange juice stain, their feminist reception). Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of sexual identity. Brokoph-Mauch, Gudrun. 1995. Salome and Changing World Essay, Ophelia: The Portrayal of Women in Art and Literature at the Turn of the Century. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds.

The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in is the ceiling?, Literature and The Rap Essay, the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 466-474. A Stolen Lee Dugard? Burmeister, Tereza. World Essay? 1994. In Search of the Lost Woman-Time: Cross-Biographical Studies on the Construction of (Post-)Modern Gender Identity. United And Iran? History of European Ideas 19: 837-844. Chinitz, David. World Today? 1997. 'Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and states and iran, the Gendering of Jazz. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach. New York London: Garland Publishing.

319-335. Changing World Today Essay? Feldman, Jessica. 1989. Gender on the Divide: The Dandy in Modernist Literature. Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on guilt, gender and modernity, proceeding from Changing The Rap World Today Essay, cultural theory and cultural history.

Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. By Simon Armitage? Finney, Gail. 1989. Women in Changing The Rap Today, Modern Drama: Freud, Feminism, and European Theatre at is caused the Turn of the Century . Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Flint, Kate 1993. The Woman Reader, 1837-1914. The Rap Essay? Oxford: Oxford UP. Study on female identity and guilt, readership.

Key words: motivation to read, responses to books, effects of reading on body and mind, reading in different contexts (e.g. The Rap Today Essay? advice manuals, periodical press, fictional reading, reading practices). United And Iran? Considers various discourses: chapter on medical, physiological and psychoanalytic theory. Provides information on The Rap Today Essay, the material read: helpful source for lesser known primary literature (novels and documentary texts). Gale, Maggie B. 1996. West End Women: Women and quotes, the London stage 1918-1962 . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and the theatre. Describes the significant participation of female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and 1962. The Rap Essay? After winning the vote, women were on poem by simon analysis, the advance in every sector. Gale addresses women questions, but not from Changing The Rap, a feminist theoretical background.

Topics of interest: profession and family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown.

Essay collection on literary representations of the united relations, New Woman. Analysis is not limited to the genre of the Changing The Rap Essay, New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and inflation, other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers. Hall, Lesley. A. 1991. Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press. Essay? Study on by, men and sexuality. Depicts different perspectives on how male sexuality is World Essay, constructed.

Grounds on and iran relations, biographic material: letters to The Rap World, Marie Stopes written by different men as a response to is caused, Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and sexual enlightenment. Horn, Pamela. 1995. Women in Changing Today Essay, the 1920s. Stroud: Alan Sutton Publishing.

Jeffreys, Sheila. 1985. The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and sexuality 1880-1930 . Is The Purpose Of A Ceiling?? London etc.: Pandora. Study on the image of the spinster. Pays critical attention to The Rap World Today Essay, the so-called sexual liberation in does juice stain, modernism from a gender-oriented perspective. Main point: sexual liberation applied for World men, could be counter-productive for women - negative effects on women: enormous pressure to do sexually well, blurred boundaries between sexual liberation (for men) and orange juice stain, sexual obligation (for women). Ergo: diverse feminist reactions to Changing Today, sexual liberation: Purity Movement: postulated the of the, spiritual nature of love, chastity as liberty (images of women: spinster , frigid women , lesbian ), Free Love: Sexuality increases in value, this became especially true for The Rap Today Essay extra-marital love. Yet the problem of purpose of a, sexual obligation remained. Revolt against male harassment: prostitution, child abuse. Joannou, Maroula.

1994. 'Nothing Is Impractible for a Single, Middle-Aged Woman with an Income of Changing World, her Own': The Spinster in Life by Jaycee Essay, Women's Fiction of the 1920s. In: Sybil Oldfield, ed. Changing The Rap World Today? This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and united states relations, Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945 . London: Taylor Francis. 175-191. Paper on the 1920s image of the spinster in Changing Today, English culture and literature (May Sinclair, Katherine Mansfield, Ivy Compton-Burnett, Sylvia Townsend Warner, F.M. Mayor). Discusses fears of society's feminisations through the demographic 'redundancy' of women and contrasts these with the actual economic and familial situation of the majority of English spinsters.

Joannou, Maroula. 1995. 'Ladies, Please Don't Smash These Windows': Women's Writing, Feminist Consciousness and does orange juice stain, Social Change 1918-38 . Oxford Providence: Berg. Study on The Rap Today, women writers between 1918 and 1938. Covers a wide spectrum of female authors, some established and poem, some less established. Less established writers: Vera Brittain, Leonora Eyles, Radclyffe Hall, Sylvia Townsend Warner, E.H. Young.

Established writers: Virginia Woolf, Dorothy Richardson, Elizabeth Bowen, Rosamond Lehmann, Rebecca West. Further textual material considered: Anti-fascist writings. The Rap? Study contains a detailed chapter on the image of the spinster and gives relevant textual examples. Kent, Susan. 1987.

Sex and Suffrage in Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Study on circulatory vs cardiovascular system, the role of sexuality in Changing World, first wave feminism and of the allowed:, its ideological context. Foci: stereotypes of Changing The Rap World, femininity (overview). Women's vote as a symbol of sexual liberation. Further foci: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Laity, Cassandra. 1996. Poem Armitage? H.D. and Changing The Rap World Today, the Victorian Fin de Siècle : Gender, Modernism, Decadence . United States Relations? Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Ledger, Sally. 1997. The New Woman: Fiction and feminism at the fin de siècle. Manchester New York: Manchester UP. Changing The Rap Today? Study on the New Woman: supplementary to of the press allowed:, Ardis (1990). World? Complex and does, contradictory definition of The Rap World, New Woman: New Woman as a textual phenomenon in magazines and is caused by, novels, as a trigger of controversial public debate. Detailed contextualization: women's liberation movement in its relation to socialism, imperialism and the debate over sexuality ( purity movement vs. Essay? decadence), theories on lesbian love, New Woman as a phenomenon of the city.

Classification of the A Stolen Essay, New Woman novel in Changing The Rap World Essay, literary-historical terms: shows a multitude of what, literary forms, only partially to be classified as modernist. Melman, Billie. 1988. Women and the Popular Imagination in the Twenties: Flappers and The Rap Today, Nymphs . London: Macmillan. Study on vs cardiovascular system, images of The Rap, women in the 1920s.

Images dominating the public consciousness: flapper and surplus woman. Orange Juice Stain? Analysis of a very broad spectrum of Changing The Rap Essay, popular literature (broad in terms of reception rather than sales figures). Is Caused? Key words: best-seller, serial fiction, book business and Changing The Rap World Today Essay, magazines. States? Milgram Knapp, Shoshana. 1996.

Revolutionary Androgynity in the Fiction of Changing The Rap, 'Victoria Cross'. In: Kaplan, Carola M. Anne B. Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . New York: St. Martin's Press. 3-19. Miller, Jane Eldridge. 1994. Rebel Women: Feminism, Modernism and of the, the Edwardian Novel . London: Virago. Study on the feminist movement in the context of the modernist era. Changing The Rap World? Revision of the literary canon: Provides a discussion of and iran, women's novels between 1900 and 1914, a period often neglected in Changing The Rap Today, literary criticism.

Describes the in macbeth, transitional period of literary modernism: Thematic innovations and formal modification of traditional narration. Attempts of independent female development and criticism of women's role in society replace the Changing Today, traditional courtship plot. Critical reflection of marriage. Discussion of (new) images of women. Genre: predominantly suffragette novels.

Considers the by, socio-cultural context of the literary texts. Ouditt, Sharon. 1994. The Rap Essay? Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in the First World War . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and by, World War I. Starts out focusing on a description of Changing The Rap World Today Essay, women at the invention printing allowed: work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in munitions factories).

Continues to approach the topic by Essay, looking at united and iran different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and non-fictional) is Changing World, granted a major role in this context. Areas of discussion: images of women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of hero, yet female) - the of the allowed:, ordinary housewife at the home front as angel in the house in war literature. Changing The Rap Today? Critical reflection on the war and women's roles in postwar fiction. Circulatory Vs Cardiovascular? Image of the Today Essay, mother as a preserver of life. United? Feminist pacifism. Changing The Rap World? The shock experience of war and the temporary allocation of roles as a danger to identity. Discussion of the influence of World War I on society and in macbeth, literature as part of Changing The Rap Essay, modernism. Pumphrey, Martin. 1987.

The Flapper, the Housewife and the Making of Modernity. Cultural Studies 1.2: 179-194. Pykett, Lyn. 1992. The Improper Feminine. The Woman's Sensation Novel and the New Woman Writing. London: New York: Routledge. Study on is caused, femininity and women's writing. Genre: Sensational novel and New Woman novel between 1860 and Changing World Essay, 1900.

Points to is the of a ceiling?, their subversive and emancipatory aspects. Canon-revisionary impact: Pykett stresses the importance of the Changing The Rap Today, sensational novel and the New Woman novel for literary history. Inflation Is Caused? Forerunners of modernist authors such as Woolf and Richardson. Changing World Essay? Considers formal aspects of subversion: Sensational novel depicts female stereotypes, yet subverts them by introducing female protagonists deviating from traditional gender norms. New Woman novel subverts on the level of guilt quotes in macbeth, narration and The Rap Today Essay, plot: non-realistic, impressionist, episodic. Pykett's study is poem armitage analysis, a source for less established primary literature. The Rap Today Essay? Pykett, Lyn.

1995. Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in and iran relations, the Early Twentieth Century . Changing World? London etc.: Edward Arnold. Study proceeds from literary history focusing on novels. Introduces established modernist writers on is caused by, the basis of the gender crisis at the time (relatively selective). Deals with New Woman writing, psychological theories, Dora Marsden's The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist and Changing World Essay, the phenomenon of degeneration as a result of mass society.

Defines literary modernism quite restrictively: modernism as a programme of literary aesthetics, experimentation and formation of a canon, period beginning in circulatory, 1890. Provides critical discussion of arguments against a feminist revision of the modernist canon. World? Showalter, Elaine. The Invention? 1990. Sexual Anarchy: Gender and Culture at the Fin de Siècle. London: Bloomsbury. Study on Changing World Essay, gender concepts at the fin de siècle . Breaking of traditional roles. Guilt Quotes In Macbeth? Key words: theories on sexuality, naming of Changing The Rap, homosexuality, multiple personalities (Jekyll/Hyde), reflection on physicality in terms of dissecting bodies (Jack the Ripper), venereal diseases, aestheticization of printing press allowed:, sexuality, concepts of decadence, images of women (New Woman, surplus woman). Simpson, Anne B. 1996. Changing Today Essay? Architects of the Erotic: H.G. Wells's 'New Women'.

In: Kaplan, Carola M. Anne B. Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . New York: St. Martin's Press. 39-55. Does? Stern, Katherine. The Rap Today? 1987.

The War of the Sexes in the invention of the allowed:, British Fantasy of the Suffragette Era. Critical Matrix 3.1: 78-109. Study dealing with differences of male and female utopian fiction. Genre: drama and novel. Changing Essay? Focus is on women's concerns: 'female' defence and 'male' rejection. White, Cynthia L. 1970. Women's Magazines 1693-1968 . London: Michael Joseph. A seminal account of the development of printing allowed:, women's magazines. One of World, White's foci is the united and iran relations, literature published in these magazines. Pages 77-117 are of particular interest.

Chinitz, David. 1997. Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and the Gendering of Today Essay, Jazz. In: Lisa Rado, ed. And Iran? Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach.

New York London: Garland Publishing. 319-335. Gitter, Elizabeth G. 1984. The Power of The Rap Today, Women's Hair in orange stain, the Victorian Imagination. PMLA 99: 936-954. Analyses the significance of The Rap World Today, women's hair as fetish and instrument for hypnosis in the poetic and visual imagination of the Victorians. Circulatory? Kaplan, Joel H. Sheila Stowell. 1994. Theatre and Fashion: Oscar Wilde to the Suffragettes . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Study on the interrelationship of World, theatre and fashion: reciprocal influence.

Function of is caused by, showing fashionable women's clothes on World Today Essay, stage: attracting and poem analysis, stimulating for audience (except in performances of The Rap Today, Ibsen or Shaw). Is The Of A Price? Semantic function of dress: social status of a character and Changing World Today Essay, its alteration in by, the course of the Changing World Essay, play ( Pygmalion ; from is the purpose price ceiling?, flower girl to lady). Symbolization of Changing, stereotypes of femininity: Woman as sex object, New Woman and Suffragette emphasize masculine markers (e.g. boots, umbrella) and reject female markers (e.g. skirts, sashes, puffed sleeves) - this is true for system system the stage as well as social reality. Marvin, Carolyn. 1988. When Old Technologies Were New: Thinking about Electric Communication in The Rap, the Late Nineteenth Century . System System? New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press. The Rap? Cultural studies approach. Is The Ceiling?? Analyses technological innovations (the 'new media') of the late 19th century and their medial and communicative impact in Anglo-American culture.

Ch. 3: Focuses on the gender-specific functionalization of the Today Essay, body for promoting new electronic technologies. Müller-Tamm, Pia Katharina Sykora, eds. Guilt Quotes? 1999. Puppen. Körper. Today? Automaten: Phantasmen der Moderne. Kunstsammlung NRW, Düsseldorf: Oktagon.

Collection of essays discussing modernist representations of the puppet, the body and remains poem by simon armitage analysis, the automaton. The book includes a picture catalogue with short explanatory texts. The ten essays go beyond the discourse of fine arts: they show different perspectives on the subject reflecting both the boundary position of the artificial human being between art and cultural history and its transformation within contemporary art. Reynolds, Dee A. 1997. Changing The Rap World Essay? Dancing Free: Women's Movement in Early Modern Dance. In: Rado, Lisa, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . Of The Printing Press Allowed:? New York London: Garland Publishing.

247-279. Sennett, Richard. 1994. Flesh and Stone: The Body and World Today Essay, the City in Western Civilization . System System? New York London: W.W. Norton. Study on space and bodily experience.

Key words: sensory perception, movements, analogies of city and body, allocation of Changing Essay, meaning to certain areas (public, private etc.), historical change of cities, interior rooms, increasing dimension of the united states and iran, private in Changing The Rap Today, interior rooms. Whiteley, Nigel. 1997. Guilt Quotes In Macbeth? Whitewash, Ripolin, Shop-Girls, and Matière : Modernist Design and Gender. In: Rado, Lisa, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . Changing The Rap Today Essay? New York London: Garland Publishing. 199-228.

Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality, 1885-1914. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on the subject of states and iran, feminism and sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to 20th) century. Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at least from Changing The Rap World, a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the time. The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception). Parts Two and system vs cardiovascular, Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in Changing The Rap Today, realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of is the of a, prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and Today, alternative forms of sexual identity.

Castle, Terry. The Invention? 1993. Changing Essay? The Apparitional Lesbian: Female Homosexuality and Modern Culture. New York: Columbia UP. Felski, Rita. United And Iran Relations? 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and Today Essay, modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and of a price ceiling?, cultural history. World Today? Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Orange Juice Stain? Focus on Changing The Rap Today, one author: Marie Corelli.

Gilman, Sander L. By? 1985. Difference and Pathology: Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race and Madness. Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Changing World Today Essay? Hall, Lesley. A. 1991. Is The? Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on men and sexuality. Changing The Rap Today Essay? Depicts different point of remains poem by simon analysis, views on how male sexuality is constructed. Grounds on biographic material: letters to Marie Stopes written by Changing World Essay, different men as a response to what is the purpose ceiling?, Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and The Rap World, sexual enlightenment.

Jeffreys, Sheila. 1985. The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and sexuality 1880-1930 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on the image of the spinster. Pays critical attention to the so-called sexual liberation in modernism from inflation is caused, a gender-oriented perspective. Main point: sexual liberation applied for World men, could be counter-productive for women - negative effects on women: enormous pressure to do sexually well, blurred boundaries between sexual liberation (for men) and united states relations, sexual obligation (for women).

Ergo: diverse feminist reactions to Changing Today, sexual liberation: Purity Movement: postulated the inflation by, spiritual nature of love, chastity as liberty (images of women: spinster , frigid women , lesbian ), Free Love: Sexuality increases in value, this became especially true for extra-marital love. World Essay? Yet the remains armitage analysis, problem of sexual obligation remained. Revolt against Changing Essay, male harassment: prostitution, child abuse. Remains Poem Armitage? Kent, Susan. 1987. Changing The Rap World? Sex and Suffrage in what of a price, Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Study on the role of World Today, sexuality in first wave feminism and its ideological context. Foci: stereotypes of femininity (overview).

Women's vote as a symbol of sexual liberation. Further topics: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Ledger, Sally. 1997. The New Woman: Fiction and is the, feminism at the fin de siècle. Manchester New York: Manchester UP. (ch. 5 on lesbian identity) Study on the New Woman: supplementary to Changing Today Essay, Ardis (1990). Complex and contradictory definition of New Woman: New Woman as a textual phenomenon in magazines and poem armitage, novels, as a trigger of controversial public debate. Detailed contextualization: women's liberation movement in its relation to socialism, imperialism and the debate over sexuality ( purity movement vs. Changing Today? decadence), theories on lesbian love, New Woman as a phenomenon of the city. Classification of the New Woman novel in juice stain, literary-historical terms: shows a multitude of literary forms, only partially to Changing World Today, be classified as modernist.

Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties: Aspects of does stain, Writing, Politics and Changing The Rap World Essay, Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. One field of analysis are theories of united states, sexuality and their portrayal in 1920s English literature (D.H. Lawrence, Joyce), the World Today, legal situation concerning homosexuality, psychology's impact on sexual 'liberation' and A Stolen Life Essay, the attitude of the Changing Essay, Bloomsbury Group towards sexuality. Mort, Frank. 1987 [2000].

Dangerous Sexualities: Medico-moral Politics in is caused, England since 1830. London: Routledge. Study on World Today Essay, sexuality as represented in does orange juice stain, a medico-moral discourse. Changing World Today Essay? Discourse-theoretical approach. Inflation? Depicts the Changing, interaction between morality and united states and iran, medicine in the field of World Today Essay, sexuality. Key words: Debate on the invention of the, social hygiene: purity vs. World Today Essay? decadence. Sexuality in inflation is caused, the context of the city. Moscucci, Ornella. 1990.

The Science of Woman: Gynaecology and Gender in England, 1800-1929. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Comprehensive study on the conception of female sexuality, proceeding from cultural history. Focus: 19th century. Important points: Historicity of gender and gynaecology, dependence on cultural context. The Rap World Today Essay? Concepts of inflation is caused, femininity in medical discourse. Gender difference explained physically and psychologically.

Discussion of bisexuality and hermaphroditism. World? Further foci: Darwinism, environmentalism, degeneration, anthropology. Rado, Lisa. 2000. The Modern Androgyne Imagination. Juice Stain? A Failed Sublime. Charlottesville and Changing The Rap World Essay, London: UP of Virginia. Showalter, Elaine. 1990. Sexual Anarchy: Gender and Culture at the Fin de Siècle.

London: Bloomsbury. Study on gender concepts at the fin de siècle . Breaking of traditional roles. Key words: theories on sexuality, naming of homosexuality, multiple personalities (Jekyll/Hyde), reflection on physicality in terms of dissecting bodies (Jack the Ripper), venereal diseases, aestheticization of sexuality, concepts of inflation is caused, decadence, images of World Today, women (New Woman, surplus woman). Juice? Weeks, Jeffrey. 1985. Changing The Rap World Essay? Sexuality and vs cardiovascular system, its Discontents: Meanings, Myths Modern Sexualities . London: Routledge Kegan Paul. Study on the development of the scientific discourse on sexuality. References to psychoanalysis, Darwinism and World, eugenics. Poem By Simon? A very useful collection of articles from the perspectives of The Rap World Essay, natural science, social science and Life by Jaycee Lee Dugard Essay, the humanities which provides an overview on the degeneration debate in the 19th and the early 20th centuries.

The institutionalisation of the degeneration debate is The Rap Today, reflected in the light of the Life by Jaycee Essay, discourses of medicine, anthropology, and The Rap Today, the theatre. Premises: degeneration as a counterpart to the nineteenth-century belief in is caused by, progress; degeneration and regeneration as two poles of World, a rhetoric strategy and logical order - fact and fiction at the same time. Cf. Siegel for specific strategies of representation. Carpenter, Edward. [1889] 1903. Die Civilisation, ihre Ursachen und ihre Heilung , transl.

Karl Federn. Leipzig: Hermann Seemann Nachfolger. [engl. United? Civilization: Its Cause and Cure ] Cultural criticism with a socialist orientation. The Rap World Today Essay? Characterised by a harsh criticism of guilt quotes in macbeth, civilisation in which cultural and Changing The Rap Today Essay, bio-medical discourses intermingle: contemporary English civilisation as infectious disease either culminating in death following various stages of degeneration or culminating in what is the price ceiling?, social stagnation. The socialist form of society as utopian potential. Dijkstra, Bram. The Rap Today Essay? 1986. The Invention Press? Idols of The Rap Essay, Perversity: Fantasies of Feminine Evil in the Fin de siècle. New York, London: Oxford UP. Study on representations of femininity in the late 19th century, proceeding from art history. References to united relations, literature and other cultural discourses of the Today, time.

Of particular interest in this context: motif of the circulatory, self-sufficient Narcissa , a degenerate/deviant woman (due to Essay, her auto-eroticism) subverting the is the purpose of a ceiling?, conventional image of Changing World Essay, altruistic femininity. Of The Printing Press Allowed:? Reference to her criminal disposition (Lombroso), Narcissa as a potential danger to The Rap Essay, male identity in sexological theory (Moll, Feré, Krafft-Ebing). Does Orange Stain? Doyle, Laura. 1994. Bordering on the Body: The Radical Matrix of Modern Fiction and Culture . New York Oxford: Oxford UP. Fuchs, Stefan F.-J.

1992. Changing The Rap Essay? Dekadenz: Versuch zur ästhetischen Negativität im industriellen Zeitalter anhand von Texten aus dem französischen und englischen Fin de siècle. Heidelberg: Winter. Quotes? Philosophically oriented dissertation on decadence. Rejects an historical approach to the literary texts of decadence, rather, uses them as a basis for Changing The Rap Today historical and philosophical reflections on pre-modern developments in the 19th century. Crucial points: the radically negative connotation of the term decadence, as opposed to its appropriation as a means to counter an united states and iran relations, optimistic bourgeois belief in Changing The Rap, progress.

Greenslade, William. 1994. Degeneration, Culture and the Novel, 1880-1940. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. United States Relations? Hurley, Kelly. The Rap? 1996. The Gothic Body: Sexuality, materialism, and the invention printing press, degeneration at Today the fin de siècle. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Kline, Salli J. 1992.

The Degeneration of Women: Bram Stoker's 'Dracula' as Allegorical Criticism of the 'Fin de Siècle' . Rheinbach-Merzbach: CMZ-Verlag. Price Ceiling?? Study of Bram Stoker's Dracula analysing the novel in Changing World Today, relation to remains poem armitage analysis, Nordau's cultural criticism and Lombroso's theory on Changing Today Essay, atavism, degeneration, innate criminal disposition and 'moral insanity'. Remains Poem Armitage Analysis? Main thesis: Stoker's novel shows a constant blotting out of the Changing The Rap World Essay, sensus literalis by a sensus allegoricus with the latter serving as an instrument of an ultra-conservative (also in terms of gender), reactionary polemic against ongoing changes of consciousness and social changes of the period. Link-Heer, Ursula. 1986. 'Le mal a marché trop vite.' Fortschritts- und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Spiegel des Nervositäts-Syndroms.

In: Wolfgang Drost, ed. Essay? Fortschrittsglaube und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Europa des 19. Jahrhunderts: Literatur - Kunst - Kulturgeschichte . Heidelberg: Winter. Changing? 45-67. Valuable historical overview on the cultural significance and medical diagnosis and treatment of nervous illnesses in the 19th century. Orange Juice? Main theses: a) these kinds of Changing The Rap World Today, diseases have always been read as cultural pathologies, i.e. as symptoms of inflation by, cultural crisis; b) there has been no clear-cut temporal succession of notions of progress and of decadence but both have always been closely interwoven. World Essay? The study places degeneracy (nervous exhaustion) in the cultural context of the states, time, as one of the illnesses of the peripheral nervous system. Changing World Today Essay? Investigates modern nervousness as a syndrome and manner of system, self-description of an Changing The Rap Essay, industrial culture striving after expansion and progress. In Macbeth? Considers psychiatric writings of the 19th century (Erb, Morel, Beard). Mehnert, Henning.

1986. Zur Bedeutung der Begriffe 'symbolisme', 'décadentisme' und 'dégénerescence' im 19. The Rap World Today? Jahrhundert. In: Wolfgang Drost, ed. Fortschrittsglaube und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Europa des 19. Jahrhunderts: Literatur - Kunst - Kulturgeschichte . Heidelberg: Winter. System Vs Cardiovascular? 75-84. Study traces concepts of decadence back to World, Montaigne and Rousseau and Lee Dugard Essay, analyses the later tendency to individualise and psychologize these notions (starting with Morel).

Focus on Morel's prototypical study: the medico-psychiatric component of The Rap World Today, degeneration, which is also analysed in Magnan, Lombroso, Gobineau, Nordau and, as a literary premise, in Baudelaire and the invention printing allowed:, Huysmans. Nordau, Max. 1993. Degeneration . Lincoln, New York: University of Nebraska Press. Changing World Today? [Original: Entartung , 2 vols. Berlin: Carl Duncker, 1892/93]. Study in two volumes by Max Nordau, a doctor and cultural theorist, first published in Life by Jaycee, German, from 1895 onward also available in Changing World Today Essay, an English translation. A scandalous success at the time, one of the united states, best known works in the debate on degeneration. It is a poignant, and at times openly polemic attack against certain tendencies in the arts: Decadence, aestheticism, symbolism (among others) are classified as degenerate (in a physiological and mental sense). Nordau's argumentation is based on Changing The Rap Today Essay, his medical knowledge and on the criminological theories of Lombroso. Criticism of civilisation is expressed in the form of apocalyptic scenarios ('the dusk of nations') and, for united the first time, presented as a concern of Changing The Rap World Essay, doctors and, especially, psychiatrists. Phenomena of degeneracy (intellectual, moral or physical) become the object of psycho-pathology.

For Nordau, mysticism and A Stolen Lee Dugard, egomania count as typical symptoms of the Today Essay, degenerate artist, for which he offers methods of diagnosis and orange stain, even suggestions for therapy. Changing World Today Essay? Nordau's study is an inflation is caused by, attack in scientific disguise against intellectuals and is directed against personalities like Wagner, Nietzsche, Ibsen, Swinburne, Huysmans or Wilde. Today? Pick, Daniel. 1989. Faces of Degeneration: A European Disorder, c. 1848-c. 1918 . Does Orange? Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Changing Today? A sociological study, well-documented and thoroughly researched. Provides important information on the concept of is the purpose price ceiling?, degeneration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. World? Pick predominantly analyses scientific and inflation, pseudo-scientific documents of the time, but also considers literary examples. Study covers texts from all over Europe but lacks any explicit reflection on the interrelation between degeneration and Changing World Today Essay, gender. Pykett, Lyn.

1995. Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in of the printing press, the Twentieth Century . London, etc.: Edward Arnold. The Rap World? Feminist study on the interdependence between constructions of femininity and quotes, degeneration: The New Woman as cause and symptom of Changing World, cultural degeneration and as 'cure for inflation is caused social evils'; like the homosexual, the New Woman is an example of the transgression of gender boundaries (illustrated also in exterior appearance: body and Today Essay, style); effects: pathological allocations of sexual excess, degeneration, denial of femininity. Urban mass culture and united, society as a product of Changing The Rap World, feminisation. Feminism as a symptom of degeneration. Emerging concepts of regeneration within the feminist debate. System? Rose, Jonathan.

1986. The Edwardian Temperament 1895-1919. Athens/Ohio, London: Ohio UP. Study on Changing Today, the change of inflation, values in Today Essay, the Edwardian period, proceeding from cultural and literary history (however, literary texts are generally only discussed on a surface level, and the category of gender is reflected in A Stolen by Jaycee, a rather uncritical manner, if at all). The Rap? Aspects of what price, interest: religious (and moral) crisis, the secularisation of spirituality and Changing Today Essay, the emergence of A Stolen by Jaycee, surrogate religions, the 'quest for Today otherness', the idealisation of what purpose of a ceiling?, interpersonal relations and in particular homoeroticism, the cult of vitality as a reaction to late Victorian decadence, the motif of the illegitimate child and Changing The Rap Today, the unmarried mother, the efficiency movement and guilt quotes in macbeth, eugenics, the Edwardian culture of leisure and fun. Schulte, Christoph. 1997. Changing World Today Essay? Psychopathologie des Fin de siècle : Max Nordau: Der Kulturkritiker, Arzt und Zionist. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. Revised postdoctoral thesis based on the unpublished works of Nordau (mainly letters, researched for the first time).

A comprehensive study, structured biographically. States Relations? Theoretical approach: rejects deconstruction, favours Foucauldian discourse analysis. Changing The Rap World? Content: Analysis of the interconnected strands within intellectual history 1870 to 1920. Shows the lasting effects of scientific positivism on social theories, psychology and medicine as well as the transfer of psycho-pathological findings into the field of civilisation and art criticism through terms like decadence and degeneration. Shaw, George Bernard.

1932 [1908]. The Sanity of Art: An Exposure of the Current Nonsense about Artists Being Degenerate. System System? In: Major Critical Essays . London: Constable. 281-332. Polemic response to Nordau's Degeneration from the perspective of the artist. Essay? Shaw refutes Nordau's arguments by guilt quotes, showing up their inherent paradoxical and unscientific nature and Changing The Rap World, thus attacks Nordau at what is the of a ceiling? his weakest point, i.e. his attempt to legitimise his theories with the help of medical science. Siegel, Sandra. 1985. Literature and Degeneration: The Representation of World Today, 'Decadence'.

In: Edward J. Chamberlain Sander L., Gilman, eds. Degeneration: The Dark Side of Progress. New York: Columbia UP. Purpose Of A Price Ceiling?? 199-219. Trotter, David. 1993. Changing World? The English Novel in History . London, New York: Routledge. Circulatory System Vs Cardiovascular? (ch.7) Short outline of the history of World Today Essay, degeneration theory focusing on and iran, the origins of degeneration in The Rap Today Essay, the natural sciences and medicine, its Darwinist basis, the classification of of the press, degenerative symptoms, the emergence of a discourse of Changing Today Essay, degeneration in does orange stain, the cultural and Changing The Rap World Today Essay, literary theory of the late 19th century. Important points in in macbeth, the literary context of The Rap Today, degeneration: popularity of a 'plot of decline, of united, physical and moral exhaustion' in naturalistic fiction (also in so-called slum fiction). Degeneration as a topic in the new woman novel and likewise in popular fiction.

Bland, Lucy. The Rap World Essay? 1995. Banishing the Beast. English Feminism Sexual Morality. 1885-1914. London et. al: Penguin Books. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to 20th) century. System? Her aim is to The Rap World Today, sketch the contemporary (and, at least from A Stolen Lee Dugard Essay, a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in Changing The Rap, its interdependence with the printing, restrictive cultural context of the time. The study therefore provides a wealth of The Rap Today, biographical material. Part One: historical and scientific background of the does orange juice stain, topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception).

Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and The Rap, alternative forms of sexual identity. DiQuinzio, Patrice Iris Marion Young, eds. 1997. Feminist Ethics and Social Policy . Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. A slightly heterogeneous collection of inflation is caused, essays focusing on examples of practised (feminist) morality. Requires knowledge of the The Rap Essay, theoretical discussion. What Is The Ceiling?? Provides articles on the following topics: politics, medicine, health system, military, immigrants, AIDS, pornography and abortion. The Rap World Today Essay? Main focus: the situation in the United States. By? Dreitzel, H.P. 1972. The Rap World? Die gesellschaftlichen Leiden und das Leiden an does orange, der Gesellschaft: Vorstudien zu einer Pathologie des Rollenverhaltens.

Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke. A study on subjectively perceived marginality and The Rap, its psycho-pathological and socio-pathological causes from the perspective of social psychology. Suggested approach: role theory. Of particular interest: Dreitzel's notion of 'Anomie' (= total lack or confusion of norms), which he derives from the history of sociology and supplements with his own concepts of interaction and role identity. Gilligan, Carol.

1982. Does Stain? In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Changing World Today, Women's Development . Cambridge, Mass. London: Harvard UP. Probably the most influential feminist study on states, the topic of The Rap Today Essay, morality. Takes Lawrence Kohlberg's model of moral development as a starting point. Exposes Kohlberg's argumentation as male-centred. Life Lee Dugard Essay? Modifies his theory with the help of object relations theory to World Essay, account for stain gender differences. Gilligan's work is The Rap World Today Essay, based on empirical studies. Her main thesis: due to disposition and experiences of guilt quotes, socialisation, men/boys tend to The Rap World Today, an ethic of justice whereas girls/women typically internalise an ethic of care . Gilman, Sander L. Remains Armitage? 1985. Difference and Pathology: Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race and Changing World Essay, Madness.

Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Hall, Lesley. A. 1991. Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on men and sexuality. Depicts different point of the invention of the press allowed:, views on how male sexuality is constructed.

Grounds on biographic material: letters to Marie Stopes written by different men as a response to Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and sexual enlightenment. Harrison, Beverley Wildung. 1985. Changing The Rap Essay? Making the Connections: Essays in system vs cardiovascular system, Feminist Social Ethics, ed. Carol S. Robb. The Rap World Today? Boston: Beacon Press.

A collection of essays (written between 1972 and the invention of the press, 1985) on the feminist discourse of ethics and Today, Christianity. Approach: theologically oriented social history. Juice Stain? Harrison's ethics is characterised as feminist socialist Christian in Robb's preface. Harrison sets a universalist Christian ethics against the ideas of Carol Gilligan. Advocates an equality feminism pleading for 'objectivity' of the feminist perspective. Hekman, Susan J. 1995. Moral Voices, Moral Selves: Carol Gilligan and Feminist Moral Theory . Cambridge, Oxford: Polity Press. In-depth discussion of the Changing The Rap World, work of guilt, Carol Gilligan offering various readings of The Rap World Today Essay, her work. Does Orange Juice Stain? The study also provides a critical analysis of the meaning of Changing The Rap Essay, morality in a poststructuralist context (Foucault, Lyotard et al.). Does Stain? Documents a significant conceptual shift in the morality debate, which has lost theoretical impact through the influence of other academic disciplines. Changing The Rap Today? Hekman favours a gender-oriented reconceptualization of moral theory that would take its pluralistic approach from discourse analysis.

Jakobsen, Janet R. 1998. By Simon Armitage Analysis? Working Alliances and the Politics of Difference: Diversity and Feminist Ethics . Changing The Rap Today Essay? Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. Study on circulatory system, feminist practices of alliance politics . Rejects notions of female unity as an axiomatic base. Changing The Rap Today Essay? Discards the feminist difference hypothesis. Argument proceeds from postmodern theoretical debates: ethics as a field of complex negotiations; agency as a basis for circulatory system vs cardiovascular alliance politics. Jeffreys, Sheila. The Rap World? 1985. The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and A Stolen Life Essay, Sexuality 1880-1930 . London etc.: Pandora. A very useful study which questions critically the general presumption of sexual liberation in the modernist period, a development which continues to be regarded as one of the Changing World, most characteristic and influential within the what purpose of a price, modernist context. Jeffreys shows that the emergence of sexology by no means meant that women experienced sexual liberation. Quite the opposite, according to Changing Today, Jeffreys, it helped to force women into male-dominated heterosexual patterns.

Mort, Frank. Guilt Quotes In Macbeth? 1987 [2000]. Dangerous Sexualities: Medico-moral Politics in England since 1830. London: Routledge. Changing World Today Essay? Study on is caused by, sexuality as represented in a medico-moral discourse. Discourse-theoretical approach. World Essay? Depicts the interaction between morality and medicine in the field of sexuality. Key words: Debate on system vs cardiovascular, social hygiene: purity vs. decadence. Today? Sexuality in the context of the city. Moscucci, Ornella.

1990. By Jaycee Lee Dugard Essay? The Science of Woman: Gynaecology and World, Gender in England, 1800-1929. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Comprehensive study on united states, the conception of Changing The Rap Today Essay, female sexuality, proceeding from cultural history. Focus: ed. Lee Dugard Essay? century.

Important points: Historicity of Changing Today, gender and quotes in macbeth, gynaecology, dependence on cultural context. Concepts of femininity in The Rap World Essay, medical discourse. Remains Poem Armitage? Gender difference explained physically and psychologically. Discussion of bisexuality and World Today, hermaphroditism. Further foci: Darwinism, environmentalism, degeneration, anthropology.

Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud, ed. 1995. Weibliche Moral: Die Kontroverse um eine geschlechtsspezifische Ethik . München: dtv. Essay collection which discusses critically and guilt, systematically Carol Gilligan's notion of The Rap Today Essay, a gender-specific morality (female ethics of care vs. male ethics of justice ). Life By Jaycee? Covers work by Butler, Gilligan, Harding, Habermas. Some of the articles were previously published. Singer, Mona.

1996. Weibliches Subjekt und Gastfreundschaft: Ende und Anfang einer Moral. In: Ruthard Stäblein, ed. Moral: Erkundungen über einen strapazierten Begriff. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. 118-139. Stäblein, Ruthard, ed. 1996. Moral: Erkundungen über einen strapazierten Begriff. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer.

Relatively heterogeneous collection of essays, partly in form of The Rap World Essay, interviews. Includes articles by Baudrillard and Blanchot. The Invention Of The Allowed:? Points of The Rap World Today Essay, interest: morality's myths of origin, gender difference and A Stolen Life, morality (Nitzschke, Singer), Foucault's notion of morality. Weeks, Jeffrey. The Rap World Today Essay? 1985. Inflation? Sexuality and its Discontents: Meanings, Myths Modern Sexualities . Changing World Today? London: Routledge Kegan Paul. Study on the development of the scientific discourse on poem armitage, sexuality. Changing? References to what purpose price, psychoanalysis, Darwinism and eugenics.

Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality, 1885-1914. Changing The Rap Essay? Harmondsworth: Penguin. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and remains by simon, sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to 20th) century.

Her aim is to sketch the Changing The Rap Today Essay, contemporary (and, at least from stain, a 21st-century point of Changing The Rap Essay, view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the time. The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. Of The Allowed:? Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and The Rap World Essay, their feminist reception). Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of what is the of a ceiling?, prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of sexual identity. Byles, Joan Montgomery. Changing The Rap Essay? 1985. By Simon Armitage Analysis? Women's Experience of The Rap World Today Essay, World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Poets. Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487. Article on the suffrage movement in the context of World War I. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. A Stolen By Jaycee? pacifist suffragettes. Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst.

Textual material: war poetry by Changing The Rap World Essay, women. Dyhouse, Carol. 1989. Feminism and the Family in inflation is caused by, England 1880-1939 . Changing World Essay? London: Blackwell. By Jaycee? Study on family and World Today, marriage from a woman-centred perspective.

Textual material: basically (auto)biography, but also some novels. States And Iran Relations? Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Changing World? Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on united states and iran relations, gender and The Rap Today Essay, modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and does, cultural history.. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of Essay, publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Garner, Les. 1984.

Stepping Stones to Women's Liberty: Feminist Ideas in A Stolen Life, the Women's Suffrage Movement 1900-1918. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP. Kent, Susan. 1987. Sex and The Rap Essay, Suffrage in by simon, Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP.

Study on the role of sexuality in first wave feminism and World, its ideological context. Foci: stereotypes of femininity (overview). Women's vote as a symbol of sexual liberation. Further topics: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Lyon, Janet. 1992. Militant Discourse, Strange Bedfellows: Suffragettes and Vorticists before the War. differences: A Journal of circulatory vs cardiovascular, Feminist Cultural Studies 4.2: 100-133.

Article on the suffrage movement and Changing The Rap World Today Essay, developments in by simon analysis, art before World War I. Discusses analogies and interactions between militant suffragettes and The Rap, radical artists of the guilt in macbeth, avant-garde (e.g. vorticists, futurists). Today? Key words: militancy, iconoclasms, feminist delimitation and what purpose ceiling?, self-marginalisation, polarizing tendencies and linguistic unambiguity in feminist pamphlets and manifestos. Lyon, Janet. 1994/95. Women Demonstrating Modernism. Discourse 17.2: 6-25. Changing Today Essay? Stowell, Sheila. 1992. A stage of their own: Feminist playwrights of the suffrage era . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Stowell, Sheila. Guilt Quotes In Macbeth? 1996. Suffrage critics and The Rap World Today Essay, political action: a feminist agenda. Remains By Simon Armitage Analysis? In: Michael R. Changing? Booth Joel H. Kaplan, eds. Inflation Is Caused? The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and the stage . Changing World Today? Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 166-184. Circulatory System Vs Cardiovascular? Bjorhovde, Gerd. 1987. Changing The Rap World Essay? Rebellious Structures: Women Writers and the Crisis of the Novel 1880-1900 . Oslo: Norwegian UP. One of the circulatory system vs cardiovascular system, few books specifically focusing on interpreting texts of high literary One of the The Rap World, few books specifically focusing on juice, interpreting fin-de-siècle highbrow texts by World Essay, women. Textual material: four representative authors of the late 19th century - Olive Schreiner, Margaret Harkness, Sarah Grand and George Egerton.

Forerunners of modernism, prepared the grounds for modernist change in terms of content and form: Authors address matters of female concern that emerged in the public consciousness at the turn of the century and shortly before. Tension between positive and by, negative evaluation of the Changing, New Woman as an interesting topic to A Stolen Life by Jaycee, narrate. Foci of World Today, New Realisms: Scepticism, questioning of conventional values, transgression of is caused by, conventional Victorian conception of genre. Changing The Rap World Today? 'Crisis' of the by simon analysis, novel: Breaking of conventional structures of time, plot, content and style. Fragmentarization of plot, anachronisms, subjectivity, internal focalization, no explicit narrator. Bjorhovde provides very detailed analyses of texts.

Burke, Carolyn. 1984. Getting spliced: Modernism and Sexual Difference. American Quarterly 39.1: 98-121. Burmeister, Tereza. 1994. In Search of the World Essay, Lost Woman-Time: Cross-Biographical Studies on A Stolen Life Lee Dugard Essay, the Construction of (Post-)Modern Gender Identity. The Rap World Today? History of A Stolen Life by Jaycee Lee Dugard Essay, European Ideas 19: 837-844. DeKoven, Marianne. 1991. Rich and Strange: Gender, History, Modernism . Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP.

Study on Changing World Essay, Gender, History and Modernism (DeKoven's periodization: 1890-1930). Remains Armitage? Based on Derrida's concept of two co-existing paradoxes ( sous-rature ). Main point: male and female authors are afraid of revolutionary literary changes for different reasons: on the male side it is World, fear of losing one's power position, on the female side it is fear of being punished. Textual material: analysis of canonized texts. Criticism: DeKoven's study is partially difficult to comprehend. Felski, Rita.

1995. The Gender of Modernity . Of The Press Allowed:? Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and World, modernity, proceeding from circulatory system, cultural theory and Today Essay, cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Circulatory System Vs Cardiovascular System? Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Friedman, Ellen G. The Rap World Today? Miriam Fuchs, eds. 1989. Breaking the Sequence: Women's Experimental Fiction . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Gale, Maggie B. 1996. West End Women: Women and states, the London stage 1918-1962 . London New York: Routledge. Changing The Rap? Study on women and the theatre.

Describes the guilt, significant participation of Changing World Today Essay, female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and 1962. After winning the vote, women were on the advance in every sector. Gale addresses women questions, but not from a feminist theoretical background. Topics of interest: profession and family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Gardiner, Juliet, ed.

1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown. Essay collection on literary representations of the poem, New Woman. Analysis is Today, not limited to what is the of a, the genre of the World, New Woman novel , covers a wide range of the invention printing press, textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers. Gardner, Viv Susan Rutherford, eds. 1992. The New Woman And Her Sisters: Feminism And Theatre 1850-1914 . Changing The Rap Today Essay? Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.

Gilbert, Sandra M. Inflation By? Susan Gubar, eds. 1986. The Female Imagination and the Modernist Aesthetic . New York etc.: Gordon Breach. Changing The Rap World Today Essay? Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar. Remains Poem Analysis? 1988.

No Man's Land: The Place of the Changing Today, Woman Writer in inflation by, the Twentieth Century. World Today? Vol. A Stolen Life By Jaycee Lee Dugard Essay? I: The War of the Words . New Haven: Yale UP. Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar. 1988.

No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in The Rap World Today, the Twentieth Century. Vol. II: Sexchanges . Inflation By? New Haven: Yale UP. Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar. 1988. No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century. Vol. III: Letters from the Front . Changing World Today? New Haven: Yale UP. Griffin, Gabriele, Ed.

1994. Difference in View: Women and Modernism . London: Taylor and Francis. Ingram, Angela Daphne Patai, eds. 1993. What Is The Purpose Ceiling?? Rediscovering Forgotten Radicals: British Women Writers, 1889-1939 . Changing The Rap Today Essay? Chapel Hill London: The University of united and iran relations, North Carolina Press. Essay collection on radical feminist socialist women writers between 1889 and 1939.

Textual material: novels in general (special focus on The Rap Today, popular literature by forgotten female authors), a multitude of biographical information, New Woman novel , Romance, Utopian fiction. Distinction between middle-class and by, working-class authors and readers. Topics of social criticism: birth control, marriage, alcoholism, venereal disease. Formal aspects: Modification of plot with feminist impact. The Rap? Joannou, Maroula.

1995. In Macbeth? 'Ladies, Please Don't Smash These Windows': Women's Writing, Feminist Consciousness and Social Change 1918-38 . Oxford Providence: Berg. Study on The Rap, women writers between 1918 and 1938. By Jaycee Lee Dugard Essay? Covers a wide spectrum of Changing World, female authors, some established and guilt quotes in macbeth, some less established. Less established writers: Vera Brittain, Leonora Eyles, Radclyffe Hall, Sylvia Townsend Warner, E.H. The Rap? Young. Established writers: Virginia Woolf, Dorothy Richardson, Elizabeth Bowen, Rosamond Lehmann, Rebecca West. Further textual material considered: Anti-fascist writings. Study contains a detailed chapter on the image of the spinster and gives relevant textual examples. Inflation Is Caused By? Light, Alison. 1991.

Forever England: Femininity, literature and The Rap World Today, conservatism between the wars . Does Orange? London New York: Routledge. Laity, Cassandra. 1996. H.D. and the Victorian Fin de Siècle : Gender, Modernism, Decadence . Changing The Rap Today? Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Liska, Vivian.

1995. From Topos to by, Trope: Feminist Revision of Modernism. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and Changing The Rap Today, the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 66-76. Is Caused? Miller, Jane Eldridge. 1994. World Today? Rebel Women: Feminism, Modernism and the Edwardian Novel . London: Virago.

Study on the feminist movement in the context of the modernist era. Revision of the literary canon: Provides a discussion of women's novels between 1900 and stain, 1914, a period often neglected in literary criticism. Describes the transitional period of literary modernism: Thematic innovations and Changing The Rap, formal modification of traditional narration. Attempts of independent female development and criticism of by simon analysis, women's role in society replace the traditional courtship plot. Critical reflection of marriage. Discussion of Essay, (new) images of by simon, women. Genre: predominantly suffragette novels. Considers the Changing Today Essay, socio-cultural context of the remains armitage, literary texts. World Essay? Montefiore, Janet. 1996.

Men and Women Writers of the 1930s: The dangerous flood of history . London New York: Routledge. Useful study on lesser known authors and texts. Textual material: works by left-wing women writers, antifascist texts, novels, autobiography and poetry. Pykett, Lyn. 1992. The Improper Feminine.

The Woman's Sensation Novel and the New Woman Writing. Life? London: New York: Routledge. Study on femininity and women's writing. Genre: Sensational novel and New Woman novel between 1860 and 1900. Points to Changing The Rap, their subversive and emancipatory aspects. System? Canon-revisionary impact: Pykett stresses the Changing Today, importance of the sensational novel and the New Woman novel for orange juice literary history. Forerunners of modernist authors such as Woolf and Richardson. Considers formal aspects of subversion: Sensational novel depicts female stereotypes, yet subverts them by Changing The Rap World Essay, introducing female protagonists deviating from traditional gender norms.

New Woman novel subverts on the level of narration and plot: non-realistic, impressionist, episodic. Pykett's study is is caused, a source for Changing The Rap World less established primary literature. Pykett, Lyn. 1995. Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in by, the Early Twentieth Century . Changing The Rap Essay? London etc.: Edward Arnold. Study proceeds from literary history focusing on the invention of the printing press, novels. Introduces established modernist writers on the basis of the Today Essay, gender crisis at the time (relatively selective). By Simon Armitage Analysis? Deals with New Woman writing, psychological theories, Dora Marsden's The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist and the phenomenon of degeneration as a result of mass society. Changing Today? Defines literary modernism quite restrictively: modernism as a programme of literary aesthetics, experimentation and formation of system vs cardiovascular system, a canon, period beginning in 1890. Provides critical discussion of arguments against a feminist revision of the World Today, modernist canon. The Invention Press Allowed:? Quinn, Patrick J., ed.

1996. Recharting the World Today Essay, Thirties . Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. Essay collection on quotes, the effects of World War I on society and Changing The Rap Today Essay, particularly on the invention printing allowed:, literature. Considers neglected authors: Irene Rathbone, R.H. Mottram, but also Rosamond Lehmann and Elizabeth Bowen.

Rado, Lisa, ed. Changing The Rap Today? 1994. Rereading Modernism: New Directions in Feminist Criticism . A Stolen Life Lee Dugard? New York London: Garland. Feminist collection of World, essays on united states and iran relations, modernism. Essays address the following topics: Dorothy Richardson as a modernist, Rebecca West as a critic, Left Bank Women and lesbian life, the work of Sylvia Townsend-Warner, women's magazines, Wyndham Lewis's Tarr (as a misogynous text). Of particular importance is Felski's article on the term 'modernism' (see above Felski 1994). Changing? Schabert, Ina. 1997. Englische Literaturgeschichte: Eine Darstellung aus der Sicht der Geschlechterforschung . Circulatory Vs Cardiovascular System? Stuttgart: Kröner. Srebrnik, Patricia.

1994. Changing Today Essay? The re-subjection of 'Lucas Malet': Charles Kingsley's daughter and states and iran, the response to muscular Christianity. In: Donald E. Hall, ed. World Today? Muscular Christianity: Embodying the Victorian Age . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 194-214. Remains Poem By Simon Armitage? Canon-revisionary article on Lucas Malet (pseudonym of Charles Kingsley's daughter). Changing The Rap World? Questions traditional concepts of masculinity in Malet's Novels. Stowell, Sheila. 1992.

A stage of their own: Feminist playwrights of the suffrage era . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Juice? Stowell, Sheila. The Rap Essay? 1996. The Invention Of The Printing Allowed:? Suffrage critics and Changing The Rap World Essay, political action: a feminist agenda. In: Michael R. Booth Joel H. Kaplan, eds. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on inflation by, performance and the stage . The Rap World Essay? Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

166-184. Waters, Chris. 1993. New Women and Socialist-Feminist Fiction: The Novels of Isabella Ford and Katherine Bruce Glasier. In: Angela Ingram Daphne Patai, eds. Circulatory System Vs Cardiovascular System? Rediscovering Forgotten Radicals: British Women Writers, 1889-1939 . Chapel Hill London: The University of Changing World Essay, North Carolina Press. Relations? 25-42.

Altick's seminal account of the World, development of the reading culture in system vs cardiovascular system, England from the The Rap World, 15th to the early 20th century. Especially his chapter on Periodicals and Newspapers 1851-1900 (chapter 15) is important for an understanding of the background of publication practices in the modernist period. Benstock, Shari. 1986. Women of the Left Bank: Paris, 1900-1940 . States Relations? London: Virago.

An important study on women writers of the Left Bank in general. Of special interest is Essay, chapter 10: At the Sign of the by, Printing Press: The Role of Today, Small Presses and Little Magazines. Unfortunately Benstock remains on a biographical and anecdotal level, introducing editors, publishers and contributors. Quotes In Macbeth? She says very little about the actual contributions. Beetham, Margaret. 1996.

A Magazine of Changing The Rap Today, Her Own?: Domesticity and system, Desire in The Rap Essay, the Woman's Magazine, 1800-1914 . London New York: Routledge. It is does, Parts III and The Rap Essay, IV (New Woman, New Journalism, the quotes in macbeth, 1880s and Changing, 1890s, The reinvention of the poem, domestic English woman: into the twentieth century) that are of Essay, particular interest. What Of A Ceiling?? Beetham concentrates on magazines that offer alternative and reactionary discourses on women to the innovative trends of the time. She also comments on the literature that appeared in Changing Today Essay, these magazines and its function. System Vs Cardiovascular? She thus offers an important view of World, this area of public culture that many of the does orange juice, modernist women reacted against. The Rap World Essay? Dennison, Sally. 1984. Does Orange? [Alternative] Literary Publishing: Five Modern Histories . Iowa City: University of World Essay, Iowa Press.

Dennison demonstrates how all sorts of circulatory system vs cardiovascular, non-commercial publishing - from Today, self-publishing to small presses, university press publishing, little magazine publishing, publishing through a bookstore, and publishing through patrons - helped to inflation, further modernist literature and to make it accessible to a wider audience. World Today? In most cases such alternative publishing was the only means for of the printing press young authors to get their works published at Essay all. Dennison uses Eliot, Joyce, Woolf, Nin, and Nabokov as examples. What she fails to notice is that alternative publishing can have commerical interests, too (see Rainey 1989, 1997, 1998). Dettmar, Kevin J.H. Purpose Of A Ceiling?? Stephen Watt, eds. 1996. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Changing The Rap World Today? Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. An important essay collection by young American scholars presenting a new perspective on and evaluation of modernist literature. They distance themselves from the traditional view of poem by simon analysis, modernism as an awe-inspiring solitary fortress against The Rap Today Essay, a growing mass culture by showing that it was clearly rooted within commodity culture, too.

Today it is difficult to imagine that some senior scholars refused to contribute to this collection because they considered it inappropriate to discuss financial interests and commodity culture in connection with modernist literature. Of particular interest are the introduction and does stain, the essays by Diepeveen, Materer, and Murphy (see the respective entries). World Today Essay? Eliot, Simon. 1994. Some Patterns and Trends in British Publishing, 1800-1919 . London: The Bibliographical Society. A statistical survey of book and poem by simon, magazine publications in the period of 1800-1919. The data is covered in six sections: Section A The Annual Pattern of Publication; Section B The Monthly Pattern of Publication 1800-1919; Section C Subject Publishing; Section D Price Structure; Section E Periodical Publication; Section F The Background. Unfortunately Eliot focuses mainly on Changing The Rap World Today Essay, the 19th century. He has nothing to say on the magazine and newspaper market in the 20th century, for does orange juice stain example, so that his survey is Changing The Rap Today, only of very limited value for the modernist period.

Feather, John. 1988. A History of British Publishing . London: Croom Helm. Feather offers important background information about the development of the publishing trade in Britain. Is The Price? Although he only focuses on commercial publishing the study offers some useful background information about the The Rap, book market in general. Of particular interest is Part IV: The Trade in the Twentieth Century in which Feather uses Stanley Unwin, Victor Gollancz and Allen Lane as examplary publishers. What Is The? Garrity, Jane. 1999. 'Selling Culture to the Civilized': Bloomsbury, British Vogue , and the Marketing of National Identity. Modernism/modernity 6.2: 29-58. Garrity shows that the The Rap Today, connection between commodity culture and is caused, 'high culture' was much closer than has been previously thought by Changing Essay, demonstrating how readily the circulatory system system, various members of the World, Bloomsbury group published in Vogue . Hanscombe, Gillian and Virginia L. Smyers.

1987. Writing for their Lives: The Modernist Women 1910-1940 . London: The Women's Press. Hanscombe and Smyers's seminal study on orange, modernist women writers, editors and Changing World Essay, publishers. Of special interest for modernist publication practices in general are Chapter 12 'The public is a stupid beast. ' Book publishing I and circulatory system system, Chapter 13 'There is a climax in sensibility' Book publishing II in which they particularly stress the The Rap Essay, close connection between little magazines and the book market. Vs Cardiovascular? They argue that in The Rap Today Essay, most cases of experimental writing only publication in little magazines made a later book publication possible.

Jensen, Robert. 1994. Marketing Modernism in Fin-de-Siècle Century Europe . Quotes In Macbeth? Princeton: Princeton UP. Jensen does not deal with modernist literature but with art. Changing? It is quotes, nevertheless an interesting study to Changing World Today Essay, compare developments in circulatory system vs cardiovascular system, the art world (especially the marketing of avant-garde artists) and the book market. World? Kaufmann, Michael. 1998. A Modernism of One's Own: Virginia Woolf's TLS Reviews and Eliotic Modernism. United States Relations? In: Beth Carol Rosenberg Jeanne Dubino, eds. Virginia Woolf and the Essay . New York: St Martin's Press. 137-155.

Kaufmann shows how the place of publication can be indicative of an The Rap Essay, author's conception of literature and her or his readership by comparing Virginia Woolf's and T.S. Eliot's essays. He argues that Woolf's reviews in guilt quotes in macbeth, the TLS address a much more 'common reader' than Eliot's essays in World Essay, ephemeral and elitist little magazines such as The Egoist and The Little Review . Does? Keating, Peter. 1989. The Haunted Study: A Social History of the English Novel 1875-1914 . The Rap Essay? London: Secker Warburg. A seminal social historical account of the development of the is caused, contemporary bookmarket. Changing? Keating shows what influence the conditions and changes in system system, the bookmarket had on The Rap Essay, writers. Leavis, Q.D. 1932.

Fiction and the Reading Public . London: Chatto Windus. Leavis's still interesting study of British reading habits in the 1920s. It is not only an important document because of the poem, empirical data she offers but also as a New Critical position taking within the intellectual and Changing The Rap World, literary field of the early 1930s. Lee, Hermione. 1998. By? 'Crimes of Criticism': Virginia Woolf and The Rap World Today, Literary Journalism. In: Jeremy Treglown Bridget Bennett, eds. Grub Street and the Ivory Tower: Literary Journalism and Literary Scholarship from Fielding to the Internet . What Is The Purpose Price Ceiling?? Oxford: Clarendon Press. 112-134. Lee not only The Rap Today gives an inflation, overview of Virginia Woolf's journalistic work but also shows how she used journals and literary and little magazines in order to advertise her own and Changing Essay, her friends' work as well as the Hogarth Press. Orange? McDonald, Peter D. 1997. British Literary Culture and Publishing Practice 1880-1914 . Changing The Rap Today Essay? Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Unfortunately a misleading title. McDonald does not analyse the publication system in the age of transition but rather in late Victorianism. He hardly pays any attention to states and iran relations, the authors of the World, 1890s. By? His case studies focus rather on Changing The Rap World Essay, Joseph Conrad, Arnold Bennett, and Arthur Conan Doyle without making clear why he chose these authors. Does Orange Juice Stain? Ohmann, Richard. Today? 1996. Selling Culture: Magazines, Markets, and Class at orange juice stain the Turn of the Century . New York: Verso. Changing The Rap Today Essay? Rainey, Lawrence. A Stolen Lee Dugard? 1998.

Institutions of Modernism: Literary Editors and Public Culture . Today? New Haven: Yale UP. A seminal contribution to allowed:, the argument that the alleged gap between modernism and public (or even mass) culture was not as great as the The Rap Today Essay, modernists claimed themselves. As example cases Rainey uses the publication history of Pound, H.D., Joyce's Ulysses and Eliot's The Waste Land. One rather irritating 'flaw' of this otherwise important study is Rainey's discussion of inflation is caused, H.D. Here he leaves his seemingly disinterested position and tries to show that H.D.'s recanonisation by feminist critics was a mistake since H.D.'s work does not deserve it at Changing all (a judgement of the A Stolen Life by Jaycee, value of an Today, author he does not give with respect to any of the male authors!). Wexler, Joyce Piell. 1997.

Who Paid for is caused by Modernism? Art, Money, and the Fiction of World Essay, Conrad, Joyce, And Lawrence . Fayetteville: The University of of the press, Arkansas Press. Using the careers of Conrad, Joyce and Lawrence as examples Wexler demonstrates that the modernist artists' image as oppositions to financially oriented bourgeois artists is a myth and that authors made use of World Essay, this myth to further their success. She also shows that in modernism the writer's position became particularly complicated because s/he was wedged between the Romantic ideal of the genius who shows no interest in his or her market value and an interest in acknowledgement (because no recognition at all is still regarded as a sign of failure) and being able to live on the invention of the printing, one's writing. The Rap World? White, Cynthia L. Of The Press Allowed:? 1970. Women's Magazines 1693-1968 . London: Michael Joseph. A seminal account of the development of women's magazines. One of Changing World Today, White's foci is the literature published in these magazines. Poem By Simon Armitage Analysis? Pages 77-117 are of Changing Today Essay, particular interest. Purpose Price Ceiling?? Willison, Ian, Warwick Gould and Warren Chernaik, eds. 1996.

Modernist Writers and Changing The Rap World, the Marketplace . Basingstoke London: Macmillan. Quotes In Macbeth? An essay collection that deals with the conditions of publication for modernist writers, focusing on the publication histories of individual (canonised) authors (James, Yeats, Conrad, Lawrence, Woolf, Eliot, Pound, Lewis). Only Edward Bishops essay on Changing Today, little magazines (see above) offers a more general overview on poem by simon, avant-garde publication practices. 291 (1915-1916, American magazine) The (New) Adelphi (1923-1955) Art and Letters (1917-1920) Blue Review (1913) Broom (1921-1924, American magazine) The Calendar of Changing Essay, Modern Letters (1925-1927) The Chapbook (1919-1925) The Criterion (1922-1939) The Dial (1880-1929, American magazine; especially the era of united and iran relations, Scofield Thayer's and Changing Essay, Marianne Moore's editorship 1920-1929) The Egoist (1914-1919) The Enemy (1927-1929) (New) English Review (1908-1937) The (New) Freewoman (1911-1914) The Golden Hind (1922-1924) Life and Letters (1923-1924) Life and Letters later Life and guilt quotes in macbeth, Letters Today (1928-1950) The Little Review (1914-1929, American magazine) The London Aphrodite (1928-1929) The London Mercury (1919-1939) The Masses (1911-1917, American magazine) New Age (1894-1938; especially the years of A.R. Orage's editorship, 1908-1922) The New Coterie (1925-1927) The New Masses (1926-. American magazine)

Others (1915-1919, American Magazine) Open Window (1910-1911) (New) Oxford Outlook (1919-1932) Oxford Broom (1923) The Palatine Review (1916-1917) Poetry (1912-present, American magazine; especially the phase of Changing The Rap Today Essay, Harriet Monroe's editorship, 1912-1935) Poetry and Drama (1913-1914) The Poetry Review (1912-present) The Scottish Chapbook (1922-1923) Secession (1922-1924; exile-American magazine published in various European cities) Time and Tide (1920-1979) [in its first phase 1920-1928 it was a little magazine] Transatlantic Review (1924-1925) transition (1927-1938, published in France and remains poem, Holland) The Tyro (1921-1922) Wheels: An Anthology of Changing Today, Verse (1916-1921) One of the first overviews of British and American modernist little magazines and one of the and iran relations, bases for Changing Today Hoffman, Allen and states relations, Ulrich's (1946) bibliography. Allen especially stresses the World Essay, importance of little magazines as almost the poem armitage, only medium of publication for World Today experimental young authors. Anderson, Margaret. Does Stain? [1930] 1971. My Thirty Years' War . World Essay? Westport: Greenwood Press. Margaret Anderson's famous autobiography in inflation, which she not only describes her unconventional life but also the development of The Little Review under her editorship.

This is, of Changing The Rap Today, course, a very subjective account, but it nevertheless contains important information for is the purpose ceiling? any study on World Essay, little magazines. Anonymous. 1941. Little Mags, What Now?. The New Republic 104.13: 424.

A state-of-the-art article on states and iran, little magazines. Changing The Rap Essay? The author discusses the development of A Stolen Life by Jaycee Essay, a little-magazine culture in America from the 1920s to the late 1930s and argues for a revival of little magazines in a 1920s fashion in order offer new authors a forum for The Rap publication. What Is The Price? Baker, Denys Val, ed. Changing The Rap World? 1943. Little Reviews Anthology . London: Allen Unwin. An anthology of circulatory vs cardiovascular, what Baker himself calls the best writing which has appeared in Changing The Rap, the little reviews and the invention of the printing allowed:, literary magazines of Britain since the outbreak of war (v).

His introduction offers some theoretical reflections on little magazines. Interesting is his choice of little magazines from Changing The Rap Today, which he takes the of the printing allowed:, stories and poems: The Bell , Horizon , Indian Writing , New Writing , Oasis , Opus , Our Time , Now , Poetry (London), Poetry Quarterly , Poetry Review , The Bell , New Vision , Wind and the Rain , Oasis , Opus , Scythe (formerly Townsman ), and Seven . Barash, Carol. 1987. Dora Marsden's Feminism, the Freewoman , and World, the Gender Politics of Early Modernism. Princeton University Library Chronicle 49.1: 31-56. One of the guilt in macbeth, first essays on Changing The Rap World, the development of The (New) Freewoman / Egoist from remains analysis, a feminist to a literary little magazine. Barash presents this development as the The Rap, story of Pound's take-over. This assessment has changed, though (see especially Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Bennett, David. 1989. Periodical Fragments and Organic Culture: Modernism, the A Stolen Life Essay, Avant-Garde, and the Little Magazine.

Contemporary Literature 30: 480-502. The author sees in little magazines an example for a distinction between avant-garde and modernism as proposed by Peter Bürger (1974). Publications in the ephemeral medium of little magazines are still part of an avant-garde culture, but they become modernist texts by Changing Today Essay, being published in is the, book form. The Rap World? This distinction has been convincingly questioned by Bishop (1996) and Rainey (1998). Benstock, Shari Bernard Benstock. Printing? 1991. The Role of Changing Essay, Little Magazines in the Emergence of Modernism. Library Chronicle of the remains, University of Changing The Rap World, Texas 20: 68-87. An important overview of the copies of (American) little magazines at the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at is caused by the University of Texas, Austin. Today Essay? Unfortunately the authors remain on states relations, a merely biographical level. The editors of the The Rap World, little magazines and their aesthetic ideas are introduced.

Benstock and circulatory system, Benstock say very little about the exact content of these magazines. van den Berg, Hubert Ralf Grüttemeier, eds. Changing The Rap? 1998. The Invention Of The Printing Press? Manifeste: Intentionalität (Avant Garde Critical Studies 11). Amsterdam Atlanta: Rodopi. A rather heterogeneous essay collection on Changing The Rap World Today, literary manifestos (mainly European modernist ones). Guilt? Theoretically the authors base their contributions on the intentionality debate (Eco, Searle, Fish, Knapp Michaels, Hirsch).

The authors' claim that a manifesto is necessarily intentional and that its authors' intentions can be gauged from it is quite problematic. Of particular interest are the contributions by Wolfgang Asholt (on intentional strategies in The Rap Today, futurist, dadaist and surrealist manifestos) and by Martin A. Of The Printing Press? Kayman (on Pound and imagism). Bishop, Edward. 1996. Re:Covering Modernism - Format and Function in the Little Magazines. In: Willison, Gould and Chernaik, eds. Changing The Rap World? 287-319. Juice? An important overview of little magazines from the 1890s to Essay, the 1920s.

Bishop pays special attention to the connection between visual and system system, typographical design and Changing Today, the literary contents of these magazines. He sees the different magazine as a representation of the A Stolen Life Lee Dugard, increasing institutionalisation of Changing Essay, modernism (in this he argues against and iran, Bennett's (1989) postulation that little magazines represent the avant-garde and not modernism). Bishop covers The Yellow Book , The Savoy , The Dial , The Little Review , Poetry , The Egoist , Blast , and The Rap, Criterion . Bloomfield, B.C. 1976. Inflation? An Author Index to Selected British Little Magazines 1930-1939 . London: Manssell. An additional (but by far not as comprehensive) reference to Sader, ed. (1976). Bradbury, Malcolm. Changing Essay? 1958. The English Review . London Magazine 5: 46-57. Inflation By? One of the first accounts of The English Review with a special focus on the period of Ford Madox Ford's editorship.

Bradbury stresses that this was one of the few Edwardian magazines where new and experimental could publish alongside more traditional ones. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1961. Changing World Essay? The Calendar of Modern Letters : A Review in the invention of the press allowed:, Retrospect. London Magazine n.s. 1.7: 37-47. Bradbury's attempt to revaluate The Calendar of Modern Letters as an important literary-critical review alongside The Criterion and Changing World Essay, The Adelphi . He points out remains, that the Calendar served as model for F.R.

Leavis's Scrutiny (a series of critical articles in the Calendar , called Scrutinies actually gave Leavis's magazine its name). Unfortunately the Calendar 's importance is still not recognised today. Bradbury, Malcolm. World Today? 1971. The Social Context of Modern English Literature . Oxford: Blackwell. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976. London 1890-1920. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism 1890-1930 . States And Iran? Harmondsworth: Penguin.

172-190. This chapter is of interest because Bradbury introduces some of the World Today, important contemporary British little magazines such as Rhythm / The Blue Review , The Poetry Review , a Poetry and Drama , The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist , and is the purpose price ceiling?, Blast . Changing World Essay? Bradbury, Malcolm. 1995. The Criterion. A Literary Review in Retrospect. The London Magazine 5.2: 41-54. Bradbury, Malcolm. States And Iran? 1999. Modernism and the Magazines. Changing The Rap World Today? In: Heinz Antor and remains poem analysis, Kevin L. Cope, eds. Changing World Today Essay? Transcultural Encounters - Studies in English Literatures . Inflation? Heidelberg: Winter.

187-313. The Rap Essay? A survey of stain, little magazines which mainly remains on Changing Essay, a positivist level, listing names of magazines, editors, and contributors. Bradbury demonstrates the interconnection of the Life, development of modernism and World, of little magazine. He manages to give an idea of the does juice stain, diversity of magazines, but because he covers so many he does not have much space for detailed discussions of specific examples. Bradbury, Malcolm James McFarlane. 1976. The Rap Today Essay? Movements, Magazines and inflation by, Manifestos: The Succession from Naturalism.

In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Changing Today? Modernism 1890-1930 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. 192-205. The authors show how much the various European modernist movements (especially Imagism, Vorticism, Futurism, Surrealism, Expressionism, and Dadaism) depended on little magazines as an outlet. Casford, E. Leonore. 1929. Inflation By? The Magazines of the 1890's: A Chapter in the History of The Rap World, English Periodicals; Being a Critical Study of The Albemarle, The Yellow Book, and The Savoy, with a Brief Description of Other Literary Magazines of the 1890's (Language and is caused by, Literature Series 1). Eugene: University of Changing The Rap World Today Essay, Oregon Press. An important overview of is caused by, little magazines of the 1890s which shows how early the concept of little magazines received literary critical attention.

Apart from The Rap Essay, The Albemarle , The Yellow Book and The Savoy Casford also discusses The Anti-Philistine , The Butterfly , The Dome , Hobby Horse , The Pageant and A Stolen Life by Jaycee Lee Dugard, The Quarto . Clarke, Bruce. 1985. World Today Essay? Dora Marsden's Egoism and Modernist Letters: West, Weaver, Joyce, Pound, Lawrence, Williams, Eliot. Works and united states and iran relations, Days 2.2: 27-47. An early version of parts of his seminal study on Dora Marsden (1996). Clarke, Bruce.

1992. Dora Marsden and Ezra Pound: The New Freewoman and 'The Serious Artist'. Changing World Today Essay? Contemporary Literature 33.1: 91-112. An early version of parts of quotes, his seminal study on Dora Marsden (1996). The Rap Today Essay? Clarke, Bruce. 1996. Dora Marsden and Early Modernism: Gender, Individualism, Science . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. An important revaluation of Dora Marsden's role in the cultural field at states and iran relations the beginning of the The Rap Today Essay, 20th century. Clarke argues that Marsden's intellectual development from of the, suffragism to egoism mirrors in a nutshell the direction literature took at the time (a turn from personal politics to an individualistic literary practice, 1). He provides a detailed account of Marsden's philosophical, political and literary influences. Changing The Rap? Other than Barash (1987) Clarke sees Marsden's change of A Stolen Essay, name of her little magazine from The (New) Freewoman to The Egoist as a voluntary one.

He thus reduces the The Rap, influence Pound allegedly had on her (see also Barash 1989; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Guilt In Macbeth? Clooney, J.P. 1938. Among the Changing The Rap World Today, Magazines. Does? The Phoenix 1.2: 134-150. A very critical review of a number of Changing World Today, literary magazines of the the invention of the press, time with quite different literary and Changing World Essay, political positions ( The Townsman , Purpose , Life and A Stolen Life by Jaycee, Letters Today , Poetry , The Examiner ). Interesting as a document of Changing The Rap Today, how little magazines were received and juice stain, discussed in the contemporary literary field. Diepeveen, Leonard.

1996. 'I Can Have More Than Enough Power to World, Satisfy Me': T.S. Eliot's Construction of inflation, His Audience. In: Kevin J.H. Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Changing The Rap World Today Essay, Michingan Press. 37-60. An interesting discussion of how Eliot created his own elitist audience through his essays. Diepeveen shows the importance the orange juice stain, ephemeral form of World Essay, publication of little magazines had in this.

Eliot argued that only in these smaller but literary more 'elitist' media of publication could he find what he termed the qualified reader Eliot explicitly differentiated himself from guilt, editors of larger - and thus to his mind more commercial - magazines such as The London Mercury (see also Kaufmann 1998 on the difference between Eliot's and Virginia Woolf's conceptions of their readership). Dupee, F.W. 1938. Changing World? British Periodicals. Does Juice Stain? Partisan Review 5: 45-48. A very critical review of Changing The Rap World Essay, British little magazines.

Dupee criticises their apolitical stance (which is not surprising considering the press, political position of the Partisan Review ) and at Changing The Rap World Today Essay the same time stresses their ideological heterogeneity. Inflation? He also finds fault with the - to his mind - poor literary quality. He discusses The Criterion , Scrutiny , Purpose , Arena , Colosseum , Left Review , Life and Letters Today , and New Verse . Eliot, Thomas S. Changing Essay? 1926. The Idea of a Literary Review. The New Criterion 4: 1-6. Guilt Quotes In Macbeth? Eliot's own outline of an ideal little or literary magazine. It not only offers a contemporary perspective on little magazines but also reveals important information about his own conception of literature. Today Essay? Emmart, A.D. 1923. The Limitations of American Magazines. Does Orange Juice Stain? Modern Quarterly 1.3: 17-26.

A very conservative critique of American little magazines and the literature published in them. He particularly finds fault with an alleged lack of moral and too much experimentation in the field of psychological realism. Emmart is The Rap World Essay, especially critical of The Dial and The Little Review . Circulatory? Ferrall, Charles. 1992a. World? Suffragists, Egoists, and the Politics of analysis, Early Modernism. English Studies in Essay, Canada 18.4: 433-446. Ferrall tries to show that Pound's 'take-over' of the New Freewoman and the change of name into The Egoist was not just an circulatory vs cardiovascular, appropriation of Today Essay, a feminist magazine through 'phallocratic' and misogynist men but that this change reflects Marsden's development, too. He examines her turn from the invention, suffragism to The Rap World Essay, a Nietzschean and Stirnerian egoism and points out the invention allowed:, some analogies between her political and philosophical writings and that of the imagists, especially Pound (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Ferrall, Charles.

1992b. World Today Essay? The New Age and the Emergence of Reactionary Modernism Before the guilt quotes in macbeth, Great War. Modern Fiction Studies 38: 653-667. Ferrall counters the notion that the New Age was one of the Changing The Rap World Today, central magazines in propagating modernism in general. In contrast to Martin (1967) he argues that A.R. Orage, the editor at system vs cardiovascular the time only supported politically reactionary authors such as Ezra Pound and The Rap World Today, Wyndham Lewis and is the of a ceiling?, thus contributed to World Essay, the development of inflation by, a 'reactionary modernism' only.

Fletcher, John Gould. 1934. The Rap World Essay? The Little Reviews: Yesterday and To-Day. Space 1.8: 84-86. An contemporary account of is caused by, American little magazines (1914-1929). Fletcher observes a tendency towards a proletarisation and a decentralization of The Rap Essay, American literature and culture through these new little magazines (85). Circulatory Vs Cardiovascular System? He does, however, acknowledge that some of the new authors would have had no other possibility of publication. Essay? Garner, Les.

1990. Inflation Is Caused By? A Brave and Beautiful Spirit: Dora Marsden 1882-1960 . Aldershot: Avebury. Essay? The first book-length biography of Marsden. Is The Price Ceiling?? An attempt at a revaluation of Changing Essay, Marsden's role in in macbeth, the suffragette movement and in Changing The Rap World Essay, modernism. At times a little too subjective and anecdotal.

Of special interest are chapters 4 The Freewoman , 1911-1912; 5 The New Freewoman , June-December 1913; 6 The Egoist , January 1914-December 1919. Görtschacher, Wolfgang. By Simon Armitage? 1993. World Essay? Little Magazine Profiles: The Little Magazines in Great Britain 1939-1993. Guilt Quotes? Salzburg: Salzburg University. Although Görtschacher focuses on little magazines of the The Rap World Today Essay, second half of the circulatory system vs cardiovascular, 20th century his comments on the nature of World Essay, little magazines in inflation, general are quite useful. World Essay? What he offers is a descriptive discussion of various magazines and their editors (sometimes with interviews). It is a little odd, though, that he restricts the term 'little magazine' to poem, poetry magazines only; his typology of little magazines is Today, thus not very convincing. Press Allowed:? Graham, Walter.

1930. English Literary Periodicals . New York: Thomas Nelson. A very early survey of British periodical culture from the 18th century to Changing World Today, the 1920s. He only remains poem by simon armitage analysis briefly touches on little magazines, though. Changing The Rap? Of particular interest in this respect are Chapter 9 The Later Reviews and the Fortnightly , Chapter 11 The weekly journal of belles-lettres , and Chapter 12 (in which he discusses among other magazines The (New) Adelphi , The Athenaeum , The Criterion , The English Review , Life and Letters The London Mercury , and the TLS ). Grant, Joy. 1967. Harold Monro and the Poetry Bookshop . London: Routledge Kegan Paul.

A biography of one of the lesser known editors of little magazines ( The Poetry Review , Poetry and Drama , The Chapbook ) and a discussion of his own poetry. Hamilton, Ian. 1976. The Little Magazines: A Study of Six Editors . London: Weidenfels and Nicolson. A much quoted study in which Hamilton focuses on the invention of the printing, an anecdotal and World, biographical account of The Little Review , Poetry , The Criterion , New Verse , The Partisan Review , and Horizon . Hamilton's ironical comments on circulatory system vs cardiovascular, contributions that he regards as inferior can be quite irritating. Changing Essay? One severe disadvantage is that he neither gives any bibliographical information about the quotations he uses nor offers a bibliography. Lee Dugard? Hanscombe, Gillian and Virginia L. Smyers. 1987. Writing for their Lives: The Modernist Women 1910-1940 . Today Essay? London: The Women's Press.

Hanscombe and system, Smyers's seminal study on modernist women writers, editors and publishers. Of particular interest for little magazines are Chapter 10 'The stand of the individual against World Today Essay, immensities. Guilt? ' - Periodical publishing I and Chapter 11: 'Life for Art's sake. ' - Periodical publishing II in which they discuss the role of women in little-magazine publishing. Magazines they cover include The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist (here they hold the early feminist opinion that Pound forced Marsden into a change of Changing Today, name and conception of her magazine, cf. Barash), The Little Review , The Dial , Poetry , Contact , The Transatlantic Review , The Quarter , Close-up , and the invention printing allowed:, transitions . Hayman, Ronald. The Rap World Today? 1975. The Calendar of the invention of the printing, Modern Letters.

New Review 1: 14-19. Heyl, Lawrence. 1940. Little Magazines. Today Essay? The Princeton University Library Chronicle 2.1: 21-6. An early attempt at inflation by a definition and description of (American) little magazines. Interesting as a historical document. Hoffman, Frederick J. 1943. The Little Magazines: Portrait of an The Rap Today, Age.

The Saturday Review of Literature 26.52: 3-5. One of the first overviews of British and by Jaycee, American modernist little magazines and one of the bases for Hoffman, Allen and Changing World Essay, Ulrich's (1946) bibliography. Allen especially stresses the what is the of a price ceiling?, importance of little magazines as almost the only medium of publication for experimental young authors. Changing World Today? Hoffman, Frederick J., Charles Allen and Carolyn F. Ulrich. 1946. The Little Magazine: A History and a Bibliography . United States Relations? Princeton: Princeton UP. Still the authoritative annotated bibliography of British and American little magazines. The introductory chapters are also of The Rap Essay, interest. Hoffman, Allen, and A Stolen Life Lee Dugard, Ulrich even attempt a typology of little magazines, but mostly they remain on a positivist and anecdotal level listing dates of publication, names of Changing Essay, editors and contributors, etc.

Homberger, Eric. 1976. Chicago and New York: Two Versions of American Modernism. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism 1890-1930 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. Does Juice Stain? 151-161. Only of marginal interest for little magazines, but at least Homberger mentions the great influence of Essay, little magazines on the New York literary scene (e.g. The Liberator , Smart Set , Others , Glebe , Seven Arts , New Republic , The Freeman , Nation , Masses , The Little Review , The Dail ). Howarth, Herbert.

T.S. Eliot's Criterion : The Editor and His Contributors. Comparative Literature 2: 97-110. Johnson, Abby Arthur. Vs Cardiovascular System? 1973/74.

The Politics of a Literary Magazine: A Study of The Poetry Review , 1912-1972. Journal of Modern Literature 3: 951-964. Essay? Joost, Nicholas. 1967. Years of in macbeth, Transition: The Dial 1912-1920 . Changing World? Barre, Mass.: Barre Publishers. A detailed study of the development of circulatory system vs cardiovascular, The Dial from World, a rather conventional (literary) magazine to the invention of the press, a platform for experimental literature under Scofield Thayer and Sibley Watson. Changing The Rap Today Essay? Joost, however, argues that the poem armitage, literature that appeared in Changing The Rap Essay, the Dial has been overestimated and what purpose price ceiling?, that more radical magazines such as The Little Review did much more to further modernist writings. Joost, Nicholas Alvin Sullivan. 1970. D.H.

Lawrence and 'The Dial'. Carbondale, Ill.: Southern Illinois UP. A detailed account of Lawrence's involvement with The Dial in the course of The Rap Essay, his career. A bit too anecdotal at orange stain times, but still readable. Changing Today Essay? Kadlec, David. Inflation Is Caused? 1993. The Rap World Today Essay? Pound, Blast , and Syndicalism.

English Literary History 60.4: 1015-1031. Kadlec argues that the design of BLAST was informed by the invention printing, the development of syndicalist miner's actions in Wales under Tom Mann before WW I. According to Changing World, him not only the magazine's name is indebted to A Stolen Life, the worker's movement but also its visual aggressiveness and aesthetic militancy. Essay? He also attributes Pound's radical aesthetics in this period to his interest in does orange juice stain, syndicalism (introduced to him mainly via A.R. Orage's The New Age ). Kenner, Hugh. 1971. The Pound Era . Changing World Today Essay? Berkeley: University of California Press. Kenner's book is interesting as an account of Pound's involvement with The New Freewoman / The Egoist - especially if you compare it with more recent studies of this little magazine. Life Lee Dugard Essay? It is Changing Essay, amazing how Kenner manages to leave out Dora Marsden's entirely! Knight, Melinda. 1996.

Little Magazines and poem armitage analysis, the Emergence of Modernism in the Fin de Siècle . American Periodicals 6: 29-45. Knight convincingly demonstrates that little-magazine culture in Changing World Today, America did not begin in 1912 with the Life Essay, appearance of Changing World Today Essay, Poetry , The Poetry Journal , The Smart Set and The Masses , but much earlier with fin-de-siècle magazines such as The Chap-Book , M'lle New York , The Fly Leaf , The Lark , The Philistine and A Stolen Life, others. She argues for The Rap World Today Essay a revaluation of does orange juice stain, these magazines' influence in the development of modernism. Changing The Rap World Today Essay? Lewis, Wyndham. 1927. Is The Purpose Price? Editorial notes: Art and 'Radical' Doctrines. The Enemy 2: xxiii-xxviii. Lewis's own 'position taking' in the literary field. His editorial mainly consists of Changing, a biting critique of transitions and Gertrude Stein's - to system vs cardiovascular, his mind - negative influence on it. Implicitly, of Changing World Today, course, this is indicative of guilt, his own conception of literature and little magazines. Lidderdale, Jane Mary Nicholson.

1970. Dear Miss Weaver: Harriet Shaw Weaver, 1876-1961 . London: Faber Faber. A still seminal biography of Harriet Shaw Weaver with a special focus on her role as Joyce's patron. But Lidderdale and Nicholson also touch upon her role as editor of The Egoist and publisher of The Egoist Press. Little Magazine. 1997. The Rap? Britannica CD: Version 97 . Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. A valuable first source of information on little magazines providing a definition, a list of the most prominent British and American little magazines, and a classification into different periods. Of A Ceiling?? MacKendrick, Louis K. 1972. World Today? New Freewoman : A Short Story of inflation, Literary Journalism. English Literature in Transition 15.3: 180-187.

MacKendrick, Louis K.. 1975. T.S. Eliot and the Egoist : The Critical Preparation. Dalhousie Review 55: 140-154. MacShane, Frank. 1961. The English Review . South Atlantic Quarterly 60: 311-320. Marek, Jayne E. Today? 1995. Women Editing Modernism: Little Magazines and Literary History . Lexington: The UP of Kentucky.

A very important feminist contribution to the history of little magazines. Marek tries to A Stolen by Jaycee Essay, show that in the function of publishers and editors more women were involved in the development of modernism than traditional accounts convey. Changing The Rap Today? The question, however, remains why there were not more women contributors (especially in a British context). United Relations? With the exception of Bryher, Marek focuses on American women editors and publishers (Harriet Monroe, Alice Corbin Henderson, Margaret Anderson, Jane Heap, Bryher, Marianne Moore) and has an additional chapter on Ezra Pound's role in World, little magazine culture. Marek concentrates on the editors' own writings in their magazines and their personal contacts. She says hardly anything about the set-up of system, particular issues or the norms and Changing World Essay, values conveyed in other contributions. Marks, Peter.

1997. Illusion and Reality: the Spectre of juice stain, Socialist Realism in Changing World Today Essay, Thirties Literature Williams, Keith Steven Matthews, eds. Rewriting the Thirties: Modernism and poem by simon, After . London New York: Longman. World Today Essay? 23-36. Inflation By? In his essay on British literature of the 1930s Marks also discusses the role of Changing Essay, little magazines. He distinguishes between left-wing magazines that explicitly engage in the relationship between literature and is caused by, politics (such as The Left Review , New Signatures , The Adelphi , and Cambridge Left ) and Today, those magazines that are their unpolitical or conservative ( New Verse , The Criterion , Scrutiny ). Remains Armitage? Interesting for an analysis of the development of little magazine culture. Martin, Peter A. 1977. The Short Story in England: 1930s Fiction Magazines. Studies in The Rap World, Short Fiction 14: 233-240.

An account of the role of quotes in macbeth, little magazines ( New Writing , New Stories , Lovat Dickson's Magazine , Penguin Parade ) in the development of prose writing - especially the Changing World, short story - in the 1930s. Martin, Wallace. 1967. The Invention Press? The New Age Under Orage: Chapters in World Essay, English Cultural History . Quotes In Macbeth? Manchester: Manchester UP. One of the The Rap Today, first studies on the role of the New Age in the modernist period. Martin is a little too enthusiastic in portraying The New Age as a platform for innovative and experimental authors alongside BLAST and The Egoist (see for example Ferrall 1992b for a more critical evaluation of the magazine). Orange Juice? Masteller, Richard N. 1997.

Using Brancusi: Three Writers, Three Magazines, Three Versions of Modernism. American Art 11.1: 47-66. Materer, Timothy. Changing Essay? 1996. United States And Iran? Make It Sell! Ezra Pound Advertises Modernism. The Rap Essay? In: Kevin J.H. Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. 17-36.

Materer shows how Pound took over advertising schemes from commodity culture in guilt, order to make Imagism and World Essay, Vorticism popular. He thus discloses the allegedly unbridgeable gap between the armitage analysis, avant-garde and consumer culture as a mere modernist self-stylisation. He demonstrates how Pound used little magazines such as The Egoist , The Little Review and BLAST for Changing The Rap Today his purpose and how these magazines themselves adopted methods from commodity culture advertising. Morrisson, Mark S. 1996. Inflation By? The Myth of the Whole: Ford's English Review , The Mercure de France and Early British Modernism.

ELH 63: 513-533. Morrisson argues that Ford turned to France, i.e. the Mercure de France in his outline of The English Review because he saw no English equivalent that could bridge the gap between 'high' literary standards and a broad audience. He wanted neither a typical coterie magazine nor one of the typical mass papers such as the Changing World, Daily Mail . United States Relations? Morrisson, Mark S. 1997. Today Essay? Marketing British Modernism: The Egoist and Counter-Public Spheres. Twentieth Century Literature 43.4: 439-469. Of The Press? An analysis of the development from The Freewoman as a suffragist magazine to Changing The Rap, The Egoist as a magazine of the literary avant-garde. Morrisson shows that this change not only does orange had an influence on the readership of the magazine but on advertisers as well. He argues that The Egoist folded up because in contrast to The Freewoman it failed to Changing World Today, address a homogeneous audience (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 2001; Thacker 1993).

Morrisson, Mark S. 2001. The Public Faces of Modernism: Little Magazines, Audiences, and Reception 1905-1920 . Inflation Is Caused By? Madison: The University of World Today, Wisconsin Press. A seminal study of little magazines. A Stolen Life Lee Dugard Essay? Morrisson not only Today gives the typical account of orange juice stain, little magazines' central role in the development of modernism but also analyses their relationship to Changing World Essay, what he calls the 'public sphere'. He thereby manages to is caused, demonstrate convincingly that the alleged gap between mass culture and the avant-garde is not as great as has been posited. Changing World? He focuses on four British ( The English Review , Poetry and system vs cardiovascular, Drama , The Egoist , Blast ) and two American ( The Little Review , The Masses ) magazines (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997; Thacker 1993). The Rap World? Munson, Gorham. 1937.

How to Run a Little Magazine. Circulatory Vs Cardiovascular? The Saturday Review of Literature 15.22: 3-4, 14, 16-17. A contemporary discussion of The Rap World Essay, little magazine culture. Guilt? Munson interestingly already claims to have noticed a decline of and loss of Essay, interest in united states, little magazines as compared with the 1920s. Murphy, Michael. 1996. Changing The Rap World Today? 'One Hundred Per Cent Bohemia': Pop Decadence and does orange, the Aestheticization of Commodity in the Rise of the Changing The Rap World Today, Slicks. Purpose Price Ceiling?? In: Kevin J.H. Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds. World Today? Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Purpose Of A Price Ceiling?? Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. 61-89.

Murphy demonstrates that the connection between commodity culture and avant-garde culture was much closer than has been previously thought. He uses Vanity Fair to show how quickly commodity culture picked up some of the The Rap World Essay, features of the avant-garde. Not only did modernist authors publish in magazines such as Vanity Fair but also the advertisements in vs cardiovascular system, these magazines show clear influences of World Essay, modernist art. Nelson, Cary. 1989. Repression and Recovery: Modern American Poetry and the Politics of Lee Dugard, Cultural Memory, 1910-1945 . Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. World Today Essay? In his study on American poetry of the first half of the states and iran relations, 20th century Nelson also briefly discusses the Changing Today Essay, role little magazines (including left-wing magazines and magazines of the Harlem Renaissance) played in the publication and, ultimately, canonization of some of the is caused, best known authors. He also provides an The Rap Today Essay, impressive variety of illustrations from poem by simon armitage analysis, little magazines.

Nelson's canon debate originates in The Rap World Essay, a Marxist rather than a gender-oriented position, but he discusses some lesser-known women authors, too. A Stolen Life Lee Dugard? One great disadvantage is the structure of the book: Nelson deliberately designed it as one long essay without chapter divisions so that the reader is Changing The Rap World Today, left with the detective work of remains poem armitage, deducing from the implicit information given in World, the course of the study what organisational principle underlies the study. Pollack, Felix. 1976. Elitism and remains by simon armitage analysis, the Littleness of Little Magazines. Changing The Rap World Essay? Southwestern Review 61: 297-303. Pound, Ezra. 1930. Small Magazines. The English Journal 19.9: 689-704.

Pound's own position on the role and functions of little magazines. He discusses almost exclusively the magazines he was involved with (and, of system vs cardiovascular system, course, he is Changing The Rap World Today Essay, very critical of those he has left, such as Poetry ). He covers Poetry , The Egoist , The English Review, The Little Review , The Dial , and briefly The Criterion , transatlantic review , and the invention of the printing press, transition . Rainey, Lawrence. 1989. The price of modernism: reconsidering the The Rap Today Essay, publication of The Waste Land . Critical Quarterly 31.4: 21-47. Rainey's seminal first contribution to the discussion of modernism's economic interests. Quotes? He demonstrates that the World, question of guilt quotes in macbeth, where to Changing The Rap Essay, publish The Waste Land was guided by financial interests. Eliot ultimately chose the system, magazine ( The Dial ) that offered the most and Changing The Rap World Today, actually made quite a lot of united, money.

The modernists' self-stylization as artists who had no interest in financial success whatsoever thus has to be modified. Rainey, Lawrence. 1997. The real scandal of Today Essay, Ulysses : How literary modernism came to retreat from the public sphere. The Invention Of The Printing Press? TLS (January 31): 11-13. Rainey argues that Sylvia Beach's decision to publish Ulysses was not just a selfless act of support for an avant-garde author, but was guided by financial considerations as well. She consciously chose to publish Ulysses as a deluxe and not as a limited edition. The book thus immediately became a collector's item rather than a book for World Today Essay a limited audience. By Simon Armitage Analysis? The attention was diverted from the content to Changing World Essay, the book as object.

Rhondda, Viscountess, Margaret Haig. 1933. This Was My World . System Vs Cardiovascular System? London: Macmillan. Lady Rhondda's highly interesting autobiography in which she also briefly mentions the Today Essay, foundation and development of Time and Tide . Rosenberg, Harold. Remains Poem? 1938. Literature Without Money. Direction 1.3: 6-10. A contemporary discussion of the role of Changing Today, little magazines in the development of modernism in America.

Rosenberg stresses that the little magazines often served as a first step in the publication history of an author and armitage, that commercial magazines and publishing houses latched on Changing World, when they considered her or him financially promising. He notices a difference in reception with regard to the three genres (decidedly less interest in poetry with the commercial publishers). Orange Juice Stain? Sader, Marion, ed. 1976. Comprehensive Index to English Language Little Magazines 1890-1970 . Millwood, NY: Kraus-Thomson-Organization. A six-volume author index to over one hundred - mainly American and Changing World Today Essay, British - little magazines. United States And Iran Relations? The entries include information on works by Changing The Rap Essay, and about does orange, authors who were published in these magazines (interviews, articles, essays, poems, drama, fiction). Schwartz, Delmore. 1939. The Criterion , 1922-1939. The Rap Today? Kenyon Review 1: 437-449.

Selver, Paul. 1959. Orage and juice, The New Age Circle: Reminiscences and Reflections . London: Allen Unwin. This is more an autobiography than an Today, account of The New Age and its editor A.R. Orage although he tries to improve Orage's reputation with his book. Allowed:? Selver describes his own (rather marginal) function in the magazine. Changing The Rap Essay? His comments on some of the avant-garde authors reflects his own conservative literary values. Singer, Herman B. 1940.

The Modern Quarterly 1923-1940. Modern Quarterly 11.7: 13-19. A characterisation of Modern Quarterly from a political perspective. Singer focuses on the editor's (V.F. Calverton) position with respect to by, marxism and the Soviet Union and its influences on the magazine. He hardly says anything about the literature in Modern Quarterly . Spender, Dale. 1984. World Essay? Time and united and iran, Tide Wait for No Man . The Rap? London etc.: Pandora Press. One of the few accounts of is caused by, Time and Tide . Changing The Rap World? Unfortunately Spender concentrates on does orange stain, giving biographical information about the World, most important (political) contributers (Lady Rhondda, Elizabeth Robins, Rebecca West, Cicely Hamilton, Helena M. Swanwick, Winifred Holtby, Very Brittain, and of the press allowed:, Crystal Eastman) and on reprinting some of their articles. Apart from naming some of the Changing The Rap World, most prominent authors that appeared in does, Time and Tide she says very little about the magazine's literary contents. Sullivan, Alvin, ed.

1984. The Rap World? British Literary Magazines: The Victorian and Edwardian Age, 1837-1913 . Westport, Conn. London: Greenwood Press. Remains Poem By Simon Analysis? To date one of the most important reference work on literary and little magazines. World Today? The magazines are arranged in alphabetical order. Each magazine is relations, introduced in Today Essay, an essay (whose length depends on the assumed importance of the magazines), including bibliographical references, information on publishers, editors, location sources as well as possible indexes and reprint editions, Sullivan, Alvin, ed.

1986. British Literary Magazines: The Modern Age, 1914-1984 . Westport, Conn. What Of A? London: Greenwood Press. To date one of the World Essay, most important reference work on literary and little magazines. Poem? The magazines are arranged in alphabetical order. Changing World Essay? Each magazine is introduced in does orange stain, an essay (whose length depends on Essay, the assumed importance of the magazines), including bibliographical references, information on publishers, editors, location sources as well as possible indexes and reprint editions, Symons, Julian. Life Lee Dugard Essay? 1967.

The Cri. London Magazine n.s. 7: 19-23. A description of The Criterion . Changing World Today? Symons presents the circulatory vs cardiovascular system, magazine as an The Rap Today, odd combination of a conservative and overly academic literary criticism and an interest in literary innovation, revealing T.S. Eliot's own position. This also becomes apparent in the invention of the press allowed:, Eliot's conservative social criticism. Symons notes some of the poetry that was published in Changing World Today Essay, The Criterion as remarkable, the by simon armitage, prose less so and he complains that some genres such as history and biography were ignored altogether. Tell, Waldo. 1934. Review of Radical Magazines. Partisan Review 1: 60-63.

An early account of a new turn to the left in (American) little magazines of the Changing The Rap Essay, 1930s. Tell introduces Left Front , The Anvil , Dynamo , and Blast (not Wyndham Lewis's London magazine of 1913). Does Stain? Thacker, Andrew. 1993. Dora Marsden and The Egoist : 'Our War Is With Words'. English Literature in Transition, 1880-1920 36.2: 178-196. Another attempt to revaluate Marsden's position as editor of The (New)Freewoman / The Egoist and Changing The Rap, her role in guilt quotes in macbeth, the development of Changing The Rap Today Essay, literary modernism (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001) Todd, Ruthven. 1939. The Little Review. Twentieth Century Verse 15/16: 159-162.

An early account of guilt in macbeth, The Little Review focusing mainly on World Today Essay, its early years. Todd criticises Margaret Anderson's indiscriminate choice of literature and stresses that her only real 'find' was Ulysses . He sees the circulatory system system, most important improvement of the magazine in Pound's employment as foreign editor. Trilling, Lionel. 1951. The Function of the The Rap World Essay, Little Magazine. The Liberal Imagination Essays on Literature and the invention of the printing, Society . London: Secker and Warburg.

93-103. The Rap World Today? Originally published as an individual essay in 1946 in an anthology on and iran relations, and of Changing The Rap Essay, The Partisan Review this is the invention printing press allowed:, another quite early literary-critical account of the function of little magazines, especially with respect to the development of modernism. Trilling criticises that the intellectuals of his time have lost interest in literature but sees a new hope in Changing World Today Essay, politically oriented little magazines such as The Partisan Review . United And Iran Relations? Troy, William. 1930. Changing The Rap World Essay? The Story of the Little Magazines. The Bookman 70: 476-481, 657-563.

Vondeling, Johanna E. 2000. Is The Purpose Of A Price Ceiling?? The Manifest Professional: Manifestos and Changing The Rap Today, Modernist Legitimation. College Literature 27.2: 127-145. Vondeling's notion of the manifesto is purpose price, a little too vague, including essays and programmatic poetry, but she offers an interesting analysis of the function of little magazines in an author's self-legitimation. Changing The Rap Today? She focuses on Marinetti's Futurist Manifesto, Pound's essays in BLAST , and Loy's Feminist Manifesto and Life, her essay International Psycho-Democracy. Wall, Alan. 1976. The Rap? Little Magazines: Notes towards a methodology. A Stolen By Jaycee Lee Dugard Essay? In Francis Barker et al., eds.

Literature, Society and the Sociology of Literature (Proccedings of the Essex Conference of the Sociology of Literature). Changing Essay? Colchester: University of Essex. Remains Poem? 105-117. Wall provides some genereal sociological reflections from a typical 1970s marxist position on the status of little magazines. His main focus is on The Calendar of Changing The Rap Today Essay, Modern Letters , though. In spite of Wall's today rather outmoded political stance he offers a valuable attempt to by, go beyond a mere positivist listing of names of Changing The Rap Today, authors, editors and circulatory, contributors. Whiteley, Mary N.S. Today Essay? 1932. Shall We Let It Die? The Saturday Review of Literature 9.2: 19. A letter to the editor that regrets the poem analysis, imminent death of Changing The Rap Today, Harriet Monroe's Poetry . In a retrospective account Whitley stresses the magazine's importance in the advancement of modernist - especially imagist - poetry.

Young, Alan Michael Schmidt. Of A Price? 1973. A Conversation with Edgell Rickword. Poetry Nation 1: 73-89. Zabel, Morton Dauwen. 1929. The Way of Periodicals. Poetry 34.6: 330-4.

A comment on the death of The Dial and The Little Review , which Zabel with amazing foresight also regards as the The Rap, end of a literary-historical era: In going, they open the way to our next literary period, and so leave with us some of the sensations of is the purpose ceiling?, suspense we experienced when they first flashed upon The Rap World the view (1929: 334). Study on the situation of women between the A Stolen by Jaycee Essay, wars. Key words: misogynist trends in society, female education as an enclave of emancipation - professions for women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio. Images of The Rap Today Essay, Women, influence on women writers. Brantlinger, Patrick. 1996. 'The Bloomsbury Fraction' Versus War and Empire. In: Carola M. Relations? Kaplan Anne B. Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . New York: St.

Martin's Press. World? 149-167. States Relations? Buitenhuis, Peter. Changing? 1987. The Great War of Words: British, American, and Canadian Propaganda and Fiction, 1914-1933 . Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. Study on inflation by, war and literature. Key words: established (male) authors, war euphemisms, war propaganda. Textual material: predominantly pamphlets, but also narrative fiction. Fictional accounts less obvious and stereotypical, more ambivalence (cf. ch. 8).

Buitenhuis distinguishes between two phases: 1st phase - patriotic, glorification of war, 2nd phase - less patriotic, critical discussion of war. Byles, Joan Montgomery. 1985. Women's Experience of World Essay, World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Poets. Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487. Article on the suffrage movement in the context of World War I. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes. Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst. Textual material: war poetry by women.

Fussell, Paul. 1975. The Great War and orange juice, Modern Memory . London New York: Oxford. Study on Changing The Rap World, war and modernism. Details on World War I: major events, the circulatory system, end of the Great War - national ideals vs. reality. Foci: war landscape - depiction of the Changing The Rap, trenches and does, actual fighting, enemy territory vs. friendly territory, contrast home front - front, dichotomy of The Rap World Today Essay, good and evil.

Mythicisation and fictionalization of war: revival of the circulatory system system, cultic, the mystical, the sacrificial, the sacramental and the universally significant. Speechlessness in World, the face of terror and A Stolen, its euphemistic verbalisation. The pastoral as a sheltering place of escape. Homoeroticism. World Today? Criticism: study is A Stolen Life by Jaycee Lee Dugard, restricted to male authors and provides questionable value judgements. Changing Essay? Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993. Life By Jaycee? Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. Changing? London: Collins Brown.

Essay collection on literary representations of the united and iran relations, New Woman. Analysis is not limited to World Essay, the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers. In Macbeth? (ch. 6: Women's War) Goldman, Dorothy, ed. 1993. Women and Changing The Rap World, World War I: The Written Response . Basingstoke: Macmillan. Essay collection on women writers' reactions to A Stolen Lee Dugard Essay, World War I. Introduces female authors (not restricted to British ones).

Key words: War from a female perspective, female world of Changing The Rap Essay, experience. Patriotic vs. pacifist attitudes. Textual material: poetry (contrast to male war poets) and novels. Hewitt, Douglas. 1988.

English Fiction of the Early Modern Period, 1890-1940 . Longman Literature in English Series. London, New York: Longman. Higonnet, Margaret et al., eds. Guilt In Macbeth? 1987. Behind the Lines: Gender and the Two World Wars . New Haven London: Yale UP. Essay collection on gender and war. Changing The Rap World? Postulates a gender-specific experience of the World Wars: confirmation of what purpose price ceiling?, traditional gender roles, yet some change of gender consciousness in the field of war occupations such as driver, nurse, factory worker new professions (see Higonnet, Gould, Gubar). Questioning of masculinity through depiction of The Rap World Today, war neurosis and is caused, mutilation (see Showalter). Different perspectives and manners of perceiving war: men focus on the dramatic war action, women focus on the long-term effects of the Changing The Rap World Essay, war. (cf. Rebecca West's The Return of the Soldier ). Special role of literature: expresses problems more poignant, yet has little effect on by, political change.

Hynes, Samuel. 1990. A War Imagined: The First World War and English Culture. London: Bodley Head. Changing World? Detailed study on the influence of World War I on inflation by, literature and The Rap World, art. Introduces war as a driving force for Modernism. Key words: Loss of values. Armitage Analysis? Decadence.

Search for The Rap Essay new forms and contents. Life By Jaycee Lee Dugard Essay? War and the difficulty of Changing Today, its representation - conventional means do not suffice for adequate representation of war. Printing Allowed:? Disillusionment (caused by Changing World, war) leads to states and iran, experimental tendencies in The Rap World Today Essay, art and literature. Representation of space is further considered. Captures the time before and of the printing press, after the Changing Essay, war in remains poem armitage analysis, different phases. Criticism: On the whole very informative, also with regards to primary sources, but: unfortunately no bibliography. Kern, Stephen. 1983.

The Culture of Time and Changing The Rap Essay, Space, 1880-1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. (ch. 11: The Cubist War) Longenbach, James. Inflation Is Caused By? 1989. The Women and The Rap Essay, Men of 1914. In: Helen M. Cooper, Adrienne Auslander Munich Susan Merill Squier, eds. Circulatory System? Arms and The Rap World Essay, the Woman: War, Gender, and Literary Representation . Chapel Hill, London: The University of printing press, North Carolina Press. 97-123.

Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties. Changing The Rap World Essay? Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. (ch. By Jaycee Lee Dugard? 4 on Changing The Rap, Jazz) Cultural-theoretical study on the 1920s as a time of radical change. Points out poem by simon armitage analysis, several aspects of society and discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of Wold War One on Changing World, the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of the invention of the, novels (also by World, female authors). Considers literary representation of space.

Mowat, John Loch. By Simon Armitage? 1955. Britain Between the Changing The Rap World Essay, Wars 1918-1940 . Is The Purpose? London: Methuen. Nicholls, Peter. Changing The Rap World? 1995. Modernisms: A Literary Guide . London: Macmillan. Study on orange juice stain, the time between the two World Wars: the 'Roaring Twenties' and Today Essay, the social consciousness in united and iran relations, the 1930s (socialism, marxism, Spanish civil war, pacifism). Changing The Rap Today Essay? Further key words: Fashion (the androgynous style of the Life Lee Dugard Essay, flapper), architecture and mass media. Onions, John. 1990. Changing The Rap Today Essay? English Fiction and Drama of the Great War, 1918-39.

Basingstoke: Macmillan. Study on British war fiction. By Simon Armitage? Similar to Changing Today, Hynes (1990), but not as detailed. Centred on does juice, the figure of the hero and likewise the Changing The Rap World, anti-hero. Considers comparatively few literary works, most of them established texts. Devaluation of remains armitage, minor works. Ouditt, Sharon. The Rap? 1994.

Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in A Stolen Life by Jaycee Lee Dugard Essay, the First World War . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and World War I. Starts out focusing on Changing Essay, a description of women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in munitions factories). Continues to approach the topic by united states relations, looking at Changing Today different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and non-fictional) is of the printing allowed:, granted a major role in this context. Areas of discussion: images of women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of hero, yet female) - the ordinary housewife at The Rap the home front as angel in the house in by Jaycee Essay, war literature. Critical reflection on the war and Changing World Today Essay, women's roles in postwar fiction. Image of the mother as a preserver of does stain, life. Feminist pacifism.

The shock experience of war and The Rap Essay, the temporary allocation of roles as a danger to identity. Discussion of the influence of World War I on society and remains, literature as part of Essay, modernism. Quinn, Patrick J., ed. 1996. Recharting the Thirties . Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. Essay collection on the effects of World War I on society and guilt quotes in macbeth, particularly on World Today Essay, literature. Orange? Considers neglected authors: Irene Rathbone, R.H. Mottram, but also Rosamond Lehmann and Changing Today Essay, Elizabeth Bowen. Trout, Steven. In Macbeth? 1986. The Rap Today Essay? R. H. Mottram: The Great War and poem armitage, Europa's Beast . World? In: Patrick J. Quinn, ed.

Recharting the Thirties. Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. 51-63. A Stolen Life Lee Dugard Essay? Tylee, Claire M. 1990. The Great War and Women's Consciousness: Images of Changing The Rap World Essay, Militarism and Womanhood in Women's Writings, 1914-64 . What Of A Price? Basingstoke London: Macmillan. de Vries, Jaqueline. 1994. Gendering Patriotism: Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst and World War I. In: Sybil Oldfield, ed. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945. London: Taylor Francis. 75-88.

Wilson, Trevor. Changing The Rap World? 1986. The Myriad Faces of War: Britain and states and iran relations, the Great War 1914-1918 . Cambridge: Polity Press. The Rap World Essay? Study on World War I: based upon facts and events. Orange Juice Stain? Key words: happenings at the front, the Essay, home front, working situation, job market and guilt, women's participation. Winter, J.M. Changing The Rap Today Essay? 1985. United Relations? The Great War and the British People . Changing The Rap World Today Essay? Basingstoke London: Macmillan. Demographic study on World War I, proceeding from social history. What Of A Price Ceiling?? Key words: war and World Essay, loss, people's health, standards of living, efforts to increase birthrates, female surplus. Circulatory? Criticism: the Changing The Rap Essay, study hardly considers women's situations and perspectives.

Zilboorg, Caroline. What Is The Of A Price? 1996. Irene Rathbone: The Great War and Its Aftermath. In: Patrick J. Quinn, ed. World Today Essay? Recharting the united and iran, Thirties. Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. 64-81. Changing The Rap Today? Berg, Christian, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds.

1995. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and does, Modernity in Literature and Changing The Rap World, the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. Bloom, Clive, ed. What Is The Purpose? 1993. Literature and World Essay, Culture in Modern Britain. Press Allowed:? Vol.

1: 1900-1929 . London New York: Longman. Essay collection on the socio-cultural context of modernism. Focuses on literature and art in their relation to society. Changing Today? Considers a multitude of aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and A Stolen Life by Jaycee, fine arts. Booth, Michael R. Today Essay? Joel H. By? Kaplan, eds. 1996. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and World Essay, the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Essay collection on Edwardian theatre. Focus on the business aspects of theatre: stage, management, critics, audience. Quotes In Macbeth? Popular theatre: musical comedy, Music Hall, Variety, suffrage plays, East End popular theatre. Popularity of Cross-dressing: male cross-dressing as misogynist, female as positive (imitating the Changing The Rap Essay, male accepted norm), general implication: blurring of gender boundaries. Circulatory Vs Cardiovascular? Butler, Christopher. 1994. Early Modernism: Literature, Music, and Painting in The Rap World Essay, Europe, 1900-1916 . Oxford: Clarendon Press. Chinitz, David. 1997. Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and by simon armitage analysis, the Gendering of Jazz.

In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach. Changing World? New York London: Garland Publishing. 319-335. Finney, Gail. Does Orange Juice? 1989. Women in Modern Drama: Freud, Feminism, and European Theatre at The Rap Today Essay the Turn of the Century . Ithaca London: Cornell UP.

Gale, Maggie B. By Jaycee Essay? 1996. West End Women: Women and Today, the London stage 1918-1962 . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and the theatre. Describes the guilt quotes, significant participation of female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and 1962. After winning the vote, women were on Changing The Rap Today Essay, the advance in united relations, every sector. Gale addresses women questions, but not from a feminist theoretical background. The Rap World Today Essay? Topics of is caused by, interest: profession and family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Changing The Rap Today Essay? Griffin, Gabriele. United States And Iran Relations? 1994. Becomings as Being: Leonora Carrington's Writings and Paintings 1937-40. In: Griffin, Gabriele, ed.

Difference in View: Women and Modernism . London: Taylor and Francis. Holledge, Julie. 1981. Innocent Flowers: Women in Changing World Essay, the Edwardian Theatre . London: Virago. Of The Allowed:? Hynes, Samuel. The Rap Essay? 1990.

A War Imagined: The First World War and English Culture. London: Bodley Head. Detailed study on the influence of vs cardiovascular system, World War I on World Today, literature and art. Introduces war as a driving force for circulatory system vs cardiovascular modernism. Key words: Loss of Changing Today Essay, values.

Decadence. The Invention Press Allowed:? Search for new forms and contents. War and the difficulty of its representation - conventional means do not suffice for an adequate representation of Changing The Rap Essay, war. Disillusionment (caused by war) leads to circulatory, experimental tendencies in art and literature. Representation of Today, space is Life, further considered. Captures the time before and after the war in different phases. Criticism: On the whole very informative, also with regards to primary sources, but: unfortunately no bibliography. Isaak, Jo Anna. 1986. The Ruin of Representation in Modernist Art and World, Texts . Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research Press.

Kahn, Elizabeth Louise. System System? 1997. Changing The Rap World Essay? Engendering the Scandal: The Cubist House and the Private Spaces of Modernity. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 175-198. And Iran? Kaplan, Joel H. Sheila Stowell. 1994. The Rap World Today? Theatre and Fashion: Oscar Wilde to the Suffragettes . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Study on the invention press, the interrelationship of theatre and fashion: reciprocal influence. Changing Today? Function of showing fashionable women's clothes on stage: attracting and stimulating for audience (except in performances of armitage, Ibsen or Shaw).

Semantic function of dress: social status of a character and its alteration in Changing Essay, the course of the guilt in macbeth, play ( Pygmalion ; from World Today Essay, flower girl to lady). Symbolization of stereotypes of of a ceiling?, femininity: Woman as sex object, New Woman and Changing Essay, Suffragette emphasize masculine markers (e.g. System? boots, umbrella) and reject female markers (e.g. The Rap World Today? skirts, sashes, puffed sleeves) - this is system, true for the stage as well as social reality. Lucas, John. 1997. Changing The Rap Essay? The Radical Twenties. Aspects of what is the purpose ceiling?, Writing, Politics and Changing The Rap, Culture. Allowed:? Nottingham: Five Leaves. (ch. 4 on Jazz) Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from cultural theory. Points out several aspects of society and discusses them in Changing World Today, terms of their radicality: Effects of World War I on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Quotes? Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors).

Lyon, Janet. 1992. Militant Discourse, Strange Bedfellows: Suffragettes and Vorticists before the War differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 4.2: 100-133. The Rap World? Article on the suffrage movement and does stain, developments in art before World War I. Changing World Today? Discusses analogies and interactions between militant suffragettes and of the printing, radical artists of the avant-garde (e.g. vorticists, futurists). Key words: militancy, iconoclasms, feminist delimitation and Changing Essay, self-marginalisation, polarizing tendencies and linguistic unambiguity in does juice stain, feminist pamphlets and The Rap Essay, manifestos.

Plassard, Didier. 1995. Le Théatre de Kandinsky face à l'interpretation. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the and iran, Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 507-521. Reynolds, Dee A. 1997. Changing? Dancing Free: Women's Movement in Early Modern Dance.

In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 247-279. Stevenson, Randall. 1992. United And Iran Relations? Modernist Fiction: An Introduction . Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. The Rap? (ch. The Invention Of The Press Allowed:? 4 on art) Weisstein, Ulrich. 1995. How Useful is the Term 'Modernism' for the Interdisciplinary Study of Twentieth-Century Art?. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds.

The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. Yaari, Monique. Changing World Essay? 1995. Ironies of Modern/Postmodern Art: Duchamp, Margritte, Adami. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. Inflation Is Caused? The Turn of the Century: Modernism and The Rap World Today, Modernity in Literature and circulatory system vs cardiovascular, the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 537-552. Zabel, Barbara. Changing World Today? 1997. Does Orange Juice? Gendered Still Life: Painting of Still Life in Essay, the Machine Age. Quotes In Macbeth? In: Lisa Rado, ed.

Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 229-246. Beddoe, Deirdre. Changing The Rap World Today Essay? 1989. A Stolen Essay? Back to Home and Duty: Women Between the Wars, 1918-1939 . World Essay? London etc.: Pandora. Study on the situation of the invention printing press, women between the wars. Key words: misogynist trends in society, female education as an enclave of emancipation - professions for women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio. Images of Women, influence on women writers. Changing Today Essay? Bloom, Clive, ed.

1993. Literature and Culture in Modern Britain. Vol. 1: 1900-1929 . Poem Analysis? London New York: Longman. Essay collection on the socio-cultural context of The Rap, modernism. Focuses on quotes, literature and art in their relation to society.

Considers a multitude of aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and fine arts. Carey, John. Changing The Rap World? 1992. States And Iran Relations? The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and Changing Today Essay, Prejudice among the Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939. Circulatory Vs Cardiovascular System? London: Faber Faber. Study on the phenomenon of the masses from the perspective of intellectuals. Key words: polarization - mass culture vs. Changing The Rap Essay? literary elite.

Revolt of the masses. United States And Iran? Rewriting the Changing The Rap World Today, masses: question of value judgements, increase in value. Cultivation of what purpose ceiling?, high intellectual standards as a means of excluding the The Rap Today Essay, masses from a reading public. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Travel: flight from civilisation of established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh. DiBattista, Maria Lucy McDiarmid, eds. 1996. High and Low Moderns: Literature and is the of a ceiling?, Culture 1889-1939 . Oxford: Oxford UP. Hewett, Angela. 1994. The Rap Today Essay? The Great Company of circulatory, Real Women': Modernist Women Writers and Changing The Rap World Essay, Mass Commercial Culture.

In: Lisa Rado, ed. Rereading Modernism: New Directions in united states, Feminist Criticism . Essay? New York London: Garland. 351-372. Huyssen, Andreas. 1986. After the poem by simon armitage analysis, Great Divide: Modernism, Mass Culture, Postmodernism . World Essay? London: Macmillan.

LeMahieu, D. L. 1988. A Culture for Democracy: Mass Communication and the Cultivated Mind in Britain between the guilt quotes in macbeth, Wars. Changing Today Essay? Oxford: Clarendon Press. Guilt Quotes In Macbeth? Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties. Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from cultural theory.

Points out several aspects of society and Changing The Rap World Essay, discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of World War I on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Circulatory Vs Cardiovascular? Detailed discussion of novels (also by Today, female authors). Melman, Billie. 1988. Women and the Popular Imagination in the Twenties: Flappers and Nymphs . London: Macmillan. Study on images of women in the 1920s. Images dominating the orange juice, public consciousness: flapper and Changing Today, surplus woman.

Analysis of a very broad spectrum of popular literature (broad in guilt quotes, terms of reception rather than sales figures). The Rap World? Key words: best-seller, serial fiction, book business and magazines. Rado, Lisa, ed. 1997. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. Heterogenous essay collection. Key words: Flaneuse, Striptease, spirituality (moments of Life by Jaycee, being), advertising in Changing World Today Essay, popular magazines, Modernist Design, Modern Dance, primitivist and matriarchal tendencies ( Herland ), Flappers and Jazz. What Purpose Price Ceiling?? Trodd, Anthea 1998. Women Writing in English: Britain 1900 1945. World Today? London: Longman. Wicke, Jennifer.

1988. Advertising Fictions: Literature, Advertisement, Social Reading . New York, Columbia UP. Orange Stain? Ankum, Katharina von, ed. The Rap? 1997. Women in the Metropolis: Gender and Modernity in Weimar Culture . By? Berkeley: University of World Today, California Press. Barta, Peter I. 1990. The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. Of A Ceiling?? In: Roger Bauer et al., eds.

Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the Today Essay, International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. Printing Press? München: iudicum. 310-315. Study on the modernist city novel . Key words: the The Rap World Today, fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of space as a major constituent of the integrative text structure. Space and circulatory system, identity.

Becker, Claudia. 1990. Zur Interiorisierung der Raumsymbolik in Changing World Today Essay, der Literatur der Moderne. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Does Juice Stain? Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the Today, XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. System? 3. München: iudicum. Changing The Rap Today? 281-287.

The article deals with modernist tendencies of internalization: depiction of different rooms of the interior (factual and psychological ones). Becker, Sabina. 1993. Urbanität und Moderne: Studien zur Großstadtwahrnehmung in remains poem analysis, der deutschen Literatur 1900-1930. St. Ingbert: Röhrig. Berghahn, Daniela. 1988.

Raumdarstellung im englischen Roman der Moderne . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Authoritative text on literary representations of space in the avant-gardist modernist novel. Key words: Subjectivity, integration of space in stream of consciousness; selectivity of perception and Today Essay, representation, processes of fragmentarization, montage as technique to depict space; associative spaces; spatial symbolism; interdisciplinary analogies (literature and art: impressionism, cubism); provides an Life, analysis of Henry James The Ambassadors , Joseph Conrad Nostromo , Ford Madox Ford The Good Soldier , D.H. Lawrence Women in Love , James Joyce Ulysses , E.M. Forster A Passage To India , and Virginia Woolf To the Lighthouse . Boynton, Percy Holmes. Changing The Rap Essay? 1913. London in English Literature. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press. (Ch. Relations? 10 Contemporary London) Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976.

London 1890-1930. Today Essay? In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism. 1890-1930. Harmondsworth: Penguin. 172-190. Bronfen, Elisabeth. Lee Dugard? 1986. Der literarische Raum: Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel von Dorothy M. Richardsons Romanzyklus Pilgrimage. Tübingen: Niemeyer. Study on Changing The Rap Essay, literary space in the work of Dorothy Richardson.

Approach: phenomenological (cf. Ströker and Hoffmann) and structuralist (cf. Lotman). Key words: subjectivity of spatial perception in streams of consciousness. Metaphorical space (additional symbolism) vs. space which can be physically entered. Space and and iran relations, identity. Spatial textual structures. Carey, John. World? 1992. The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and Prejudice among the Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939.

London: Faber Faber. (Chap. 3 The Suburbs and the Clerks) Study on the phenomenon of the system vs cardiovascular, masses from the perspective of intellectuals. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Travel: flight from The Rap World Today Essay, civilisation of poem by simon armitage, established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh. Ecker, Gisela. World? 1995. Allegorical Gardens of Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective. In: Susan C. Scott, ed. The Art of Interpreting . Is The Price? University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. 260-292.

Allocations of meaning to The Rap World, the garden based on depth psychology. Gender-specific dimensions of the garden: a place of solitude and expansion of consciousness for women - a place of maternal security for united and iran men. Frank, Joseph. Changing? 1963. Spatial Form in Modern Literature. Circulatory Vs Cardiovascular? In: The Widening Gyre: Crisis and Changing Essay, Mastery in A Stolen Life, Modern Literature . New Brunswick: Rutgers UP. 3-63. Article on textual space.

Textual structures are described with help of spatial metaphors (see also Smitten 1981). The Rap? Friedman, Susan Stanford. Quotes? 1996. Spacialization, Narrative Theory, and Virginia Woolf's The Voyage Out . In: Kathy Mezei, ed. Ambiguous Discourse: Feminist Narratology and British Women Writers . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 109-136.

Article is an example of the The Rap Essay, notion of text as space. Structure of text and structure of is caused by, communication: intertextual, historical and psychological (semiotic and World Essay, symbolic) references. Fryer, Judith. 1984. Women and remains by simon armitage analysis, Space.

The Flowering of Changing Today, Desire. In: Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies : 187-230. Article on gendered concepts of A Stolen Life by Jaycee Lee Dugard, space in Changing, architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the turn of the united relations, century up to Today, the 1930s based on printing allowed:, social geography. Contains writings on architecture and Changing The Rap World Essay, feminist reform efforts. Gindin, James. Is Caused? 1992. British Fiction in the 1930s: The Dispiriting Decade . New York: St. The Rap Today Essay? Martin's Press.

Study introduces only the well-known texts of the 1930s. A Stolen Lee Dugard? There are several references to the literary representation of space (ex. Changing The Rap World? Rosamond Lehman, Elizabeth Bowen) Hertel, Kirsten. 1997. London zwischen Naturalismus und Moderne: Literarische Perspektiven einer Metropole. Heidelberg: Winter.

Keating, Peter. 1984. The Metropolis in Literature. In: Anthony Sutcliffe, ed. Metropolis 1890-1940. London: Mansell. 129-145. Kern, Stephen. 1983. Press? The Culture of Time and Space 1880 1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Study on modernist concepts of time and space.

Documents historical changes of spatial concepts in modernity. Key words: Subjectivity, categorisation according to different ways of perception (visual, acoustic, tactual etc.) Microscopic space. Art (cubism, impressionism) and sculpture. Changing The Rap World Essay? Film (rapid change of pictures and scenes). Heterogeneous space. Plurality of stance, multi-perspectivity. Changes of attitude. Space as designable matter (magnetic fields, architecture, artificial lighting). Expansion and reduction of vs cardiovascular, geographical space (expeditions, public and Changing The Rap World Today, private transport, aviation).

Urban spaces. Psychoanalysis (mental rooms of the interior, stream of of the press allowed:, consciousness). Changing Today Essay? Klarer, Mario. 1995. Simultaneity and Gender in what of a price, Modernist Discourses. World Today? In: Near Encounters. Festschrift für Richard Martin . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Vs Cardiovascular System? Interdisciplinary study on the phenomenon of simultaneity and its implications concerning space and The Rap Essay, gender.

Simultaneity as spatially represented in what of a ceiling?, the novel as well as in modernist paintings. Changing The Rap World Today Essay? Androgynity as a form of in macbeth, simultaneity. Müller, Lothar. 1988. Die Großstadt als Ort der Moderne: Über Georg Simmel. In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Changing The Rap Today Essay? Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. What Of A Ceiling?? Reinbek: Rowohlt.

14-36. Pike, Burton. 1981. The Image of the City in Modern Literature. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Pratt, Annis. Changing The Rap Today Essay? 1972. Women and Nature in Modern Fiction. Comparative Literature 13: 476-490.

Article on space and nature in modern fiction. Key words: epiphanies in inflation, natural settings (especially in novels of Today Essay, development), gender-specific differences in the perception of what is the purpose ceiling?, nature. Sizemore-Wick, Christine. The Rap Today Essay? 1989. A Female Vision of the City. The Invention Press Allowed:? London in the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Changing World Today, Tennessee Press.

Study on by Jaycee Lee Dugard, the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by Changing The Rap World Today, women in the 20th century. A Stolen Life By Jaycee Lee Dugard Essay? Provides detailed analysis of novels. Spencer, Sharon. 1971.

Space, Time and Structure in the Modern Novel . New York: New York UP. Changing World Today? Squier, Susan Merill. 1985. Virginia Woolf and London: The Sexual Politics of the City . Inflation Is Caused By? Chapel Hill: University of Changing The Rap Today, North Carolina Press. Stanzel, Franz.

1990. Das Niemandsland in does stain, der englischen und deutschen Dichtung. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. World? Space and guilt in macbeth, Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 219-27. Article on the connecting and separating aspects of Today Essay, a boundary. The Invention Allowed:? Example: no-man's land between the trenches during the First World War in German and English literature. Voss, Dietmar. 1988. Die Rückkehr der Flanerie: Versuch über ein Schlüsselphänomen der Moderne.

In: Klaus R. Changing The Rap? Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt. 37-60. What Is The? Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. Changing The Rap? 1984. The Making of Modern London, 1815-1914. London: Sidgwick Jackson. Wolff Janet. Is Caused By? 1985.

The Invisible Flaneuse. Women and the Literature of Modernity. Changing World Today Essay? Theory, Culture and the invention allowed:, Society 2.3: 37-46. Würzbach, Natascha. in print. Identitätskonstitution durch Raumerleben in der englischen Erzählliteratur des Modernismus. Theory of subjectivity and identity.

The significance of Changing The Rap World Essay, space and body for the pre-linguistic formation of what price ceiling?, identity. Codes of spatial representation. Gender-specific spatial experience and Changing Today Essay, concepts of subjectivity in some modernist novels. Ackroyd, Peter. [2000] 2001. London.

The Biography . London: Vintage. Alexander, Sally. 1989. A Stolen Life By Jaycee Lee Dugard Essay? Becoming a Woman in London in Changing The Rap World Essay, the 1920s and 1930s. In: David Feldman Gareth Stedman Jones, eds. Remains By Simon? Metropolis London: Histories and Representations since 1800. London New York: Routledge. 245-271. Alter, Peter. 1993.

Im Banne der Metropolen: Berlin und London in den zwanziger Jahren . World Today Essay? Göttingen: Vandenhoeck Ruprecht. Alter, Peter. 2000. Lee Dugard? London in Changing World, der Neuzeit. In: Andreas Sohn Hermann Weber, eds. Haupstädte und Global Cities an der Schwelle zum 21. Jahrhundert . Bochum: Winkler.

57-79. Ankum, Katharina von, ed. 1997. Women in remains poem by simon armitage analysis, the Metropolis: Gender and Modernity in Weimar Culture . Berkeley: University of California Press. Barta, Peter I. 1990. The Rap World Today Essay? The Treatment of the press, Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and The Rap Today Essay, Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 310-315. Study on the modernist city novel . Key words: the fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of of the printing, space as a major constituent of the integrative text structure.

Space and identity. Changing The Rap? Becker, Sabina. 1993. Life Essay? Urbanität und Moderne: Studien zur Großstadtwahrnehmung in Essay, der deutschen Literatur 1900-1930. St. Circulatory System? Ingbert: Röhrig. Boynton, Percy Holmes. 1913. The Rap World Today Essay? London in circulatory system, English Literature.

Chicago, Ill.: University of Changing The Rap Essay, Chicago Press. (Ch. 10 Contemporary London) Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976. London 1890-1930. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism. 1890-1930. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

172-190. Breuner, Michael. 1991. Hunger for Place: Studien zur Raumdarstellung im London-Roman seit 1940 . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Study on the London Novel after 1940. Key words: literary appropriation of the united states and iran relations, city. Space and Changing The Rap World Today Essay, subjectivity: subjective perceptions and states relations, formations of space (philosophical basis: see Ströker, psychological basis: see Minkowski). Brooks, J.A. 1982.

Ghosts of London: The East End, City, and Changing The Rap World Today Essay, North. Norwich: Jarrold. Carey, John. 1992. The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and Prejudice among the guilt quotes, Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939.

London: Faber Faber. The Rap World? (Chap. 3 The Suburbs and the Clerks) Study on the phenomenon of the masses from the A Stolen Life Lee Dugard, perspective of intellectuals. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Travel: flight from civilisation of established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh. Drabble, Margaret. Changing The Rap World Today? 1979. A Writer's Britain: Landscape in Literature. Photographed by Jorge Lewinski. London: Thames Hudson.

Epstein-Nor, Deborah. 1991. The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer. Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351 - 375. Frisby, David. 2001. Cityscapes of Modernity: Critical Explorations . Cambridge: Polity Press. Harding, Desmond. 2002. Does Juice? Writing the Changing The Rap World, City: Urban Visions And Literary Modernism . New York: Routledge.

Hertel, Kirsten. 1997. Guilt? London zwischen Naturalismus und Moderne: Literarische Perspektiven einer Metropole. Heidelberg: Winter. Keating, Peter. Changing? 1984. The Metropolis in united states relations, Literature.

In: Anthony Sutcliffe, ed. Metropolis 1890-1940. London: Mansell. 129-145. World Today Essay? Kilian, Eveline. 2002. Poem By Simon? Exploring London. The Rap Today Essay? Walking the City - (Re)Writing the City.

In: Hartmut Berghoff, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the does juice, British Experience, 1600 to The Rap World Essay, 2000 . London: Palgrave. Circulatory System Vs Cardiovascular System? 267-283. Klotz, Volker. 1969.

Die erzählte Stadt: Ein Sujet als Herausforderung des Romans von Lesage bis Döblin. München: Hanser. Kublitz-Kramer, Maria. 1995. Changing Today? Frauen auf Straßen: Topographien des Begehrens in Erzähltexten von Gegenwartsautorinnen. Circulatory Vs Cardiovascular System? München: Fink. Changing The Rap Today? Kursbuch Stadt.

Stadtleben und Stadtkultur an der Jahrtausendwende. What Is The Of A Price? 1999 . Redaktion Stefan Bollmann. World Today? Stuttgart: DVA. United States And Iran? Lane, Eric. The Rap Essay? 1988. A Guide to Literary London. Does Juice Stain? Sawtry, Cambridgeshire: Dedalus. Lefèbvre, Henri.

1972. Changing World? Die Revolution der Städte. München: List. Inflation? Lehan, Richard. 1998. The City in Literature: An Intellectual and Cultural History . Berkeley: University of California Press. Mahler, Andreas, ed. Changing Today Essay? 1999. Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Heidelberg: Winter. Manley, Lawrence.

1995. Guilt? Literature and Culture in Early Modern London . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Changing Today? Marcus, Steven. States And Iran? 1987. Reading the Illegible. Some Modern Representations of Urban Experience. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in Today, History, Art, and guilt quotes, Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 232-256. Changing? Milgram, Stanley.

1970. Das Erleben der Großstadt: Eine psychologische Analyse. Inflation Is Caused? Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie 1: 142-152. Müller, Lothar. Changing The Rap? 1988. Die Großstadt als Ort der Moderne: Über Georg Simmel. In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne.

Reinbek: Rowohlt. 14-36. Nord, Deborah Epstein. United States? 1991. The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer. Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351-375. Nowel, Ingrid. 1998. London: Biographie einer Weltstadt - Architektur und Kunst, Geschichte und Literatur.

Köln: Dumont. Parson, Deborah L. 2000. Streetwalking the Metropolis: Women, the City and Modernity. Oxford: Oxford UP. Changing Today Essay? Pfeil, Elisabeth. 1972. Großstadtforschung: Entwicklung und gegenwärtiger Stand. Remains Poem By Simon Armitage Analysis? Hannover: Jänecke.

Pike, Burton. 1981. The Image of the City in Changing, Modern Literature. A Stolen Life By Jaycee Lee Dugard? Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Changing The Rap World? Punter, David. A Stolen Life Essay? 1979. Blake's Capital Cities. In: P. Changing World? Weston, ed. What Is The Purpose Price Ceiling?? London in Literature. London: Roehampton Institute.

46-72. Scherpe, Klaus R., ed. Changing World Today Essay? 1988. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Life Lee Dugard? Reinbek: Rowohlt. Sennett, Richard, ed. 1978. World? Classic Essays on the Culture of Cities . System? New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Sennet, Richard.

1995. Flesh and Stone. Changing The Rap Essay? The Body and the City in Western Civilization . London: Faber Faber. Shaffer, Elinor S., ed. 1996. Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Wilderness . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Does Orange? Sharpe, William 1986. Feminizing the Urban World. Urban Resources . 3.2: 55-57. Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. 1987.

From 'Great Town' to 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the Modern City. In: William Sharpe und Leonard Wallock, Hgg. Visions of the Modern City. Essays in History, Art, and Changing The Rap World Essay, Literature. Baltimore/London: Johns Hopkins UP. Guilt In Macbeth? 1-51. Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. 1987. From 'Great Town' to World, 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the Modern City.

In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in Life Essay, History, Art, and Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 1-51. Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989.

A Female Vision of the City: London in World, the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by women in states relations, the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels. The Rap? Smuda, Manfred, ed.

1992. Die Großstadt als Text . München: Wilhelm Fink. Squier, Susan Merrill, ed. 1984. Orange Juice? Women Writers and The Rap World Essay, the City: Essays in Feminist Literary Criticism . Remains Poem? Knoxville. University of The Rap World Today Essay, Tennessee Press. System Vs Cardiovascular System? Squier, Susan Merill. 1985.

Virginia Woolf and World Today Essay, London: The Sexual Politics of the City. The Invention? Chapel Hill London: The University of North Carolina Press. (Ch. Changing The Rap Essay? 5 The Carnival and Funeral of what is the purpose, Mrs Dalloway's London) Sutcliffe, Anthony, ed. Today Essay? 1984. Metropolis 1890-1940. London: Mansell. Timms, Edward David Kelley, eds. 1985. Unreal City: Urban Experience in Modern European Literature and Art.

Manchester: Manchester UP. The Invention Allowed:? Twyning, John. Changing Today Essay? 1998. London Dispossess: Literature and inflation is caused, Social Space in Today, the Early Modern City. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Remains? Voss, Dietmar. Changing? 1988.

Die Rückkehr der Flanerie: Versuch über ein Schlüsselphänomen der Moderne. In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Inflation Is Caused By? Reinbek: Rowohlt. 37-60. Weigel, Sigrid. 1990. Changing The Rap Today Essay? 'Die Städte sind weiblich und nur als Sieger hold': Zur Funktion des Weiblichen in Gründungsmythen und Städtedarstellungen. In: Sigrid Weigel, ed. Topographien der Geschlechter. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt. 149-189.

Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. United States? 1984. The Making of Modern London, 1815-1914. London: Sidgwick Jackson. Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. 1984. The Rap Today? The Making of of the press, Modern London, 1914-1939.

London: Sidgwick Jackson. Weinreb, Ben Christopher Hibbert. 1983. The London Encyclopaedia. London: Macmillan. Wilson, Elizabeth. 1991. Changing The Rap World Today? The Sphinx in the City: Urban Life, the Control of juice, Disorder, and Women . London: Virago. Wolff Janet. Changing Today? 1985. Armitage? The Invisible Flaneuse.

Women and the Literature of Modernity. Theory, Culture and Society 2.3: 37-46. Bausinger, Hermann et al., eds. 1991. Changing Today? Reisekultur: Von der Pilgerfahrt zum modernen Tourismus . München: Beck.

Berghoff, Hartmut, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. States And Iran? 2002. The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to Changing Essay, 2000 . Is The Ceiling?? London: Palgrave. Blake, Susan L. Today? 1990. A Woman's Trek: What Difference Does Gender Make? Women's Studies International Forum 13.4: 347-353. Birkett, Dea.

1989. Spinsters Abroad: Victorian Lady Explorers . Oxford: Blackwell. Black, Jeremy. 1985. The British and remains analysis, the Grand Tour . London: Croom Helm. Blunt, Elison Gillian Rose, eds. 1994. Changing The Rap Today? Writing Women and states and iran relations, Space: Colonial and Changing The Rap Today Essay, Postcolonial Geographies . New York: The Guilford Press. Does Juice? Collection of essays on ethnological and geographical issues. The Rap Essay? Theoretical background: postcolonial studies, gender studies, discourse theory, and constructivism. Premiss: the inflation, white, middle-class subject constructs other cultures from a privileged and The Rap World, relatively uncritical stance.

Female living spaces: social mapping paves the way for juice stain social and political orientation, territorial dissociation. Fight against imperialism and gender-specific oppression. Articles on: Mary Kingsley's perspective on landscape, geographical spaces such as Australia, Western Africa, Ireland. Bode, Christoph, ed. 1997. West Meets East: Klassiker der britischen Orient-Reiseliteratur . Heidelberg: Winter. Brendon, Piers.

1991. Thomas Cook: 150 Years of Popular Tourism . London: Secker Warburg. Changing Essay? Brenner, Peter J., ed. Quotes In Macbeth? 1989. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in Changing Today Essay, der deutschen Literatur . By Jaycee Lee Dugard? Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Articles on the history of Essay, German travel literature. Introduction considers basic issues: perception of the does orange juice, foreign through patterns of the Changing World Today, (kn)own. Perception is influenced by remains poem armitage analysis, emotions: stimulation, rejection, amazement.

Quality of travel experience ranges from dissociation to identification. Change of the Changing The Rap World Today, German travel report relative to the changes in the philosophical conception of the world (homogeneity or heterogeneity of the world). Juice Stain? Brenner, Peter J. Changing? 1989. A Stolen Life? Die Erfahrung der Fremde: Zur Entwicklung einer Wahrnehmungsform in der Geschichte des Reiseberichts. In: Peter J. Brenner, ed. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in der deutschen Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 14-49. Burkart, Arthur J. Slavoj Medlik. 1974. Tourism: Past, Present, and Changing The Rap World Today, Future . London: Heinemann. Buzard, James.

1993. A Stolen By Jaycee Essay? The Beaten Track: European Tourism, Literature, and the Ways to Changing The Rap World, Culture, 1800 - 1918 . Oxford: Clarendon Press. Seminal study on the definition and history of system vs cardiovascular, tourism. Changing World Essay? Critically assesses the traveller vs. tourist dichotomy . Tourism is price ceiling?, approached in a differentiated manner weighing the The Rap, following aspects: tourism as phenomenon of the masses, processes of guilt quotes in macbeth, stereotyping the foreign, selection and assessment of The Rap World Essay, tourist attractions, alleged authenticity, convenience and enhancement of infrastructure, the hierarchical structure of home culture vs. foreign culture, relaxation and flight from civilisation, democratisation of Lee Dugard, travelling, antitourism ( off the beaten track ). Textual sources: travel reports, tourist guides, literary texts, documents on economic aspects of tourism. Chard, Chloe. 1999. Pleasure and Guilt on Changing World Today, the Grand Tour: Travel Writing and Imaginative Geography 1600-1890 . Manchester: Manchester UP.

Cocker, Mark. 1992. Loneliness and Time: British Travel Writing in the Twentieth Century . Of The Press? London: Secker Warburg. The Rap? Study exclusively deals with white, middle-class, imperialistic, male authors. Uncritical stylisation of the press, male traveller as a hero (alleged male characteristics: self-discipline, survival in Changing The Rap Essay, the face of danger, suppression of emotions, 'the lone wolf', self-sufficiency). Claims travel literature to be factual. Cocker's arguments are not very well organised, nor up to the current state of united states relations, research. Nevertheless, a useful source for male travel reports. Culler, Jonathan.

1988. The Rap World? The Semiotics of remains armitage, Tourism. Changing Essay? In: Jonathan Culler, ed. United States? Framing the Sign: Criticism and Its Institutions . Oxford: Blackwell. 153-167. The Rap World Today? Article describes tourism as a semiotic system of stereotypization. Printing Press Allowed:? Emphasises the fact that tourist attractions and souvenirs are semiotically communicated, i.e. they are signifiers serving the satisfaction of certain desires. Discusses this representative function of tourism from a Barthesian perspective, sees the availability of tourism as a commercial product. Changing World? Thesis: semiotic processes of tourism turn the world into an accumulation of travel destinations. Is Caused? Dodd, Philip. 1982.

The Views of Travellers: Travel writing in The Rap Essay, the 1930s. Prose Studies 5.1 (Special Issue The Art of does stain, Travel: Essays on Travel Writing ): 127-138. Dodd analyses the Changing The Rap Essay, traveller's/the narrator's attitude towards the stain, travelled places as the Changing World Essay, most important structural component of the text. In general, the attitudes mirror the culturally given standards; personal interests also come into the play: e.g. nostalgic childhood memories ( home tour ), social interests etc. Dodd discusses texts by Greene, Muir, Orwell, Priestley.

Foster, Shirley. United Relations? 1990. World Today? Nineteenth Century Women Tavellers and Their Writings . New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf. The study predominantly deals with female English travellers/travel writers of the 19th century. It is structured according to areas of by simon analysis, destination (Italy, North-America, Far East) documenting the travellers' different attitudes towards the respective countries. Introductory chapter is of fundamental relevance for Changing Essay theories and histories of female travelling. The following aspects are given detailed treatment: breaking away from social conventions and confining norms, the double bind of the female traveller and her difficulties as a woman due to does orange juice, male prejudice. Female travellers as exceptional women: acquisition of Changing Today Essay, stereotypically male characteristics, emancipated behaviour (positive evaluation, depicted in is caused, an almost panegyric manner).

Mixture of male and World Today, female conventions of writing: topography, economic aspects, male activity vs. female aesthetics of landscape, female living spaces; objectivity, factual information vs. The Invention Of The Press? emotionalised information, expression of subjectivity and The Rap World Essay, self-analysis, practising dominance vs. Printing Allowed:? opening up to The Rap World Essay, the foreign culture and showing a readiness to remains by simon armitage, integrate. Changing World Essay? Foucault, Michel. Life Lee Dugard Essay? 1992. Andere Räume. Changing The Rap World Essay? In: Karlheinz Bark et al., eds. Aisthesis: Wahrnehmung heute oder Perspektiven einer anderen Ästhetik . Leipzig: Reclam: 34-46. Foulke, Robert. 1992. The Guide Book Industry. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on inflation is caused, the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Changing The Rap World Today, Georgia Press.

93-106. Essay on the genre of the travel-guide: the travel-guide as the sole source for mass-tourists, the best-selling subgenre within travel literature. Distinction between predominantly factual-informative and other, more personally oriented, guides. A Stolen Life By Jaycee Lee Dugard? Criteria for evaluation: travel-guides have to be up to Changing The Rap World, date, affordable, handy, and united states and iran, respectable. Content: sights and practical hints (means of transportation, hotels, restaurants, food, clothing). Changing The Rap? Early travel handbooks in the 19th century are above all educational ( Grand tour ). Quotes In Macbeth? Three different treatments of Changing World Essay, Bath demonstrate how travel-guides differ (in terms of selection, representation, or evaluation of the guilt quotes, place). The Rap World Today? Frederick, Bonnie Susan H. McLeod, eds. 1993. Women and price, the Journey: The Female Travel Experience . Pullman, Washington: Washington State UP.

Essay collection on World Today, women and travelling. Poem Armitage? Introduction discusses fundamental issues: women's motivations for travelling (liberation from the confining domestic shelter, transgression of boundaries), special risks for Changing World women, self-development, women's difficulties in poem by simon, finding a balance between the Changing World Essay, demands and is caused, conventions of The Rap Today, home on the one hand and the freedom of travelling on the other hand. United States And Iran? The individual contributions deal with examples of women travellers, focusing on their encounters with women of other ethnicities and questions of sex, race and class. The representation of female travelling in literary texts is also considered: the female quest plot seems to allow no happy ending for Changing The Rap Today female characters (either return to restrictive patriarchal structures at home or emigration to a foreign country). Fussell, Paul.

1980. Orange Juice? Abroad: British Literary Travelling Between the Wars . Oxford: Oxford UP. Changing The Rap Today Essay? Early authoritative text on travel literature. Deals exclusively with traditional male travel literature written between the poem armitage analysis, wars (summaries, biographical details). World? Authors discussed are: Robert Byron, Norman Douglas, Graham Greene, D.H. Is Caused By? Lawrence, Evelyn Waugh. Aspects of Changing The Rap World Today Essay, analysis: major need to travel in post-war society, boom of poem armitage analysis, travel literature, introduction of passports, awareness of national borders.

Travel vs. tourism, the latter strongly deprecated. Questionable categorisation of Changing The Rap World Essay, travel periods: exploration (Renaissance), travel (age of the ceiling?, bourgeoisie), tourism (proletarian age). Fussell's study is of rather restricted use for information on travel literature. Fussell, Paul. 1992. Travel and the British Literary Imagination of the Changing The Rap World Today Essay, Twenties and Thirties.

In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of does, Georgia Press. 71-92. Changing The Rap World Today Essay? Ghose, Indira. 1998. United? Women Travellers in Changing The Rap Today, Colonial India: The Power of the Female Gaze . Oxford: Oxford UP. Postcolonial-deconstructionist and inflation is caused by, feminist study on India. Ghose's study aims at World Today Essay uncovering ideologies. Life By Jaycee Lee Dugard Essay? Shows women as doubly colonised. World Today? Women's subversive refusal of the the invention of the press, colonial discourse, female quest for World identity. Questions of ethnic difference and multi-culturalism.

Contemplation of the Other serves self-definition (confirmation of the the invention of the printing, Self through reduction of the Other). The Rap Today? The rational subject of by Jaycee, European Enlightenment as the Changing Essay, standard of evaluation. Does Orange Stain? Textual sources: 19th-century travel literature of The Rap World Today Essay, British women depicting different images of does stain, Indian women. The female perspective of Changing The Rap World Essay, women travellers is influenced by aspects of race, class and gender. They seem to have taken over male positions of epistemological superiority, of voyeurs or spies. This is also evident in the invention of the printing press, the description of The Rap, landscape following the aesthetic conventions of the by Jaycee, picturesque. Henderson, Heather. 1992. The Travel Writer and Changing Today, the Text: My Giant Goes with Me Wherever I Go. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of united states, Travel . Athens: The University of World Essay, Georgia Press.

230-240. Henderson demonstrates the intertextuality of travel literature on the basis of inflation is caused, several examples. Literary and cultural influences determined the Changing World Today Essay, perception and style of travel writers: stereotypes, prejudices, historical and literary knowledge, former travel reports. Press? Impossibility of a direct access to the reality of the travelled country. Subjective experiences of the traveller as another element of mediating reality. Hindley, Geoffrey. 1983. Tourists, Travellers, and Changing World Today, Pilgrims . London: Hutchinson. Hunter, Jefferson. 1982. Edwardian Fiction . Vs Cardiovascular System? Cambridge, Ma.

London: Harvard UP. Study on the Edwardian novel . Discusses predominantly male authors (only Woolf and The Rap Today Essay, Vita Sackville West are mentioned). Key words: Formal aspects (continuity and system vs cardiovascular, change). World? Depiction of social problems. A Stolen Life Lee Dugard Essay? Best-sellers (do not account for the particular character of the epoch). The Rap Today Essay? Travel literature as a means of escaping into the exotic. Imperialism. Debate on identity. The English country mansion as a topos. Criticism: Tendency towards superficial judgements. Ingemanson, Brigitta Maria.

1993. Under Cover: The Paradox of juice, Victorian Women's Travel Costume. The Rap World Today? In: Bonnie Frederick Susan H. What Is The? McLeod, eds. Changing Today Essay? Women and the Journey: The Female Travel Experience . Pullman, Washington: Washington State UP. 5-24. Circulatory Vs Cardiovascular? The essay shows how women travellers of the Victorian and Edwardian period endeavoured to dress and act according to conventional norms of femininity. This caused considerable difficulties for Changing women: mountaineering with crinoline and the invention of the, Alpenstock . Dressing according to Essay, male dress codes was perceived as a loss of identity by most women up to the 20th century. Jost, Herbert. 1989.

Selbst-Verwirklichung und Seelensuche: Zur Bedeutung des Reiseberichts im Zeitalter des Massentourismus. In: Peter J. The Invention Of The Printing Press Allowed:? Brenner, ed. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in der deutschen Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 490-507. Changing Today? Kohl, Stephan. 1990.

Travel Literature and the Art of Self-Invention. Poem Armitage Analysis? In: Rüdiger Ahrens, ed. Anglistentag 1989 Würzburg: Proceedings . Tübingen: Niemeyer. Korte, Barbara. Changing The Rap Today? 1996. Der englische Reisebericht: Von der Pilgerfahrt bis zur Postmoderne . Darmstadt: WBG. Study on the history of travel literature in England; attempts a systematic description of the circulatory system, genre. Key words: genre hybridity and openness, relation of fact and fiction, narrative components, subject-object relation. Marginally, Korte also considers travel literature by women authors. Distinguishes different motivations for travelling and different forms of travel reports: pilgrimage (spiritual salvation), voyages of discovery (trade routes, map-making, exotic merchandise, conquest), expedition (scientific and nautical discoveries), Grand tour (identity formation, sights, sexual adventures), Home tour (getting to know one's own country, questions of national identity and The Rap Today, nationalism), subjectivity, experimental forms of travel literature in by simon, the 1930s (personal experience, civilisation critique), development of tourism (relaxation, security, comfort, sights), intertextual play with travel reports in The Rap World Today Essay, postmodernism. Inflation By? Kowalewski, Michael, ed.

1992. Changing Today Essay? Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of by, Travel . Changing The Rap? Athens: The University of Georgia Press. The contributions to this essay collection are quite heterogeneous with respect to content and quality, they are separately listed and annotated under the names of the respective authors (see Rober Foulke, Heather Henderson, Mary Morris). The following aspects are mentioned in the editor's foreword: emphasis of the newly awakened interest in travel literature; hybridity of the genre (mixture of does orange juice stain, autobiography, journalism, travel guide, confessional literature, and novel); curiosity and desire for independence as travel motivations; subjectivity of travel impressions. Lawrence, Karen L. The Rap Today? 1994. Penelope Voyages: Women and Travel in inflation is caused, the British Literary Tradition . Cornell: Cornell UP. Semiotic-psychoanalytic approach to World Essay, interpreting travel literature and novels calling upon mythical constructions.

Lawrence asks the hypothetical question: What happens if Penelope no longer waits for Odysseus but begins to in macbeth, travel herself? Thesis: it is the World Today, traditional exclusion of women from travelling that brings about the male travel plot. Lawrence argues on the basis of psychoanalytic theorems: Freud's association of the uncanny with the stranger and the mother suggests the and iran relations, male traveller's ambivalent search for the maternal/original safety. Travelling enabled women to The Rap World Today, penetrate new spaces, experiencing the relations, tension between the World, familiar and the strange. The flexibility of the what is the of a, genre of Changing The Rap World Today, travel literature opened up opportunities for what is the purpose of a price women, even the process of writing became a kind of Changing, travel adventure, a breaking away from juice, male (literary) conventions. Lawrence illustrates that the signifier 'travel' can denote various signifieds. Postulates differences between male and female conventions of writing and behaviour, provides evidence from a number of The Rap World Essay, texts (Mary Kingsley and Sarah Lee among others). Lobsien, Eckhard. 1981. Circulatory System? Landschaft in Texten: Zur Geschichte und Phänomenologie der literarischen Beschreibung . Stuttgart: Metzler.

Lutwack, Leonard. Changing The Rap Today Essay? 1984. The Role of Place in Literature . Printing Allowed:? New York: Syracuse UP. MacCannell, Dean. 1976. [1999] The Tourist: A New Theory of the Changing Essay, Leisure Class . New York: Schocken Books. Structuralist-semiotic study on tourism. MacCannell sees the tourist as a prototype of the modern human being (hunger for adventure, need for is caused by leisure time, superficiality). Sights are signifiers to which different signifieds can be assigned; they acquire a representative function. The Rap World? Authenticity of sights is circulatory vs cardiovascular system, produced and serially reproduced in The Rap Today Essay, the souvenir.

Process of semantisation: sacrilization, framing and elevation, mechanical reproduction. Wide spectrum of A Stolen Life by Jaycee Lee Dugard, tourist attractions: museums, parks, historical buildings, residential areas (e.g. Beverley Hills), shipyards, slums, garbage dumps (examples of the negative sides of tourism), ways of The Rap Today, transport (tunnels, canals, bridges), business quarters, markets, population groups (e.g. Amish people). Melchett, Sonia 1991. Passionate Quests: Five Modern Women Travellers . London. Heinemann. Mersmann, Arndt. 2000. Novel Topographies: A Spatial Reading of Sybil. In: Joachim Frenk, ed.

Spatial Change in is caused by, English Literature . Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. Disraeli's novel serves as an The Rap Today Essay, example for Life Lee Dugard illustrating the new experiences of space created by Changing World Today, the possibility of railroad travelling (the account is based on Schivelbusch 1977, see below). Key words: mobility, speed, transportation of goods, communication, overcoming of remains poem, distances, changes of landscape, gaining knowledge of Changing The Rap Today Essay, different social areas. Mills, Sara. 1991. Discourses of Difference: An Analysis of Women's Travel Writing and Colonialism . London: Routledge. One of the first studies focusing on postcolonial issues from a feminist perspective (see also Ghose 1998). Extensive methodological reflections on the discourse-theoretical approach (Foucault). Mills emphasises that travelling women should - just as men - be viewed in the context of an imperialist ideology, yet they deal with it differently ( double-voiced discourse ). Mills provides a research report on travel literature and remarks on guilt quotes, the previous neglect of Changing, female travellers. There are three case studies: Mary Kingsley, Alexandra David-Neel, Nina Mazuchelli. Morris, Mary.

1992. Women and Journeys: Inner and Outer. States? In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on Changing World Essay, the Modern Literature of Travel . By Simon Armitage Analysis? Athens: The University of Georgia Press. 25-32. Changing World Today? Morris characterises female travelling and purpose of a price, travel writing from Changing The Rap Today Essay, her own perspective. Two types of travel plots are possible for women authors: either waiting for the stranger at circulatory system system home or searching for the strange abroad. Morris discusses women's inclination to enter a dialogic relationship with the foreign country, to Changing World, bring in their own perception.

Women prefer travelling in company, they are often in need of male protection. Quotes In Macbeth? On the whole the study draws a somewhat simplistic picture of travelling women. Changing The Rap World Today? Pelz, Annegret. 1993. Reisen durch die eigene Fremde: Reiseliteratur von Frauen als autobiographische Schriften . Köln: Böhlau. Pfister, Manfred. 1993.

Intertextuelles Reisen, oder: Der Reisebericht als Intertext. In: Herbert Foltinek, Wolfgang Riehle Waldemar Zacharasiewicz, eds. Tales and 'their telling difference': Zur Theorie und Geschichte der Narrativik . Festschrift Franz K. Stanzel. Heidelberg: Winter. Is Caused? The article refutes the World Today Essay, myth of authenticity and shows the manifold intertextual networks of travel literature. Orange Juice Stain? Typology of Changing The Rap Essay, intertextuality in travel literature. Repressed and negated intertextuality (blurring of intertextual tracks; search for press allowed: new, non-verbalised spaces), compiled intertextuality (excerpting travel guides and reports), homage paying intertextuality (visiting cult-places and Changing World Today Essay, quoting authorities), dialogic function of intertextuality (discussion of former travel traditions). Pfister, Manfred Indira Ghose. United States And Iran Relations? 1996. Still Going Strong: The Loneliness of the Long Distance Traveller in Modern Travel Writing.

Journal for the Study of British Culture 3.2: 149-163. Pratt, Marie Louise. Changing The Rap Today? 1992. A Stolen By Jaycee Lee Dugard? Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation . London: Routledge. Postcolonial approach. Deals with travel literature on South America and Africa 1750-1980. Shows different types of relations between two cultures: co-presence ( contact zone ), dominance of the conqueror's perspective ( colonial frontier ), seemingly innocent stance of the conqueror ( anti-conquest ), assimilation of the conquered ( autoethnographic ). An imperialistic attitude of Changing The Rap World Today Essay, conquest can also be expressed within Europe, e.g. Does Orange Juice Stain? through arrogance towards the stranger or through mental appropriation.

Pratt includes rhetorical devices of imperialistic tendencies in travel literature: epithets and similes referring to The Rap World Today, the traveller's own country, aesthetisation of landscape according to native categories, elevated position with panoramic view, self-revaluation caused by a joy for discovery, exploiting the orange stain, knowledge of the World Today Essay, native guide. Quadflieg, Helga. Does? 2000. Kleine Fluchten: Isabella Bird und ihre Reisen nach Amerika. Changing The Rap World Essay? In: Querelles: Jahrbuch für Frauenforschung 2000. What Price? (Vol.

5: Grenzgängerinnen des moralischen Geschlechts ). Stuttgart: Metzler. 110-123. A case study of some of Essay, Isabella Bird's travel writings. Illustrates the double bind of the is caused by, female traveller in the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century: tension between conventionality and Changing The Rap World Today, freedom, affirmation and subversion of existing norms (see also Forster 1990: Frederick, ed. 1991). Robinson, Jane.

1990. Wayward Women: A Guide to juice stain, Women Travellers . Oxford: Oxford UP. A bibliography of women's travel writing listing approx. 400 authors. Entries contain brief biographical sketches, key words and World Today Essay, synopses. Robinson provides bibliographical access to a comprehensive corpus of texts, and thereby enables further research on female travel literature.

Russel, Mary. [1986] 1996. The Blessings of a Good Thick Skirt: Women Travellers and Their World. London: Flamingo. Said, Edward. Is Caused By? 1983. Orientalism . New York: Random House. Schabert, Ina. 1997. Reisebücher: Die Frau in World Today Essay, der Fremde.

In: Ina Schabert. Englische Literaturgeschichte aus der Sicht der Geschlechterforschung . Stuttgart: Kröner. 589-597. Schäffter, Ortfried, ed. Quotes In Macbeth? 1991. Changing The Rap Today Essay? Das Fremde: Erfahrungsmöglichkeiten zwischen Faszination und Bedrohung . Of The Printing Press Allowed:? Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. Schaff, Barbara. 1999. Gendered Cities: Italienische Städte im Blick britischer Reisender. In: Andreas Mahler, ed. Changing The Rap Today Essay? Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Heidelberg: Winter.

173-196. Schaff discusses the textuality of cities and their literary representation with respect to the different perspectives of male and female authors/characters. Examples: phallic conception of Florence as cultural space of masculinity (Lawrence), Venice as art-trophy (Ruskin) or as embodiment of the stain, archetypal mother (Byron); Rome as unapproachable (for Dorothea in Middlemarch ), or as a symbol of triumphant conquest (Felicia Hemans). The Rap Today Essay? Schivelbusch, Wolfgang. 1977. Does Orange? Geschichte der Eisenbahnreise. The Rap Today Essay? Zur Industrialisierung von Raum und Zeit im 19. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt/M: Fischer.

Authoritative study on travelling by railroad. Focuses on: development of railway traffic in printing press, England, on the continent and in North America; the Changing World Today, railroad's peculiarities as a means of public transport and merchandise transportation; the change of the experience of space and time; economic, social and cultural aspects; Schivelbusch presents a (somewhat one-sided) critique of civilisation (alienation from nature). Schülting, Sabine. Circulatory? 1997. Wilde Frauen, Femde Welten: Kolonisierungsgeschichten aus Amerika . Reinbek: Rowohlt. Stannard, Martin. 1982. Debunking the Changing The Rap Today, Jungle: The Context of guilt quotes, Evelyn Waugh's Travel Books 1930-9. Prose Studies 5.1 (Special Issue The Art of Travel: Essays on Travel Writing ): 105-126. Stevenson, Catherine Barnes. 1982.

Victorian Women Travel Writers in Africa . Boston: Twayne. Schwarze, Hans-Wilhelm. 1982. Changing The Rap World? Ereignisse, Zeit und Raum, Sprechsituationen in narrativen Texten. In: Hans-Werner Ludwig, ed. Arbeitsbuch Romananalyse: Eine Einführung . Tübingen: Narr.

145-188. [esp. United States And Iran Relations? 170-174] Tinling, Marion. 1989. Woman into the Unknown: A Sourcebook on Women Explorers and World Today, Travelers . Inflation? New York: Greenwood Press. Veit, Karin. 1997. Journey and Changing World Today, Gender - Diversity of Lee Dugard, Travel Writing. The Rap Essay? In: Susanne Fender, ed. Feminist Contributions to the Literary Canon: Setting Standards of Taste . Leviston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press. 107-138.

Veit examines gender-specific aspects of travelling and poem by simon analysis, travel writing. Cites examples of women writers blurring the Today Essay, gender boundaries, i.e. exemplary travel texts depicting women who break away from their conventional female role. Examples of gender-specific discourses: the journey of Ella Maillart and Peter Fleming from quotes, Peking through the Chinese province Sianking to Cashmere is told in two different texts (1936) representing a female and a male version; further examples are the Changing Today, two journeys to Russia undertaken by Susan Richards and Christopher Hope at by simon armitage analysis the same time (1990). Veit's analysis confirms gender stereotypes, but also illustrates the double-voiced discourse of World Today, female travellers in their writings. Würzbach, Natascha. 2001. Erzählter Raum: fiktionaler Baustein, kultureller Sinnträger, Ausdruck der Geschlechterordnung. Circulatory Vs Cardiovascular? In: Jörg Helbig, ed. Erzählen und Erzähltheorie im 20.

Jahrhundert: Festschrift für Wilhelm Füger . Heidelberg: Winter. 105-129. Article covers the state of research on Today Essay, the phenomenon of literary space. Approaches: narratology, phenomenology, psychoanalysis, social geography, structuralism, semiotics of culture, deconstruction, cultural history, and gender studies. Inflation? Introduces categories of Changing World, conceptions and typologies of space. Of The Printing Press? Points of Today, special consideration: semantization of in macbeth, space, reference to Changing The Rap Today Essay, the subject, the body, movement in space and its function as a reader's guide. Provides literary examples. Is The Price? Essay collection on the socio-cultural context of Changing World Essay, modernism. Printing Allowed:? Focuses on literature and art in Changing Today, their relation to purpose ceiling?, society.

Considers a multitude of Changing Today Essay, aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and fine arts. Felski, Rita. Guilt? 1995. World Today Essay? The Gender of Modernity . Circulatory? Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on Today Essay, gender and modernity, proceeding from system vs cardiovascular, cultural theory and Changing World, cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication.

Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Harris, Jose. 1994. Private Lives and Public Spirit: Britain 1870-1914 . A Stolen? Harmondsworth: Penguin. Study proceeding from social history. Key words: demography, family, property, profession, religion, society and state, social theories. Changing World Essay? Keating, Peter. 1989.

The Haunted Study: A Social History of the what is the purpose price ceiling?, English Novel 1875-1914 . London: Secker Warburg. Kern, Stephen. 1983. The Culture of Time and Space, 1880-1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Lewis, Jane, Ed. 1986. Labour and Love: Women's Experience of Home and Family, 1850-1940 . Oxford: Blackwell. Study on The Rap Today, women's social history between 1850 and 1940.

Deals with the is the purpose of a price ceiling?, usual topics: childhood, marriage, motherhood, class differences. The Rap World Today? Lucas, John. Is The Purpose Of A Price Ceiling?? 1997. Changing The Rap Today Essay? The Radical Twenties. Aspects of Writing, Politics and is caused by, Culture. Changing World Today Essay? Nottingham: Five Leaves.

Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from cultural theory. Quotes In Macbeth? Points out several aspects of society and The Rap, discusses them in terms of circulatory vs cardiovascular system, their radicality: Effects of World War I on Changing The Rap World Today, the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors). McFarlane, Barbara. 1984.

Homes for quotes Heroines. Changing The Rap World Today Essay? Housing in quotes, the Twenties. In: Making Space. Women and Today, the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. 26-36. What Is The Of A Ceiling?? Social history: women-centred housing. Mowat, John Loch. 1955. Britain Between the Changing The Rap World Today, Wars 1918-1940 . London: Methuen. Nicholls, Peter. 1995.

Modernisms. A Literary Guide . London: Macmillan. Study on the time between the guilt, two World Wars: the 'Roaring Twenties' and Changing The Rap World Today, the social consciousness in orange stain, the 1930s (socialism, marxism, Spanish civil war, pacifism). Further key words: Fashion (the androgynous style of the flapper), architecture and mass media. Oldfield, Sybil, ed. 1994. Changing The Rap Essay? This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in orange stain, Britain 1914-1945. London: Taylor Francis. Essay collection on Essay, social history.

Centred on women's history, introduces several women's groups. Key words: Divorce laws, motherhood. What Is The Price Ceiling?? Women's rights to work between the wars, elementary school teachers. Changing The Rap World Essay? Suffragettes. Pacifist movement. Fascism. Female artists. What Is The Purpose Price Ceiling?? Winter, J.M. 1985. The Great War and the British People . Basingstoke London: Macmillan.

Demographic study on Changing Today Essay, World War I, proceeding from social history. Key words: war and loss, people's health, standards of living, efforts to increase birthrates, female surplus. Criticism: the united states and iran, study hardly considers women's situations and perspectives. Changing The Rap World Today Essay? Study on female experience of the two World Wars. Special focus: women and profession.

Restraining of women from orange juice stain, working in World Today Essay, the time between the guilt quotes in macbeth, wars. Study provides detailed historical evidence: thoroughly investigated. Byles, Joan Montgomery. World? 1985. Women's Experience of World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Poets. And Iran Relations? Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487. Changing The Rap Essay? Article on the suffrage movement in the context of what price, World War I. Changing World Today? Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes. United States And Iran Relations? Example: conflict between Emmeline and The Rap Today, Sylvia Pankhurst. Textual material: war poetry by women. Dyhouse, Carol.

1989. Feminism and the Family in England 1880-1939 . Life By Jaycee Essay? London: Blackwell. Changing The Rap? Study on remains poem armitage analysis, family and marriage from The Rap Essay, a women-centred perspective. Is Caused? Textual material: basically (auto)biography, but also some novels. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Changing The Rap Essay, Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP.

Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. The Invention Of The Printing Press Allowed:? Gardner, Viv Susan Rutherford, eds. 1992.

The New Woman And Her Sisters: Feminism And Theatre 1850-1914 . Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993. Changing World Today? Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown. Essay collection on literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers. Horn, Pamela.

1995. A Stolen? Women in the 1920s . Changing World Essay? Stroud: Alan Sutton Publishing. Lewis, Jane, ed. 1986. Labour and Love: Women's Experience of Home and Family, 1850-1940 . Is Caused? Oxford: Blackwell. Essay collection on Changing The Rap Essay, women's social history between 1850 and Life Essay, 1940. Today? Deals with the usual topics: childhood, marriage, motherhood, class differences. McFarlane, Barbara. 1984. Homes for Heroines.

Housing in the Twenties. In: Making Space. Stain? Women and World Essay, the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Oldfield, Sybil, ed. 1994. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945. London: Taylor Francis. Life By Jaycee Lee Dugard? Essay collection on Changing The Rap, social history.

Centred on women's history, introduces several women's groups. Key words: Divorce laws, motherhood. Women's rights to work between the wars, elementary school teachers. Suffragettes. Pacifist movement. Guilt Quotes? Fascism. Female artists. Ouditt, Sharon. 1994. Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in the First World War . London New York: Routledge.

Study on women and World War I. Starts out focusing on a description of Changing, women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in munitions factories). The Invention Printing Press Allowed:? Continues to The Rap World Today Essay, approach the topic by looking at different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and Life Essay, non-fictional) is granted a major role in The Rap Today Essay, this context. What Of A Price? Areas of discussion: images of women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of hero, yet female) - the ordinary housewife at the home front as angel in the house in war literature. Critical reflection on Changing The Rap World, the war and what is the purpose price ceiling?, women's roles in postwar fiction.

Image of the mother as a preserver of life. Feminist pacifism. The shock experience of Changing Essay, war and the temporary allocation of is caused, roles as a danger to Changing The Rap Today Essay, identity. Inflation? Discussion of the influence of World War I on The Rap Essay, society and literature as part of modernism. Bataille, Georges. 1994. Die Erotik , ed. G. Life? Bergfleth. Today Essay? München.

Benthien, Claudia. 1999. Haut: Literaturgeschichte, Körperbilder, Grenzdiskurse . Reinbek b. Hamburg: Rowohlt. Benthien, Claudia Irmela Marei Krüger-Fürhoff, eds. 1999. Über Grenzen: Limitation und Transgression in Literatur und Ästhetik . Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler. Bordo, Susan.

1993. Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and the Body . Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press. Breger, Claudia Tobias Döring, eds. 1998. Figuren des/der Dritten: Erkundungen kultureller Zwischenräume . United Relations? Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi. Changing World Today Essay? Butler, Judith. 1990. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity.

New York, London: Routledge. de Lauretis, Teresa. A Stolen Life Essay? 1990. Eccentric Subjects: Feminist Theory and Historical Consciousness. Feminist Studies 16.1: 115-150. World Today? Dollimore, Jonathan. 1992. The Dominant and the Deviant: A Violent Dialectic. In:ed. Wayne R. Dynes Stephen Donaldson, eds. Homosexual Themes in Literary Studies . New York: Garland. 87-100.

Douglas, Mary. [1966] 1984. Quotes In Macbeth? Purity and Danger: An Analysis of the Concepts of Changing Essay, Pollution and the invention of the printing press, Taboo . London, etc.: Ark. Doyle, Laura. 1994. Bordering on Today Essay, the Body: The Radical Matrix of Modern Fiction and Culture . New York, Oxford: Oxford UP. Durkheim, Emile. Remains Armitage Analysis? [1893] 1996. Changing Today? Über soziale Arbeitsteilung. Studie über die Organisation höherer Gesellschaften. Frankfurt/M.

Dreitzel, H.P. 1972. Of A? Die gesellschaftlichen Leiden und das Leiden an der Gesellschaft: Vorstudien zu einer Pathologie des Rollenverhaltens . Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke. Febvre, Lucien. The Rap Today? 1990. 'Frontière - Wort und Bedeutung. In: Lucien Febvre. Das Gewissen des Historikers . Frankfurt/M. 27-36. Ferguson, Russell, Martha Gever, Trinh T. Inflation Is Caused? Minh-ha Cornel West, eds. 1990.

Out There: Marginalization and Contemporary Cultures. Changing Today Essay? New York: The New Museum of Contemporary Art Cambridge/Mass., London: The MIT Press. Finke, Laurie. Ceiling?? 1986. The Rhetoric of Marginality: Why I Do Feminist Theory.

Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 5.2: 251-72. Foucault, Michel. [1963] 1988. Zum Begriff der Übertretung. In: Michel Foucault. Changing The Rap World? Schriften zur Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. A Stolen By Jaycee Essay? 69-89. Freud, Sigmund. Changing The Rap Today? [1919] 1994. Das Unheimliche. In: Sigmund Freud.

Studienausgabe IV, Psychologische Schriften, ed. Is The Purpose Of A? Alexander Mitscherlich et al. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 241-274. Changing The Rap Today? Gregg, John. 1994. Does? Maurice Blanchot and the Literature of Transgression. Changing The Rap World Today Essay? Princeton/New Jersey: Princeton UP. Hohnsträter, Dirk.

1999. Im Zwischenraum. Ein Lob des Grenzgängers. In: Claudia Benthien Irmela Marei Krüger-Fürhoff, eds. 1999. Über Grenzen: Limitation und Transgression in Literatur und Ästhetik . Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler. Guilt? 231-244. Jervis, John. 1999.

Transgressing the Changing World Essay, Modern: Explorations in the Western Experience of what is the purpose of a price ceiling?, Otherness . The Rap Today Essay? Oxford: Blackwell. Koschorke, Albrecht. 1990. Die Geschichte des Horizonts: Grenze und Grenzüberschreitung in quotes in macbeth, literarischen Landschaftsbildern . Changing The Rap Essay? Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Kristeva, Julia.

1980. Orange Juice Stain? Powers of Changing World Today Essay, Horror. An Essay on Abjection . Guilt? New York, London: Routledge. Sargisson, Lucy. 2000. Utopian Bodies and the Politics of Transgression. London, etc.: Routledge. Shildrick, Margrit, Janet Price.

1999. World Today? Openings on the Body: A Critical Introduction. In: Janet Price Margrit Shildrick, eds. Feminist Theory and remains poem armitage analysis, the Body: A Reader . New York: Routledge. 1-14. Shildrick, Margrit. 1997. Leaky Bodies and Boundaries. Feminism, Postmodernism and (Bio)Ethics . Today Essay? London, New York: Routledge.

Showalter, Elaine. Of The Printing Press? 1985. World Essay? Feminist Criticism in the Wilderness. In: Elaine Showalter, ed. A Stolen By Jaycee Essay? The New Feminist Criticism: Essays on Women, Literature and Theory . London: Virago, 243-270.

Stallybrass, Peter Allan White, eds. 1986. The Politics and The Rap World Essay, Poetics of Transgression . London: Methuen. The Invention? Stevens, Hugh. 2000. Introduction: Modernism and Changing The Rap Today Essay, its Margins.

In: Hugh Stevens Caroline Howlett, eds. By Simon? Modernist Sexualities . Manchester, New York: Manchester University Press, 1-12. Turner, Victor. 1967. The Rap World Essay? Betwixt and Between: The Liminal Period in Life, Rites de Passage . In: Victor Turner.

The Forest of Symbols . New York: Cornell UP. Van Gennep, Arnold. [1908] 1960. The Rites of Passage , trans. M.B. Vizedom, G.L. The Rap World? Caffee. Chicago: U of stain, Chicago P. Changing The Rap World Today? Weigel, Sigrid. 1990.

Rekonstruktion und Relektüre: Die Arbeit von Frauen in der Literaturwissenschaft als Teil weiblicher Kulturkritik. States Relations? In: Sigrid Weigel. Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Reinbek b. Changing The Rap Essay? Hamburg: Rowohlt. 252-263. Butler, Judith.

1993. Bodies that Matter: On the Discursive Limits of 'Sex' . Circulatory System System? New York London: Routledge. Diprose, Ros. 1994. The Bodies of Women: Ethics, Embodiment and Sexual Difference. London: Routledge. Foucault, Michel. 1992. Sexualität und Wahrheit 1: Der Wille zum Wissen.

6th ed. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Foucault, Michel. 1994. Überwachen und Strafen: Die Geburt des Gefängnisses . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Changing The Rap? Foucault, Michel. Inflation Is Caused By? 1998. Über Hermaphrodismus: Der Fall Barbin , ed. Wolfgang Schäffner Joseph Vogl. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.

Grosz, Elizabeth. Changing? 1994. Volatile Bodies: Toward a Corporeal Feminism. A Stolen Life Lee Dugard Essay? Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. Haraway, Donna. 1991. Essay? The Promises of Monsters: A Regenerative Politics for system Inappropriate/d Others. Changing Today? In: L. What Purpose Price? Grossberg, C. Nelson, P. Treichler, eds. Cultural Studies. London: Routledge. Herdt, Gilbert, ed.

1994. The Rap? Third Sex, Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and History . New York: Zone Books. Horner, Avril Angela Keane. 2000. Remains By Simon Armitage Analysis? Body Matters: Feminism, Textuality, Corporeality. Manchester, New York: Manchester UP. Hurley, Kelly. Changing? 1996. The Gothic Body: Sexuality, Materialism, and states and iran, Degeneration of the Today Essay, Fin de Siècle. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Jacobus, Mary, Evelyn Fox Keller Sally Shuttleworth, eds. 1990. Body/Politics: Women and the Discourses of what of a price ceiling?, Science. New York London: Routledge. Laqueur, Thomas. 1992. Today Essay? Making Sex: Body and juice stain, Gender from the Greeks to Freud . Cambridge/Mass., London: Harvard UP. Price, Janet Margrit Shildrick, eds. 1999. The Rap Today? Feminist Theory and the Body: A Reader . New York: Routledge.

Sargisson, Lucy. 2000. The Invention Of The Press? Utopian Bodies and the Politics of Transgression. London, etc.: Routledge. Shildrick, Margrit. 1997. Changing World Today Essay? Leaky Bodies and Boundaries: Feminism, Postmodernism, and (Bio)Ethics . London: Routledge.

Terry, Jennifer Jacqueline Urla, eds. 1995. Deviant Bodies . Bloomington: Indiana UP. Brooks, J.A. 1982. Does Juice? Ghosts of Today Essay, London: The East End, City, and North. Norwich: Jarrold. Dinzelbacher, Peter, ed.

1993. Europäische Mentalitätsgeschichte: Hauptthemen in Einzeldarstellungen . What Is The Of A? Stuttgart: Kröner. Essay collection on The Rap Essay, different experiences of space from antiquity up to the present. Approach: history of mentality. In Macbeth? Key words: experience of space as social, geographic, and cultural (fields of The Rap Today, interest: religion, architecture etc.). Space and of the printing, aspects of conquering and opening up (of new rooms). Cyberspace. Foucault, Michel. 1992.

Andere Räume. In: Karlheinz Bark et al., eds. Aisthesis: Wahrnehmung heute oder Perspektiven einer anderen Ästhetik . Reclam: Leipzig. 34-46. Article on space and otherness. Difference between normal and deviant spaces. Key words: heterotopias (hospitals, psychiatric clinics, prisons. ); spatial symbolism and World, history of mentality. Frenk, Joachim, ed. 2000.

Spatial Change in English Literature . Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. Aufsatzsammlung. Mentalitätsgeschichtlich bedingter Wandel von Raumvorstellungen in der englischen Literaturgeschichte. Besonderes Interesse der Postmoderne am Raum (Sozialgeographie, Kolonialismus, Datenflüsse um den Erdball, Cyberspace.) Fryer, Judith. 1984.

Women and Space. The Flowering of Desire. In: Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies . Is The Of A Ceiling?? 187-230. Study on Changing World Essay, gendered concepts of by Jaycee Lee Dugard, space in World Today, architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the turn of the century up to the 1930s based on social geography. Contains writings on by Jaycee Lee Dugard, architecture and The Rap Today, feminist reform efforts. Grosz, Elizabeth. 1995. Space, Time and Perversion. Essays on the Politics of Bodies . London: Routledge. (esp.

103-124) Hauser, Susanne. Of The Press Allowed:? 1990. Changing Essay? Der Blick auf die Stadt: Semiotische Untersuchungen zur literarischen Wahrnehmung bis 1910 . Berlin: Dietrich Reimer. Semiotic studies on literary perceptions of relations, urban spaces. Key words: perception of space in general. Basic patterns of the Today, experience of city space (multi-stimulation, processes of circulatory system, selection. ). Culturally variable navigation of perception (closely connected with aspects of value judgements).

Higonnet, Margaret R. Joan Templeton, eds. 1994. Reconfigured Spheres: Feminist Explorations of Literary Space . The Rap? Amherst: University of Mass. Press. Essay collection. Provides different perspectives on the feminist relevance of guilt quotes, space: Historical, multi-cultural, metaphorical. Key words: Symbolic representative functions of Changing World Today, space in texts.

Marginalisation, transgression of boundaries, role of of a price ceiling?, clothing, ghettoisation of feminist literary criticism. Hubrath, Margarete, ed. 2001. Geschlechterräume: Konstruktionen von gender in Geschichte, Literatur und Alltag . Köln: Böhlau. The Rap Essay? Kern, Stephen. 1983. The Culture of Time and circulatory system vs cardiovascular, Space 1880 1918 . Changing World Essay? Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Study on modernist concepts of time and vs cardiovascular, space. Documents historical changes of The Rap World, spatial concepts in A Stolen by Jaycee Lee Dugard, modernity.

Key words: Subjectivity, categorisation according to different ways of perception (visual, acoustic, tactual etc.) Microscopic space. Art (cubism, impressionism) and The Rap Today, sculpture. Film (rapid change of pictures and scenes). Heterogeneous space. Plurality of stance, multi-perspectivity. Changes of circulatory system vs cardiovascular system, attitude. Changing World Today? Space as designable matter (magnetic fields, architecture, artificial lighting). Expansion and reduction of guilt, geographical space (expeditions, public and Changing World Today Essay, private transport, aviation). Urban spaces. Psychoanalysis (mental rooms of the interior, stream of what price, consciousness). Kursbuch Stadt.

Stadtleben und Stadtkultur an World Essay, der Jahrtausendwende. 1999 . Redaktion Stefan Bollmann. Stuttgart: DVA. Läpple, Dieter. 1991. Gesellschaftszentriertes Raumkonzept: Zur Überwindung von physikalisch-mathematischen Raumauffassungen in der Gesellschaftsanalyse. In: Martin Wentz, ed. Stadt-Räume . Frankfurt/M.: Campus.

35-46. Theoretical essay on different natures of space: Human-centred concepts of is the of a ceiling?, space vs. Changing The Rap World Essay? scientific concepts of A Stolen by Jaycee Lee Dugard Essay, space. Changing Essay? Lefèbvre, Henri. 1972. Die Revolution der Städte. The Invention Printing Press? München: List. McFarlane, Barbara. The Rap World Today Essay? 1984. Homes for Heroines. Does Orange Juice? Housing in the Twenties. In: Making Space.

Women and the Man-Made Environment . The Rap World Today Essay? London: Pluto Press. 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Nowel, Ingrid. 1998. London: Biographie einer Weltstadt. Circulatory Vs Cardiovascular? Architektur und Kunst, Geschichte und Literatur. The Rap World? Köln: Dumont. Stain? Shaffer, Elinor S., ed.

1996. Spaces: Cities, Gardens and World, Wilderness . Does Stain? Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Sharpe, William 1986. Feminizing the The Rap World Essay, Urban World. Urban Resources 3.2: 55-57. Schivelbusch, Wolfgang. A Stolen Life Lee Dugard Essay? 1979.

Geschichte der Eisenbahnreise. The Rap World Today? Zur Industrialisierung von Raum und Zeit im 19. Jahrhundert . Frankfurt/M.: Ullstein. Historical study on space and orange, time in the 19th century related to the development of the Changing The Rap World Essay, railway as a means of travel and transport. Its influence on the perception of space and time. (Germany, England, USA). What Of A Price? Sennett, Richard. 1994. Flesh and Stone: The Body and the City in Western Civilization . Changing World Today? New York London: W.W.

Norton. Study on space and bodily experience. Key words: sensory perception, movements, analogies of city and body, allocation of inflation, meaning to Changing Today, certain areas (public, private etc.), historical change of what of a ceiling?, cities, interior rooms, increasing dimension of the Essay, private in interior rooms. Weigel, Sigrid. 1983. Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Reinbek: Rowohlt.

Study on gender topographies and literature. Cultural-historical approach. Considers space: female allegorization of the city. Weinreb, Ben Christopher Hibbert. 1983. The London Encyclopaedia. London: Macmillan. Guilt Quotes In Macbeth? Collection of essays, proceeding from cultural theory. Social space is defined by rules of behaviour, moral concepts, interests, objectives and Changing The Rap Today Essay, class.

It is therefore relevant for questions of gender identity. Juice? Key words: setting and transgression of boundaries; domains of power; imaginary space in World Today Essay, literature and circulatory system system, utopia. Bell, David Gill Valentine, eds. 1995. Mapping Desire: Geographies and Sexuality . London: Routledge.

Collection of essays, proceeding from Changing World Today, social geography. Key words: connection of space and inflation is caused by, different facets of identity formation (personal, professional and The Rap World, sexual). The Invention Press Allowed:? Questions of the body. Urban spaces. Changing? Power relations connected with space. Benko, Georges Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. 1997. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and states and iran relations, Postmodernity . The Rap World Today Essay? Oxford. Blackwell.

Collection of essays. A Stolen By Jaycee Lee Dugard? Approach: deconstructivist social geography - social space as a linguistic construct to be newly developed over and over by the individual. Key words: Blurring of boundaries between mental and empirical spaces; spatial symbolism (described from a constructivist background and not from the usual arguments of social history or history of mentality). Duncan, Nancy, ed. The Rap World Today Essay? 1996.

Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of guilt, Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. Essay collection on World Today, space, gender and does juice stain, sexuality. Approach: social geography. Key words: territories. Boundaries: blurring of Changing The Rap World Essay, boundaries, transgression of boundaries. Domains of power concerning questions of gender identity and deviation from Essay, gender norms.

Duncan, Nancy. 1996. Renegotiating Gender and Sexuality in Public and Changing World, Private Spaces. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of inflation by, Gender and World, Sexuality. Orange Juice? London: Routledge. 127-145. The Rap World Today Essay? Article on system, spaces of home and family.

Key words: homosexuality (male and female); prostitution. MacDowell, Linda. 1996. Spatializing Feminism. Geographic Perspectives. In: Nancy Duncan, ed.

Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Changing World Today Essay, Sexuality. Stain? London: Routledge. 28-44. Article on The Rap World Essay, a feminism and space. Approach: deconstructivist social geography. Key words: socially conditioned and guilt quotes in macbeth, designed space, processes of placement, boundaries, centres and Today, margins, changes of place and transgression of boundaries, space and poem armitage, identity. Changing The Rap Today? Reference to gender relations. Natter, Wolfgang John Paul Jones III. 1997.

Identity, Space, and Other Uncertainties. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. 141-161.

Article on the invention printing, the volatile nature of Changing Essay, space and identity. Approach. The Invention Of The? Deconstructivist social geography. Conception of space adapted from the Changing The Rap World, conception of united states and iran, subject. Constructivity and contingency of discursive concepts as means of social change. Pfeil, Elisabeth. 1972.

Großstadtforschung: Entwicklung und gegenwärtiger Stand. Essay? Hannover: Jänecke. The Invention Of The Press Allowed:? Rose, Gillian. 1996. Changing The Rap World Essay? Masculine Dwelling, Masculine Theory and Feminist Masquerade. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. Remains? London: Routledge.

56-74. Article on space and gender. Approach: Deconstructivist social geography. Space as projection: imagined emotions and actual design of space. Concept of masquerade grounds on Luce Irigaray. Spain, Daphne. Changing The Rap Today Essay? 1992. Gendered Spaces . A Stolen Life? Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. Study on space as a relevant factor for status and Changing The Rap World Essay, gender, proceeding from social geography. The Invention Of The Press Allowed:? Gender-specific segregation (architecture, territorization of public spaces) Provides examples from different ethnic cultures. Authoritative text on Changing World Essay, spatial symbolism.

Key words: archetypical spaces and inflation is caused by, their meaning in depth psychology: psychological dimension of The Rap Essay, places like 'house', 'shell' 'box', etc. Universalist allocation of meaning. Barta, Peter I. 1990. Circulatory System Vs Cardiovascular? The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds.

Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the World, XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 310-315. Essay on circulatory vs cardiovascular system, the modernist city novel . Key words: the fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of World Today Essay, space as a major constituent of the integrative textual structure. Stain? Space and identity.

Becker, Claudia. The Rap Today Essay? 1990. Zur Interiorisierung der Raumsymbolik in der Literatur der Moderne. Does? In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Today, Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the in macbeth, XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 281-287. Study deals with modernist tendencies of internalization: depiction of different spaces of the interior (factual and Changing World Today Essay, psychological ones). Berghahn, Daniela. 1988.

Raumdarstellung im englischen Roman der Moderne . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Circulatory System Vs Cardiovascular System? Authoritative text on literary representations of space in the avant-gardist modernist novel. Key words: Subjectivity, integration of space in stream of consciousness; selectivity of perception and representation, processes of fragmentarization, montage as technique to depict space; associative spaces; spatial symbolism; interdisciplinary analogies (literature and art: impressionism, cubism); provides an analysis of Henry James The Ambassadors , Joseph Conrad Nostromo , Ford Madox Ford The Good Soldier , D.H. Lawrence Women in Love , James Joyce Ulysses , E.M. Forster A Passage To India , and Changing, Virginia Woolf To the Lighthouse . Breuner, Michael. 1991. The Invention Of The Printing? Hunger for Place: Studien zur Raumdarstellung im London-Roman seit 1940 . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Study on Changing The Rap World Today, the London Novel after 1940.

Key words: literary appropriation of the city. Space and is caused, subjectivity: subjective perceptions and formations of space (philosophical basis: see Ströker, psychological basis: see Minkowski). Archetypical aspects of Changing The Rap World, space. Criticism: terminologically imprecise, appears rather essayistic. Inflation Is Caused By? Bronfen, Elisabeth. 1986. Der literarische Raum: Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel von Dorothy M. Changing Essay? Richardsons Romanzyklus Pilgrimage. Tübingen: Niemeyer. Study on by simon armitage analysis, literary space in World Today Essay, the work of Dorothy Richardson. Approach: phenomenological (compare Ströker and Hoffmann) and structuralist (compare Lotman). Key words: subjectivity of spatial perception in streams of consciousness.

Metaphorical space (additional symbolism) vs. space which can be physically entered. Space and identity. Spatial textual structures. Drabble, Margaret. 1979. Inflation By? A Writer's Britain: Landscape in Literature. Photographed by Jorge Lewinski. London: Thames Hudson.

Ecker, Gisela. 1995. Allegorical Gardens of Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective. In: Susan C. Scott, ed. The Art of The Rap World Today, Interpreting . University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. 260-292. What Is The Of A Price? Allocations of World Essay, meaning to the garden based on circulatory system vs cardiovascular, depth psychology. Gender-specific dimensions of the garden: a place of solitude and expansion of consciousness for women - a place of maternal security for men. Epstein-Nor, Deborah. 1991.

The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer. Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351-375. Fludernik, Monika. 1999. World Today Essay? Carceral Topography: Spatiality, Liminality and Corporeality in guilt in macbeth, the Literary Prison. Changing World? Textual Practice 13.1: 43-77. Article on what purpose, space and identity. Key words: boundaries; identity formation; spatial symbolism. Provides examples of texts. Füger, Wilhelm. Changing Today? 1984.

Streifzüge durch Allotopia: Zur Topographie eines fiktionalen Gestaltungsraums. Anglia 102.3,4: 349-391. Article on united relations, space in the utopian genre. Hillebrand, Bruno von. The Rap Today Essay? 1975.

Poetischer, philosophischer, mathematischer Raum. In: Alexander Ritter, ed. Landschaft und Raum in der Erzählkunst . Circulatory? Darmstadt: WBG. 417-463. Article on different spaces: geometrical space vs. textual space. Narratological perspective on spatial representation (narratological background of the 1970s). The Rap World Today Essay? Hoffmann, Gerhard. 1978. Is The? Raum, Situation, erzählte Wirklichkeit . The Rap World Today Essay? Poetologische und historische Studien zum englischen und amerikanischen Roman. Stuttgart: Metzler. Authoritative text on narrative representation of space.

Approach: phenomenological, structuralist and semantic. Of A Price? Key words: different facets of Changing World, space, i.e. visional space, space of action, atmospheric space (Ströker). Typology of does stain, narrated space based on Changing World Today, subjectivity and literary devices: curious space, grotesque space, gothic space etc. The Invention Of The Press? Allocation of meaning to space. Archetypal space, forms of representation: panoramic space, tableau, scene. Hubrath, Margarete, ed. 2001. Geschlechterräume: Konstruktionen von gender in The Rap World Today Essay, Geschichte, Literatur und Alltag . Köln: Böhlau. Hunt, John Dixon. United States? 1996. Paragone in Paradise: Translating the The Rap Today Essay, Garden.

In: Elinor S. Is The Ceiling?? Shaffer, ed. The Rap World Today? Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Wilderness . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Of The Printing Allowed:? 55-70. World? Article on garden symbolism. Depicts the united, garden as a paradox combining nature with culture, preservation of the fleeting and the fragile. Jäger, Dietrich. 1998. The Rap World Essay? Erzählte Räume. Studien zur Phänomenologie der epischen Geschehensumwelt . And Iran Relations? Würzburg: Könighausen Naumann. Study on the phenomenology of narrative environments of action. Textual examples (predominantly German, but also some English) are viewed as variants of mimesis.

Criticism: terminology is imprecise and unsystematic, generally not up to Changing The Rap World Today, the contemporary level of guilt in macbeth, research. World? Kilian, Eveline. 2002. Circulatory System? Exploring London. The Rap World Essay? Walking the City - (Re)Writing the is the ceiling?, City. In: Hartmut Berghoff, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. The Making of Changing The Rap World Today Essay, Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to what is the purpose, 2000 . Changing The Rap Today? London: Palgrave. Remains Poem? 267-283. Klarer, Mario. The Rap World? 1995. Simultaneity and Gender in Modernist Discourses.

In: Near Encounters: Festschrift für Richard Martin . Guilt Quotes? Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Interdisciplinary article on the phenomenon of simultaneity and its implications concerning space and gender. Simultaneity as spatially represented in the novel as well as in The Rap World Today Essay, modernist paintings. Androgynity as a form of relations, simultaneity. Klein, Holger. World Today Essay? 1990. Circulatory Vs Cardiovascular? Exploring Place and Space in Drama and in Fiction.

In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. Changing Today Essay? München: iudicum. 174-181. Genre-theoretical essay on the nature of space in drama and fiction. Different spatial representations in is the price, drama and fiction: multi-sensory display of few places on stage vs. linguistic-evocative display of many places in Changing Today, narrative texts. United States Relations? Klotz, Volker. 1969.

Die erzählte Stadt: Ein Sujet als Herausforderung des Romans von Lesage bis Döblin. München: Hanser. Kublitz-Kramer, Maria. 1995. Changing The Rap Essay? Frauen auf Straßen: Topographien des Begehrens in Erzähltexten von Gegenwartsautorinnen.

München: Fink. Lane, Eric. A Stolen By Jaycee? 1988. A Guide to Literary London. Sawtry, Cambridgeshire: Dedalus. Lutwack, Leonard. 1984. The Role of World Essay, Place in Literature . New York: Syracuse UP. Study on the role of does stain, space in fiction.

Contains multiple aspects of analysis. The Rap World Today Essay? Key words: literary coining of space (topoi). Genre-specific variants. Space imagery (spatial allegories, spatial symbols). Expansion and movement.

Time and stain, its spatial component. Characterisation through space. Historical and national particularities of Changing Essay, space (placelessness in Modernism, wildering in American literature) Provides detailed textual evidence. Orange Stain? On the whole rather unsystematic, yet very stimulating. The Rap World Today Essay? Maatje, Frank C. 1975. Versuch einer Poetik des Raumes. In: Alexander Ritter, ed. Landschaft und Raum in der Erzählkunst . Darmstadt: WBG. 392-416. Revised article on space (1st version from guilt quotes, 1965) providing a summary of the state of discussion at the time. World Today Essay? Refers to guilt quotes, spatial symbolism and Changing The Rap World Today Essay, the phenomenon of perspective.

Mahler, Andreas, ed. 1999. Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Heidelberg: Winter. Manley, Lawrence. By? 1995. Literature and Culture in Changing World, Early Modern London . Of A? Cambridge: Cambridge UP. World Essay? Marcus, Steven. 1987. Reading the Illegible.

Some Modern Representations of is caused by, Urban Experience. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Changing Today, Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and Literature. System Vs Cardiovascular System? Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 232-256. Mersmann, Arndt. 2000. Novel Topography: A Spatial Reading of Changing The Rap World Today, Sybil . In: Joachim Frenk, ed. Inflation Is Caused? Spatial Change in English Literature . Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier.

147-171. Article on The Rap World Today, the representation of analysis, space in The Rap Essay, Sybil. Analysis of the purpose price ceiling?, particular influence of World, railway traffic on the perception of space in system, connection with the narrative structure of the text. Mitchel, W.J.T. 1989.

Space, Ideology, and Literary Representation. Poetics Today 10.1: 91-102. Changing Today? Article on space in literature. Circulatory System? Functional representation of The Rap Essay, space: instrument of conveying ideology. Criticism: argument not quite clear. Pratt, Annis. 1972. Women and circulatory system system, Nature in Modern Fiction.

Comparative Literature 13: 476-490. Article on space and The Rap World Today, nature in what is the purpose of a price, modern fiction. Changing? Key words: epiphanies in natural settings (especially in novels of development), gender-specific differences in the perception of nature. Stain? Punter, David. Changing Today? 1979. Blake's Capital Cities. In: P. Weston, ed. London in Literature. London: Roehampton Institute.

46-72. Reichel, Norbert. 1987. By? Der erzählte Raum: Zur Verflechtung von sozialem und poetischem Raum in der erzählenden Literatur . Today Essay? Darmstadt: WBG. Study on the intermingling of what is the purpose of a ceiling?, social and poetic space. Space as bearer of meaning.

Narrative representations of The Rap Essay, space are shown in by Jaycee Essay, the context of The Rap World, a history of mentality. Ritter, Alexander, ed. 1975. Landschaft und Raum in is caused, der Erzählkunst . Changing Essay? Darmstadt: WBG. Schaff, Barbara. 1999. Gendered Cities: Italienische Städte im Blick britischer Reisender. In: Andreas Mahler, ed. Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination. Heidelberg: Winter. 173-196.

Article on united states and iran relations, the gendered nature of Changing The Rap World Today Essay, cities. Key words: linguistic and system vs cardiovascular, literary conceptualization of cities with male or female connotations, gender-specific perspectives on cities. Application of gender stereotypes to cities. Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. World? 1987. From 'Great Town' to 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the system system, Modern City. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and Literature.

Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 1-51. Changing World Today? Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989. Does Stain? A Female Vision of the City: London in Today Essay, the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Inflation By? Study on the city from Changing Today Essay, a female perspective. City can be entered by united, women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of Changing The Rap World Essay, novels. Smuda, Manfred, ed. 1992. Printing? Die Großstadt als Text . München: Wilhelm Fink.

Squier, Susan Merrill, ed. 1984. World? Women Writers and the City: Essays in poem armitage analysis, Feminist Literary Criticism . Knoxville. University of Tennessee Press. Stanzel, Franz. 1990. Das Niemandsland in der englischen und deutschen Dichtung. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds.

Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the Changing The Rap World, International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. The Invention Of The Allowed:? München: iudicum. 219-27. Article on Changing Essay, the connecting and separating aspects of a boundary. Stain? Example: no-man's land between the trenches during the Changing World Today Essay, First World War in German and inflation is caused by, English literature. World Today? Timms, Edward David Kelley, eds. 1985. Unreal City: Urban Experience in orange stain, Modern European Literature and Art. Manchester: Manchester UP. Turner, James. 1979.

The Politics of Landscape: Rural Scenery and The Rap World, Society in English Poetry 1630-1660 . Oxford: Blackwell. Study on spatial symbolism according to the poetological devices of the 17th century. Social space and literature. Aestheticizing of topography. The Invention Printing Press? Methods of symbolizing and World, allegorizing space. System System? Influence of Changing The Rap World Essay, landscape painting on by simon, literature in the 17th century.

Twyning, John. 1998. London Dispossess: Literature and Today, Social Space in the Early Modern City. Inflation By? Basingstoke: Macmillan. Changing World Today Essay? Weigel, Sigrid. 1990. 'Die Städte sind weiblich und nur als Sieger hold': Zur Funktion des Weiblichen in Gründungsmythen und Städtedarstellungen. In: Sigrid Weigel, ed. Topographien der Geschlechter. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt. 149-189. Würzbach, Natascha.

2001. Erzählter Raum: fiktionaler Baustein, kultureller Sinnträger, Ausdruck der Geschlechterordnung. In Macbeth? In: Jörg Helbig, ed. Erzählen und Erzähltheorie im 20. Jahrhundert: Festschrift für Wilhelm Füger . Changing The Rap Essay? Heidelberg: Winter. 105-129. Article covers the state of of the printing allowed:, research on the phenomenon of literary space. Approaches: narratology, phenomenology, psychoanalysis, social geography, structuralism, semiotics of World Today, culture, deconstruction, cultural history, and gender studies.

Introduces categories of system vs cardiovascular system, conceptions and typologies of space. Points of Changing The Rap Essay, special consideration: semantization of what is the price, space, reference to Essay, the subject, the purpose price, body, movement in Changing World Essay, space and states, its function as a reader's guide. Provides literary examples. Würzbach, Natascha. in Changing The Rap Essay, print. Identitätskonstitution durch Raumerleben in der englischen Erzählliteratur des Modernismus. By Jaycee Essay? Article on the theory of subjectivity and World, identity. The significance of space and body for the pre-linguistic formation of identity. Codes of united states relations, spatial representation. Changing? Gender-specific spatial experience and quotes in macbeth, concepts of subjectivity in some modernist novels. The Rap Essay? Article is an example of the notion of text as space.

Structure of text and structure of juice, communication: intertextual, historical and Today Essay, psychological (semiotic and symbolic) references. Inflation? Kahrmann, Cordula Gunter Reiß, Manfred Schluchter. 1977. Erzähltextanalyse: Eine Einführung in Changing The Rap World Today Essay, Grundlagen und Verfahren . 2 vols. Kronberg: Athenäum. Circulatory? Study on the interpretation of narrative texts. The Rap World Today? Representations of quotes in macbeth, space are allocated to different textual levels of Changing The Rap Today, communication. Schwarze, Hans-Wilhelm. A Stolen Life? 1982.

Ereignisse, Zeit und Raum, Sprechsituationen in narrativen Texten. In: Hans-Werner Ludwig, ed. Arbeitsbuch Romananalyse: Eine Einführung . Tübingen: Narr. 145-188. [esp. 170-174] Essay collection on Changing The Rap Today Essay, text analysis.

Contains a brief part on what is the of a ceiling?, the narratological description of space on Changing World Today Essay, the grounds of Hoffmann 1978 (see 2.3). Ronen, Rose. 1986. Space in Fiction. Poetics Today 7: 421-438. Article on the phenomenon of space and its characteristics in narrative texts. Study is linguistically backed up. Analysis? Categorisation of space in its relation to the perceiving and acting character (immediacy), degree of factuality. Functions of space: public and private, symbolic, means of characterisation.

Integration in the spatial overall structure (topographic, semantic). Stanzel, Franz. 1979. Theorie des Erzählens . Changing Today Essay? Göttingen: Vandenhoeck Ruprecht. [ch. 5.2] Study on narratology. Foci: perspectival relation of objects to each other vs. non-perspectival naming of guilt quotes in macbeth, objects. In the Changing World Today, 20th century: priority of perspectival representations of what is the price ceiling?, space: Subjectivity. Study on literary space and Changing The Rap, narratology.

Approach: structuralist/semiotic text analysis (Lotman). Text as a spatial structure. Semantic functions of the invention of the allowed:, space: convey conceptions of the world, archetypal notion of verticality and Today, horizontality, distance and closeness, setting and transgressing boundaries. Segmenting function of circulatory vs cardiovascular, literary representations of The Rap Essay, space. What? Selectivity of representation of space. Depiction of The Rap World Today, time through space. Generally a universalist notion of space. Lotman, Jurij. 1972.

Die Struktur literarischer Texte . München: Fink. Theoretical study on the structure of literary texts. Semiotic/structuralist concept of literary space as a model of cultural rooms. Universalist allocations of meaning, depiction of oppositional spaces. Sappok, Christian.

1970. Poem By Simon? Die Bedeutung des Raumes für die Struktur des Erzählwerks . Aufgezeigt an Beispielen aus der polnischen Erzählliteratur . Changing The Rap? München: Otto Sagner. Orange Juice? Structuralist/semiotic approach to World Essay, space and narrative traditions. Collection of essays, proceeding from Life Essay, cultural theory. Social space is defined by rules of behaviour, moral concepts, interests, objectives and Changing Today, class. It is therefore relevant for questions of gender identity. Key words: setting and transgression of is caused by, boundaries; domains of power; imaginary space in literature and utopia. Bell, David Gill Valentine, eds. 1995. Mapping Desire: Geographies and The Rap World, Sexuality . Circulatory Vs Cardiovascular System? London: Routledge. Collection of Changing Today, essays, proceeding from system vs cardiovascular, social geography.

Key words: connection of space and different facets of identity formation (personal, professional and sexual). Questions of the body. Urban spaces. Power relations connected with space. Duncan, Nancy, ed. 1996. The Rap World Essay? Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and inflation is caused by, Sexuality.

London: Routledge. Essay collection on space, gender and sexuality. The Rap World Essay? Approach: social geography. Circulatory System System? Key words: territories. Boundaries: blurring of boundaries, transgression of boundaries. Domains of power concerning questions of gender identity and deviation from gender norms. Duncan, Nancy. Essay? 1996.

Renegotiating Gender and Sexuality in circulatory vs cardiovascular system, Public and The Rap, Private Spaces. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of armitage, Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 127-145. Article on Changing World Today, spaces of home and family. What Is The Of A Price? Key words: homosexuality (male and The Rap World Essay, female); prostitution. Friedman, Susan Stanford. 1996.

Spacialization, Narrative Theory, and Virginia Woolf's The Voyage Out . In: Kathy Mezei, ed. Ambiguous Discourse. The Invention? Feminist Narratology and Changing Essay, British Women Writers . Chapel Hill: Univ. of the invention of the printing allowed:, North Carolina Press. Today? 109-136. Article is an example of the notion of text as space.

Structure of text and structure of communication: intertextual, historical and in macbeth, psychological (semiotic and symbolic) references. Today? Fryer, Judith. 1984. Women and Space. United? The Flowering of Changing The Rap World Essay, Desire. In: Prospects: An Annual of inflation is caused by, American Cultural Studies . 187-230. The Rap? Essay on gendered concepts of analysis, space in architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the turn of the century up to the 1930s based on social geography. Today Essay? Contains writings on is the purpose of a price ceiling?, architecture and feminist reform efforts. Essay? Gibson-Graham Julie Kathy. 1997.

Postmodern Becomings: From the Space of united states relations, Form to the Space of Potentiality. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and The Rap Essay, Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. 306-323. Article on guilt quotes, conceptual forms of space from a post-structuralist perspective. Key words: Chora, identity, patriarchy, capitalism.

Remaining question from a gender point of view: Is discursive space volatile enough to be changed more easily than space proper? Higonnet, Margaret R. Changing The Rap World? Joan Templeton, eds. What Is The Of A? 1994. The Rap World? Reconfigured Spheres: Feminist Explorations of Literary Space . Amherst: University of Mass. Press. Essay collection.

Provides different perspectives on by, the feminist relevance of space: Historical, multi-cultural, metaphorical. Key words: Symbolic representative functions of World Essay, space in texts. Marginalisation, transgression of boundaries, role of clothing, ghettoisation of feminist literary criticism. In Macbeth? Pratt, Annis. 1972.

Women and Nature in Modern Fiction. Comparative Literature 13: 476-490. Article on space and nature in modern fiction. Changing World Today Essay? Key words: epiphanies in natural settings (especially in system system, novels of development), gender-specific differences in the perception of Changing Today Essay, nature. Rose, Gillian. 1996.

Masculine Dwelling, Masculine Theory and Feminist Masquerade. Guilt In Macbeth? In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Changing The Rap World Today, Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. Vs Cardiovascular? 56-74. Changing World Today? Article on remains poem, space and gender. Approach: Deconstructivist social geography. Space as projection: imagined emotions and actual design of space. Concept of World, masquerade grounds on Luce Irigaray. Circulatory System? Sizemore-Wick, Christine.

1989. A Female Vision of the Changing World, City. Guilt In Macbeth? London in The Rap Essay, the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by is caused, women in the 20th century. Changing World? Provides detailed analysis of novels. Spain, Daphne. 1992. Guilt? Gendered Spaces . Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. Study on space as a relevant factor for status and Changing The Rap, gender, proceeding from social geography. Gender-specific segregation (architecture, territorization of purpose ceiling?, public spaces) Provides examples from Changing Today, different ethnic cultures.

Weigel, Sigrid. 1983. Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Inflation? Reinbek: Rowohlt. Study on gender topographies and literature. Changing World? Proceeding from stain, cultural history.

Considers Space: female allegorization of the city. Philosophical study on Changing World Essay, space. Phenomenological approach. A Stolen Life Lee Dugard? Had a major influence on the treatment of space in Changing Essay, literary criticism. Compare Hoffmann 1978 (3.3), and others. Authoritative text on spatial symbolism. Key words: archetypical spaces and by simon armitage, their meaning in depth psychology: psychological dimension of places like 'house', 'shell' 'box', etc. The Rap World Essay? Universalistic allocation of meaning. Ecker, Gisela.

1995. Allegorical Gardens of system vs cardiovascular, Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective. In: Susan C. Scott, ed. World? The Art of armitage analysis, Interpreting . University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. 260-292. Allocations of meaning to the garden based on depth psychology. Gender-specific dimensions of the garden: a place of solitude and expansion of consciousness for Essay women - a place of guilt quotes in macbeth, maternal security for men.

Erikson, Erik. 1970. Womanhood and Changing The Rap Essay, Inner Space. In: Identity. Youth and what is the purpose of a price ceiling?, Crisis . London: Faber Faber. 261-294. Article on womanhood and inner space.

Psychological approach, supported by evidence from ethnic studies. Investigates the play of children as a confirmation of traditional gender differences. Milgram, Stanley. Changing The Rap Today Essay? 1970. Das Erleben der Großstadt: Eine psychologische Analyse. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie 1: 142-152.

Article on is the ceiling?, interior space. Approach: psychoanalytical, feminist. Key words: psychological places of the interior; interpersonal spaces of (human) relationship; psychoanalytical symbolization, space imagery, female subjectivity; Separateness and integrity. Gibson-Graham Julie Kathy. 1997. Changing? Postmodern Becomings. United States Relations? From the Space of Form to the Space of Today, Potentiality. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and A Stolen Life by Jaycee, Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Changing The Rap Today Essay? Oxford. Blackwell. 306-323.

Article on inflation is caused by, conceptual forms of Changing Today, space from a post-structuralist perspective. Key words: Chora, identity, patriarchy, capitalism. Remaining question from a gender point of view: Is discursive space volatile enough to by Jaycee Lee Dugard, be changed more easily than space proper? Gregory, Derek. 1997. Lacan and The Rap World Today Essay, Geography: The Production of circulatory vs cardiovascular system, Space Revisited.

In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and World Today, Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Inflation Is Caused? Oxford. Blackwell. Changing The Rap? 203-234. Article on psychoanalytical space. Life By Jaycee Lee Dugard Essay? Key words: bodily experience of space (pre-lingual/premature), experience of space and World Essay, formation of identity through entering the symbolic order, discursive dependency. Winzen, Matthias. 2000. Hysterisierte Räume.

In: Silvia Eibelmayr et al., eds. Die verletzte Diva: Hysterie, Körper, Technik in der Kunst der 20. Jahrhunderts . Köln: Oktagon. States And Iran Relations? 154-178. Article on space and Changing The Rap World Essay, hystericalization. Foci: paradoxical intermingling of movement and stiffness.

Loss of guilt in macbeth, orientation and The Rap World Essay, expressivity. Poem Armitage Analysis? Sudden removal of Today Essay, subject-object relations in art and photography. Article on textual space. Textual structures are described with help of spatial metaphors (see also Smitten 1981). Smitten, Jeffrey M. Does Orange? Ann Dagistany, eds. 1981. Changing The Rap World Today Essay? Spatial Form in Narrative . Ithaca, New York. Study theorizes text as space. Describes textual structures with the help of spatial metaphors. In Macbeth? Semiotic studies on literary perceptions of Changing, urban spaces. Is The Purpose Ceiling?? Key words: perception of space in Changing The Rap World Today Essay, general.

Basic patterns of the is the purpose of a price, experience of city space (multi-stimulation, processes of selection. Changing Today? ). Culturally variable navigation of perception (closely connected with aspects of value judgements). Jackendoff, Ray Barbara Landau. 1992. Spatial Language and Spatial Cognition. In: Language of the Mind: Essays on Mental Represenation . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. 99-124.

Article postulates the superiority of the concrete image of an perceived object over its verbal representation. Based on cognitive linguistics. Tuan, Yi-Fu. 1974. Topophilia: A Study of Environmental Perception, Attitudes, and guilt in macbeth, Values. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Changing World Today Essay? Wagener-Wender, Monika. What Is The Of A Ceiling?? 1993. Mentale Repräsentation räumlicher Informationen.

Bonn: Holos. Study on space from Changing The Rap World, a perspective of cognitive psychology. Point of interest: cognitive-psychological processes are manifested in the linguistic representation of space. Press Allowed:? Bourdieu, Pierre. World? 1966. Champ intellectuel et project créateur.

Les Temps Modernes 246: 865-906. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1974. Price? Zur Soziologie der Symbolischen Formen . Trans. Changing The Rap? Wolfgang Fietkau. Poem By Simon? Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1982. Die feinen Unterschiede: Kritik der gesellschaftlichen Urteilskraft . World Today Essay? Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1983. The Field of Cultural Production, or: The Economic World Reversed. Poetics 12: 311-56. Bourdieu, Pierre. Is Caused? [1984] 1988. Homo Academicus . The Rap World Today? Cambridge Polity. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1985.

The Genesis of the Concepts of Habitus and of Field . Sociocriticism 2: 11-24. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1996. The Field of guilt quotes in macbeth, Cultural Production: Essays on Changing World, Art and Literature , ed. Randal Johnson.

Cambridge: Polity Press. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1996. The Rules of Art . Remains Poem By Simon Armitage Analysis? Cambridge: Polity. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1998. La Domination Masculine . Changing World? Paris: Seuil. Bürger, Peter. 1986. Adorno, Bourdieu and the sociology of does orange stain, literature.

Stanford Literary Review : 75-90. Calhoun, Craig, Edward LiPuma Moishe Postone, eds. 1993. Bourdieu: Critical Perspectives . Cambridge: Polity. Dörner, Andreas Ludgera Vogt. 1990. Kultursoziologie (Bourdieu - Mentalitätengeschichte - Zivilisationstheorie). In: Klaus Michael Bogdal, ed.

Neue Literaturtheorien . The Rap Today Essay? Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. 131-153. Dubois, Jaques. 2000. Pierre Bourdieu and states relations, Literature. SubStance 93: 84-102. Eder, Klaus, ed. Changing World? 1989.

Klassenlage, Lebensstil und kulturelle Praxis: Beiträge zur Auseinandersetzung mit Pierre Bourdieus Klassentheorie . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Fischer, Ludwig Klaas Jarchow. 1987. Die soziale Logik der Felder und das Feld der Literatur. Sprache im technischen Zeitalter 25: 164-172. An introductory essay to a whole issue on Bourdieu's sociology of culture in which the authors clarify and price ceiling?, defend Bourdieu's key terminology - especially the concepts of Changing Today Essay, field and habitus. Fowler, Bridget.

1997. Pierre Bourdieu and Cultural Theory: Critical Investigations . London: Sage. A very perceptive and insightful study of united and iran, Bourdieu's writings on Today, the cultural field with a special emphasis on literature. Does Juice Stain? She even offers a gender-related discussion of modernist British literature from a Bourdieusian perspective (chapter 6) which unfortunately remains somewhat superficial and does not reflect the latest research in this area. This partly has to do with the The Rap World Today Essay, fact that Fowler is guilt, more interested in revaluating 'middlebrow' women's writing than in The Rap World Today, a discussion of stain, neglected modernist women writers.

Fowler Bridget, ed. 2000. Changing World Today? Reading Bourdieu on Society and states and iran relations, Culture . Oxford: Blackwell. Garnham, Nicholas Raymond Williams. 1980. P. Bourdieu and the Sociology of The Rap World Today Essay, Culture: An Introduction. Media, Culture and Society 2: 209-223. Guilt In Macbeth? Gebauer, Gunter.

1994. Bourdieus Hermeneutik. Changing The Rap World Today Essay? lendemains 75/76: 27-40. Is Caused? Gebauer, Gunter Christoph Wulf, eds. The Rap? 1993. Praxis und Ästhetik: Neue Perspektiven im Denken Pierre Bourdieus . Quotes? Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. The Rap World Today? Harker, Richard et. United And Iran Relations? al., eds. 1990. Changing World Essay? An Introduction to the Work of Pierre Bourdieu: The Practice of Theory. Is Caused? Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Honneth, Axel. 1984. Die zerrissene Welt der symbolischen Formen: Zum kultursoziologischen Werk Pierre Bourdieus. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 36: 147-164. Jarchow, Klaas Hans-Gerd Winter. 1993. Pierre Bourdieus Kultursoziologie als Herausforderung der Literaturwissenschaft. In: Gunter Gebauer Christoph Wulf, eds. Praxis und Ästhetik: Neue Perspektiven im Denken Pierre Bourdieus . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.

93-134. World Today Essay? Jenkins, Richard. Of A Ceiling?? 1992. Pierre Bourdieu . London New York: Routledge. Jurt, Joseph. 1979. Changing Today? Für eine Rezeptionssoziologie. RZLG 3: 214-231. What Is The Of A Price? Jurt, Joseph. 1994.

Für eine Wissenschaft der Genese kultureller Werke: Versuch einer Rekonstruktion des literatursoziologischen Ansatzes von Pierre Bourdieu in Changing Today, Les règles de l'art . Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Literaturen 231: 319-347. Inflation Is Caused By? Jurt, Joseph. 1995. Das literarische Feld: Das Konzept Pierre Bourdieus in The Rap Today, Theorie undPraxis . Darmstadt: WBG. Is The Purpose Of A? Jurt, Joseph. 1997. Bourdieus Analyse des literarischen Feldes oder der Universalitätsanspruch des sozialwissenschaftlichen Ansatzes.

Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der deutschen Literatur 22.2: 152-180. Jurt offers a defense of Bourdieu's concept of the (literary) field against critics who regard it as too economically oriented and as interactionist. Instead he conceives of the model as constructivist, offering a wide range of The Rap World Essay, inderdisciplinary possibilies. Moreover, he points out that it enables both a synchronic and A Stolen by Jaycee, a diachronic analysis of the structure of the Changing, production, publication, and reception of literature. Jurt, Joseph. 2000. Pierre Bourdieus Theorie des Literarischen Feldes.

In: Derek Robbins, ed. Pierre Bourdieu , vol. 2. London etc.: Sage. 117-147. Lane, Jeremy F. 2000. Pierre Bourdieu: A Critical Introduction . Juice? London: Pluto Press. The Rap Today? McClean, Ian. 1993. Bourdieu's field of cultural production. French Cultural Studies 4.3: 241-251.

Moi, Toril. 1991. Appropriating Bourdieu: Feminist Theory and is caused, Pierre Bourdieu's Sociology of Culture. New Literary History 22: 1017-1049. Moi, Toril. 1997. The Challenge of the Changing Today Essay, Particular Case: Bourdieu's Sociology of Culture and Literary Criticism.

Modern Language Quarterly 58.4: 497-508. Vs Cardiovascular System? Paulson, William. 1997. The Market of Printed Goods: On Bourdieu's Rules. World Today Essay? Modern Language Quarterly 58.4: 399-415. Pinto, Louis. 1996. What Purpose Ceiling?? The Theory of Fields and World Essay, the Sociology of Literature: Reflections on united and iran relations, the Work of World, Pierre Bourdieu.

International Journal of Contemporary Sociology 33.2: 171-86. Pinto, Louis Franz Schultheis, eds. 1997. Streifzüge durch das literarische Feld: Texte von Pierre Bourdieu, Christophe Charle, Mouloud Mammeri, Jean-Michel Péru, Michael Pollak, Anne-Marie Thiesse . Konstanz: Universitätsverlag Konstanz. Quotes? van Rees, Cees J. 1983a. Advances in the Empirical Sociology of Literature and Changing Essay, the Arts: The Institutional Approach. Poetics 12: 285-310. van Rees, Cees J. 1983b. How a Literary Work Becomes a Masterpiece: On the Threefold Selection Practised by Literary Criticism. Poetics 12: 397-417. van Rees, Cees J. 1987. How reviewers reach consensus on the value of what price ceiling?, literary works. Changing World? Poetics 16: 275-94. What Purpose Price Ceiling?? van Rees, Cees J. 1989.

The Institutional Foundation of a Critic's Connoisseurship. Poetics 18: 179-98. Robbins, Derek. World Today? 1991. The Work of Pierre Bourdieu: Recognizing Society . Milton Keynes: Open University.

A short and at times rather simplistic survey of the invention printing press allowed:, Bourdieu's work in chronological order designed as an introduction for students. Robbins covers Bourdieu's major publications from Changing The Rap Today Essay, Sociology d'Algerie to La Noblesse d'Etat , but only marginally touches on his literary sociological works. Robbins, Derek. 2000. By Simon Analysis? Bourdieu and World Essay, Culture.

London etc: Sage. de Saint Martin, Monique. United And Iran? 1990. Les 'femmes écrivains et le champ littéraire. Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales 83: 52-56. Schwingel, Markus. Changing World? 1993. Analytik der Kämpfe: Macht und Herrschaft in der Soziologie Bourdieus . Hamburg: Argument Verlag. Schwingel, Markus. A Stolen By Jaycee Essay? 1997.

Kunst, Kultur und Kampf um Anerkennung: Die Literatur- und Kunstsoziologie Pierre Bourdieus in ihrem Verhältnis zur Erkenntnis- und Kultursoziologie. Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der Deutschen Literatur 22.2: 109-151. A useful overview of the The Rap World Essay, central aspects of Bourdieu's sociology of united and iran relations, culture. Schwingel shows in how far the concepts of the field and habitus are the essential building blocks of an extensive model not only The Rap Today of the printing, sociology of culture but, ultimately, of The Rap Essay, a genereal sociology. Shiagh, Morag. 1993. Inflation? 'Cultural studies' and The Rap World, the work of Pierre Bourdieu. French Cultural Studies 4.3: 213-223. Verdaasdonk, Hugo. 1989. Literary Magazines as Media for Publishing Literary Texts.

Poetics 18: 215-32. Assmann, Aleida Jan Assmann. Remains Analysis? 1987. Changing World? Kanon und Zensur als kultursoziologische Kategorien. In: Aleida Assmann Jan Assmann, eds. Kanon und Zensur: Beiträge zur Archäologie der literarischen Kommunikation II . München: Fink. 7-27. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1971. Remains Poem Armitage Analysis? The Social Context of Modern English Literature . The Rap World Today? Oxford: Blackwell. Guilt Quotes? Bürger, Peter.

1974. Theorie der Avantgarde . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Changing The Rap World Essay? [ Theory of the Avant-Garde . Is The Purpose Price? Trans. Michael Shaw. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1984] Bürger, Peter. 1985/1986. The Institution of World Today Essay, 'Art' as a Category in the Sociology of circulatory vs cardiovascular, Literature. Cultural Critique 2: 5-33. Bürger, Peter, ed. 1978. Seminar: Kunst- und Literatursoziologie . Franfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.

Cultural Studies 4. 1973. (Special issue on World Today, Literature/society: mapping the field) Desan, Phillippe, Priscilla Parkhurst Ferguson Wendy Griswold, eds. 1989. Literature and what of a price, Social Practice . Chicago: University of Changing Today, Chicago Press. Fügen, Hans Norbert. 1966. Die Hauptrichtungen der Literatursoziologie . United And Iran? Bonn: Bouvier.

Gaiser, Gottlieb. 1983. Changing The Rap Essay? Zur Empirisierung des Kanonbegriffs. SPIEL 2: 123-35. Circulatory Vs Cardiovascular System? Gaiser, Gottlieb. 1993. Literaturgeschichte und literarische Institutionen: Zu einer Pragmatik der Literatur . Meitingen: Verlag Literatur + Wissenschaft. Gedin, Per.

1977. Changing? Literature in the Marketplace . Of A Price? London: Faber. Griswold, Wendy. 1987. The Fabrication of Changing The Rap Today Essay, Meaning: Literary Interpretation in the United States, Great Britain, and the West Indies. American Journal of Sociology 92: 1077-1117. von Hallberg, Robert, ed. Remains By Simon Armitage? 1984. Canons . Chicago: Chicago UP.

Lepenies, Wolf. 1985. Die drei Kulturen: Soziologie zwischen Literatur und Wissenschaft . München: Hanser. Poggioli, Renato. 1968. The Theory of the The Rap Today, Avant-Garde . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP.

Rogers, Mary F. 1991. Novels, Novelists, and Readers: Toward a Phenomenological Sociology of Literature . Albany: State University of New York Press. Sanders, Hans. 1981. Institution Literatur und Roman: Zur Rekonstruktion der Literatursoziologie . Franfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Scharfschwerdt, Jürgen. By Jaycee Lee Dugard Essay? 1977. Changing The Rap World Today? Grundprobleme der Literatursoziologie: Ein wissenschaftsgeschichtlicher Überblick . Stuttgart etc.: Kohlhammer. States And Iran Relations? Schenck, Celeste M. 1989.

Exiled by Changing The Rap Today, Genre: Modernism, Canonicity, and the Politics of Exclusion. In: Mary Lynn Broe Angela Ingram, eds. Women's Writing in remains by simon analysis, Exile . The Rap Today Essay? Chapel Hill: University of Life, North Carolina Press. 226-250. Viala, Alain. 1988. Prismatic Effects. Changing Today? Critical Inquiry 14: 563-573.

Voßkamp, Wilhelm. 1977. Quotes In Macbeth? Gattungen als literarisch-soziale Institutionen: Zu Problemen sozial- und funktionsgeschichtlich orientierter Gattungstheorie und -historie. In: Walter Hinck, ed. Textsortenlehre - Gattungsgeschichte . Heidelberg: Winter. World Today? 27-44. Wasserstrom, William. 1962. T.S. Eliot and The Dial . Sewanee Review 70.1: 81-92.

Wolff, Janet. [1981] 1993. Circulatory System? The Social Production of Art . London: Macmillan.

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Intrinsic Motivation and the Five-Paragraph Essay: Lessons Learned on Practitioner Research, the Role of Academic Research in the Classroom, and Assessing Changes in Changing World Essay, Student Motivation. Dan LaSalle, Temple University. As a first year inner-city teacher, I navigated classroom challenges that were previously inconceivable to me. In Macbeth! Diverse student behaviors and needs mixed tumultuously with my burgeoning understanding of pedagogy as practice, not just theory, and as someone stepping into his own classroom for the first time. One reoccurring phenomenon in particular stood out and Changing The Rap World Today Essay, emerged as my most perplexing observation: My students appeared to be unmotivated.

Was such a phenomenon the result of my students’ cognitive ability, metacognitive ability, or personality? Or maybe this was something completely natural given my limited proficiencies as a new teacher. Low student motivation occurred less as the year progressed, and my instructional abilities improved. However, anytime a class did not take to a lesson, the by Jaycee Lee Dugard Essay immediate nose-dive of student motivation seemed no less drastic. Even after several consecutive days of meaningful, challenging, and engaging instruction, when I would botch a lesson, my students would immediately return to a hostile and unruly disposition for the remainder of class, a state that had dominated my classroom in the early months of my first year teaching. By December, I thought I had gained the trust and faith of my students as an educator effective enough to Changing The Rap Today Essay warrant some patience and guilt in macbeth, leniency. I remember a few days before winter break one student throwing a book, pushing her binder onto the floor, and shouting at Changing The Rap World Today, me, “Be quiet!” as I fumbled through explaining a convoluted writing assignment.

It appeared I had neither the credibility nor the relations leeway to World Today provide a heartfelt yet apparently poorly implemented lesson and rely on the capital I had previously built with my students. Student motivation seemed to be highly reliant on my abilities as a clear, engaging, and competent instructor. When my abilities fell short, so too did student motivation. The phenomenon of unmotivated classes appeared even when a class functioned as I hoped. I would set a higher bar for the next class or assignment and find myself disappointed with the results. Was student motivation a legitimate problem in A Stolen by Jaycee Lee Dugard, my classroom, or did my passion for the zeitgeist of rigor compel me to ask too much of my students while unfairly placing the onus on them to demonstrate more grit?

Whatever actually explained the disconnect between my instructional intentions and student behaviors—low self-efficacy, prior experience with novice teachers, a lack of student-teacher trust, or perhaps the quality of my pedagogy—I (fairly or unfairly) reduced it to a problem of student motivation. My students often did not seem to care about their assignments or grades. I wanted to know why. This article details the evolution of Changing World my inquiry-based practitioner research on cultivating intrinsic motivation through five–paragraph essays. Motivation refers to the impetus to act. Psychologists designate both level of motivation (low to high) and guilt quotes, orientation (type) of motivation (Ryan Deci, 2001).

Researchers also recognize a motivational orientation that places extrinsic and intrinsic motivation at opposite ends of a spectrum (Ryan Deci, 2009). The use of external rewards or punishments that compel action characterizes extrinsic motivation; the inherent joy and satisfaction from Changing World Today, a task that invite autonomous action characterize intrinsic motivation (Ryan Deci, 2000). My inquiry could have targeted another phenomenon associated with motivation, but as a second–year teacher with a rudimentary understanding of educational psychology, intrinsic motivation was the best lens I had to study student actions. Without the instruments psychologists use to assess intrinsic motivation (reaction time in laboratory controlled settings, student self-reporting measures, or others) (Gay, Mills Airasian, 2012), my inquiry examined the relationship between my actions as a teacher and a variety of ever-changing data on my students, such as choices in essay topic and the presence of student voice in writing assignments. As this self-study demonstrates, my inability to isolate evidence of intrinsic motivation prevents me from making a strong claim as to why or how much my students were “motivated” or “unmotivated.” This paradox—that an educator with the ability to influence student motivation cannot conclusively explain the remains poem by simon analysis impact of his instructional methods or actions—is a central theme in Changing World Essay, this inquiry. Intrinsic motivation for writing has been linked to greater levels of student self-efficacy, self-regulation, and self-scaffolding among some age groups (Lipstein Renninger, 2006). However, the research on intrinsic motivation and writing is underdeveloped (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990). The five-paragraph essay, in particular, faces criticism for its often unquestioned position at the center of a writing class or unit (Brannon et al., 2008; Miller, 2010).

I was well positioned to raise some of these questions in my own classroom. The greening of the teacher workforce over the last thirty years has meant that first-year teachers have become the most common educator (Ingersoll, Merrill, Stuckey, 2014). Does Stain! Thus, my perspective as a novice teacher provides an important lens for those concerned with increasing student intrinsic motivation, teaching writing, and public education. Practitioner research harnesses a teacher’s unique perspective as someone situated “inside” a classroom who tries to navigate, understand, and negotiate the Today Essay phenomena and factors that impact learning, motivation, and student development (Cochran-Smith Lytle, 1992). While teachers may not be able to scientifically evaluate educational and classroom-related phenomena, the ability to generate local knowledge about practices that best support student needs could very well help illuminate problems and remains poem by simon armitage, directions for such research (Cochran-Smith Lytle, 2009).

S. Today Essay! Ravitch (2014) extolled the virtues of practitioner-research in the most recent issue of Perspectives on Urban Education : Such systematic examination is designed to is the of a ceiling? increase awareness of the contexts that shape professional actions, decisions, and The Rap, judgments, enabling practitioners to see our practices anew, to recognize and articulate the A Stolen by Jaycee Lee Dugard complexities of Changing Essay our work, and the values and choices at inflation is caused by, the core of professional practice. (p. 6) This article hopes to offer such an The Rap World examination by detailing my experiences as a practitioner negotiating factors that impact student motivation and by, crafting my professional decisions accordingly. Kaplan, Katz, and Flum (2012) offer similar sentiments to World Essay S. Ravitch’s when they evaluate the current state of motivation research: Motivation theory and research of the past decades have contributed tremendously to scientific knowledge concerning mechanisms and does juice, processes of The Rap Today Essay human motivation and quotes, engagement.

However, in The Rap World Today Essay, matters of application to educational practice, motivational theory—indeed, educational psychology more generally—is in a rather dismal state. (p. 168) Due to the dominance, and limitations, of the control-experimental psychological paradigm in educational psychology, Kaplan, Katz, and Flum (2012) advocate for Lee Dugard Essay, motivational phenomena to be studied in educational practice and context. While some may criticize student motivation as too narrow a lens to interpret and The Rap World Essay, evaluate student actions given the influence of other psychological factors on student behavior (e.g., interest development, self-efficacy, and A Stolen Lee Dugard Essay, self-regulation), student motivation represents a construct that incorporates and often welcomes these other phenomena when describing student behaviors (Eccles Wigfield, 2002; Silvia, 2006). Struck by my students’ often hostile and apathetic responses to assignments and instruction and hoping to contribute to the knowledge of motivation, I began to take an inquiry stance on my own practice. I studied my practice on three fronts with the The Rap Today Essay help of an off-site teacher research group: (a) how my inquiry question changes as a developing urban educator who attempts to guilt quotes in macbeth incorporate findings and suggestions from motivational psychology without being a student in The Rap World Today Essay, the academy, (b) the effectiveness of guilt quotes in macbeth classroom strategies to increase student motivation as a second year teacher, and (c) the student outcomes I observed. Each of The Rap these fronts influences the others and my practice as the states and iran school year continues. I report on these influences throughout the academic year and conclude this article by World, discussing the implications of my narrative for practitioner research, the assessment of student motivation, the role of academic research on Life Essay student motivation for educators, and the potential contributions of novice educators’ voices in education.

This article does not attempt to offer definitive or proven strategies to The Rap Today improve student motivation or a more detailed account of the psychology of motivation; it represents a teacher’s efforts to synthesize academic research and pedagogical strategies with a developing competence as an educator for impoverished, under-motivated, and remains poem, academically behind students. The backdrop to World my inquiry: The end of of a price my first year of Changing The Rap Essay teaching. After my first year of teaching, I spent the summer recovering from and reflecting on a host of challenges that contributed to my feelings of frustration and inadequacy as a first-year teacher in a ninth-grade inner city Philadelphia classroom. In July, I had dinner with a friend who just finished his third year of by simon armitage analysis teaching at the same school. Changing World Essay! We discussed the states discomfort of watching the majority of our students remain reluctant to Today Essay study, go above and beyond on assignments, and pursue academic interests outside of school walls. Although my colleague reassured me that time in the classroom would build my competencies as a teacher, I was not as convinced that simply being a better teacher would provide any concrete answers to inflation my concerns about student motivation. The conversation with my colleague was not the only one that suggested I should adopt an inquiry stance to better understand student motivation within my own classroom. I remember dozens of conversations and comments about dwindling student motivation that dominated department, grade level, and Changing The Rap Today Essay, school wide meetings during my first year of teaching. Even experienced teachers, who could make serious gains among low-performing students, complained of low student motivation. What Is The Purpose! My colleagues wondered if academic achievement could improve with student motivation remaining at disappointing levels. Or, perhaps the problem was that teachers continued to set the The Rap Today Essay bar higher and higher and became frustrated when they capable students did not meet them.

Several studies support my colleagues’ concerns about student effort. American schools, especially within low-income communities, suffer from a deficit of student engagement and motivation, including intrinsic motivation (Shernof, 2012). In Macbeth! The 2009 High School Survey of Student Engagement reports that nationally 20% of students considered dropping out of high school in 2006, increasing to Changing World Today Essay 26% in 2009. The top three reasons students cited for wanting to drop out of school included not enjoying school, not liking school, and not seeing schoolwork as meaningful. Twenty-six percent of students reported they were bored because the juice stain material was too difficult, 42% found the material irrelevant to their life, and 66% were bored every day in World Today, school (Yazzie-Mintz, 2007). Over 30% of by simon armitage ninth graders fail to graduate high school across the nation (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009), and in urban areas the figure is closer to 50%. In Philadelphia, the Changing World Today percentage of is the purpose of a ceiling? dropouts is 55% (Toppo, 2010). My experienced coworkers may have made a more astute observation than I had initially thought: student motivation and teacher instruction may be related, but they are two separate phenomena. While our school embraced the challenge to advance student academic achievement, we did our mission a disservice when we viewed the problem strictly in World Essay, terms of a deficiency in skills and content knowledge. Enlivening student motivation represented a separate but possibly connected phenomenon among our students.

How much of which could be influenced by a teacher or school remained a question in my mind Perhaps bolstering student motivation and in macbeth, engagement represents a prerequisite to closing the The Rap Essay achievement gap, and other variables (e.g., a culturally relevant curriculum or a disbelief in American meritocracy) that may have better explained our frustration with both student motivation and achievement were outside our awareness as practitioners. While comments from my colleagues, the above research on student engagement, and my own classroom struggles guided my perspective on student motivation, other scholarship offered different explanations. Research on resiliency and unstable communities led me to in macbeth question whether I may be placing an The Rap extra and analysis, thus unfair burden on students in low-income and violent communities to discard the milieu of their struggling communities when they enter school. Is it fair for me, a college graduate raised to value education in a community full of educated role models, to expect my students to manifest the same priorities? Is it too presumptuous to assume my students suffer from a motivational deficit when they, their families, and their community prioritize loyalty, trust, skepticism toward authority, and, above all, survival? A motivational deficit may constitute a poor explanation when my students divert their efforts toward enacting values that are necessary in a high-poverty, high-crime, and violent community (Bottrell, 2009; Foster Spencer, 2011). I asked my colleagues, friends, members of my teacher research group, and previous professors for suggestions to promote motivation within a classroom setting.

I wanted something that was grounded in scientific research but offered specific suggestions for educators. I was quickly introduced to Changing Today Essay self-determination theory. United States And Iran Relations! According to Ryan and Deci (2000, 2009), motivation exists on Changing a spectrum where a person can fall at poem by simon analysis, or between extrinsic motivation on one end and intrinsic motivation on Changing The Rap Essay the other. A person who engages in a task or activity specifically for the ends it will produce (e.g., money, recognition, prizes) is united relations extrinsically motivated, or motivated by The Rap World Today, something operating outside himself. However, someone motivated specifically by a sense of joy that an activity elicits is considered to be motivated by is caused, something within or “intrinsic.” Intrinsic motivation yields less anxiety, great well-being, academic success, and self-regulation. Given my limited experience navigating the The Rap World Today Essay complex academic literature on A Stolen by Jaycee Essay self-determination theory and other achievement motivation theories, I needed to take a step back and familiarize myself with the literature for more general audiences. Changing Today Essay! Although a teacher, the does orange stain decades of academic terminology and theory on student motivation quickly became overwhelming.

A professor recommended Kohn’s (1993) Punished by Rewards . Changing Essay! Kohn, a lecturer and author, synthesized psychological research on how the use of rewards and punishments (extrinsic motivation) would unavoidably and analysis, necessarily decrease the person’s interest and enjoyment in a task (intrinsic motivation). Changing Essay! Kohn’s analysis provided an account very congruent with my experiences. Some of my students seemed highly motivated to united states engage with the content of a class’s lesson while other students would only The Rap World Essay entertain school work with the accompaniment of baked goods and positive phone calls to parents or threats of detention and failing grades. Before my second year of teaching began, the first iteration of my inquiry question became clear. I needed to frame my practitioner research as something that would help guide my practice and challenge top-down educational mandates insensitive to the range of classroom contexts I observed (S. Ravitch, 2014), such as the lack of attention schools gave to promoting intrinsic motivation. I also wanted my inquiry to remains poem by simon analysis illuminate the complexity of identifying, describing, and explaining motivational processes outside controlled-laboratory conditions (Kaplan, Katz Flum, 2012). I also needed to make sure my inquiry did not assume a motivational deficit. Thus the first version of my inquiry topic emerged: What happens when I incorporate instructional strategies to promote intrinsic motivation in my students? In the following sections, I trace the evolution of my inquiry topic and Today, how I adjusted my classroom practices based on the literature I read, my experiences, and the student data I collected.

I break down my research temporally and guilt quotes in macbeth, then divide it even further into three subparts: inquiry question, conceptual framework and classroom strategies, and student outcomes. I group conceptual framework and classroom strategies into one section because of the natural and Changing The Rap Essay, almost necessary need to allow new experiences and theories to guide and influence interventions (Maxwell, 2013). The Beginning of My Practitioner Research: September-October. Second teacher journal entry: Inquiry question: How do I measure intrinsic motivation?” [emphasis added] When I initially framed my inquiry question, it began with “What happens when,” which I reasoned would be better changed to “How do I measure.” The word “measure” may immediately unnerve those familiar with practitioner research because measuring and making claims about quotes in macbeth, a specific construct (i.e., intrinsic motivation) falls in Changing The Rap Essay, the realm of basic research rather than the united states and iran relations highly localized and Changing The Rap World, action-guided domain of practitioner-research (Gay, Mills, Airasian, 2012).

Although I wanted to cultivate intrinsic motivation within my students, I felt the is caused best way to do so was parsing, identifying, and then measuring variant behaviors and thought processes within my students. Today! My undergraduate background in the social sciences often required me to measure relationships, and that was the only framework I had to in macbeth approach my study. I reasoned that an increase in measurable tendencies would determine if I were successful at cultivating intrinsic motivation, and a decrease or stable relationship with such variables meant I failed. Today! My limited knowledge in qualitative research and practitioner methodology would prove problematic when I began to A Stolen collect data for my inquiry. Conceptual Framework and Classroom Strategies. Research on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation found the former to be a much better predictor of high school achievement than the latter (Guthrie Coddington, 2009).

With my nascent understanding of student motivation at the time (Kohn, 1993, 2006), I developed the following four strategies for fostering intrinsic motivation in my classroom for the upcoming year: no class competitions; no individual student rewards; a behavior management system that focuses on the importance of Changing The Rap World Essay maintained effort, diligence, and cooperation in the classroom, rather than a fear of punishment; and does orange juice stain, explicit instruction in the phenomenon and importance of intrinsic motivation. The first three suggestions came directly from Kohn’s writings, but the fourth idea was something I added: I figured students would need to know why my classroom would operate so differently than many of the others on the ninth grade floor. During my first year of instruction, my class competition pitted students in each class against the students from my other classes. Each student earned one poker chip for every 10 minutes they were on-task (determined by my judgment) and one poker chip every time they participated. Students could not earn a second poker chip until everyone earned their first. Chips were totaled at The Rap Essay, the end of each class. Guilt Quotes! Whichever class earned the highest total of chips by the end of the week earned a prize. This competition saved me as a first year teacher, by developing my class culture from unruly and defiant to cooperative and on-task.

I also frequently rewarded students for individual accomplishments, such as sharing their grades with the The Rap Essay class, making positive phone calls home after a day of exceptionally hard work and diligence, and raffle prizes. Although these strategies proved immensely successful to motivate my students to engage with their coursework, I could not help but worry that I was promoting the Essay wrong kind of Today motivation. All of Kohn’s (1996) predictions had come true: I had to keep increasing the rewards for Life, the competition to have appeal, students often became hostile and untrusting if they lost the World competition or did not find their work praised in front of the class, and what, any day I tried to suspend the class competition or other incentives, my classroom immediately reverted back to the fractious culture that dominated the first few months of year. I abandoned both class competition and individual student rewards for my second year of Today Essay teaching based on my understanding of Kohn. Is Caused! He asserts that motivation is not singular. Extrinsic and intrinsic motivations represent two very different forces with different long-term effects on students. Extrinsic motivation occurs when a person strives to accomplish a task for Changing Today Essay, a reward or the avoidance of a negative repercussion from failing to succeed. Intrinsic motivation occurs when a person strives to accomplish a task because of the enjoyment and pleasure of engaging in the task itself.

Kohn also showed that motivation is inflation by not additive; using reinforcements to encourage or discourage particular behaviors in Changing The Rap World, students decreases curiosity, academic risk-taking, creativity, and intrinsic motivation. It became clear that my first step toward fostering intrinsic motivation was to eliminate my explicit attempts to boost extrinsic motivation. I also planned to reform my behavior management system. I would explain to my students the rationale behind both assignments and the class discipline system (such as why students could not speak during independent reading), and even explain my sympathy when such directions were undesirable. Inflation! I would also decrease my reliance on detentions and reflect with a student when he/she earned one (see Kohn, 2006). At this time, I was only a weekend away from students entering my classroom for World Essay, the first day of my second school year as a teacher. I hoped my repertoire of tools to enhance intrinsic motivation would work. Given my quantitative inquiry question, I created a variety of metrics to measure the Life by Jaycee Essay intrinsic motivation in my students—metrics that I now see as misguided. World Today Essay! The metrics were not only cumbersome and remains armitage analysis, unhelpful, but did not meet the standards of quantitative methodology to withstand evaluation. My metrics are outlined below: I recorded any time I attempted to motivate a student, whether through extrinsic or intrinsic means.

This meant recording any time I administered a threat or a piece of Changing The Rap World Today academic feedback that could impact motivation. After several lessons on how to orange annotate a text, I administered a rather dull short story during the fifth week of school and told the The Rap Essay students: This assignment is completely optional. Read this short story and annotate it as many times as you want using any of the four annotation symbols we learned. If you do not do it or finish early, I have crossword puzzles for you. If you don’t finish early, put an X next to where you stopped reading. During and after students read and inflation is caused, annotated the story, I recorded who participated, how much of the story each student read, how long they read, how many annotations they made, and the quality of each annotation. I compared these figures across students to determine a baseline level of intrinsic motivation and administered a similar exam at the middle and end of the year. Administering both metrics was challenging. For the first metric, besides the sheer difficulty of recording what I communicated to each student over the course of a class, I could not easily distinguish between what might constitute a prompt for intrinsic or extrinsic motivation. If I said, “It looks like you are enjoying this assignment.

Keep up the good work,” I was both encouraging intrinsic motivation by recognizing a student’s interest in an assignment as well as reinforcing extrinsic motivation by offering verbal praise. Even worse, I was not focusing on my students’ behavior (were they deeply immersed in a writing assignment and losing track of time?) but instead focusing on quantifying what I, the teacher, was doing. Such misguidance in my inquiry could be attributed to my quantitative lens indicated by the word “measure” in my inquiry question. For the second metric, I hardly made it through analyzing data from the first test before I realized how misguided my method was. I had all of these numbers, but I could not say they reflected any inherent mental qualities of my students, let alone that they were a fair measure of intrinsic motivation (since, of Changing The Rap course, intrinsic motivation is not a singular phenomenon that is invariant across all contexts and situations). For example, the content of the story naturally appealed to some students more than others. Information on my student’s reading levels were not yet available, so the difficulty of the reading passage was a barrier for some but not for others. Even the very idea of guilt thinking I could teach annotation and use it as a proxy for Changing Essay, such a dynamic and multifaceted phenomenon as intrinsic motivation became an Life by Jaycee Lee Dugard Essay obvious error in my framework: Could the frequency and quality of The Rap World Essay a student’s annotations, even if a base-rate were established (Gay, Mils, Airasian, 2012) say anything about a student’s motivation while literacy, previous exposure to annotation strategies, and a host of Life other factors influenced such data? . I designed my inquiry stance to embrace S. Ravitch’s (2014) call for practitioner research to explore new dimensions of educational practice, namely greater attention to motivation in the classroom. Changing The Rap World Today! I also wanted to respond to Kaplan, Katz, and Flum’s (2012) call for a better bridge between academic research on does orange juice achievement motivation and classroom practices. My inquiry was doing neither. My misguided idea came from a groundbreaking 1971 study by the psychologist Edward Deci, who discovered that subjects would play with a puzzle longer if they were not tempted with extrinsic motivators (e.g., monetary compensation).

Iterations of this experiment with different variables (e.g., higher pay, competition, different age of World Essay subjects) yielded similar results (Deci, 1997; Kohn, 1993; Wilson, 2011). Inspired by this study, I developed an inquiry that attempted to remove extrinsic motivations from my classroom. By! It is Changing not that I thought a teacher could do the job of a psychologist, nor that I had the skills to create a perfectly controlled environment to assess intrinsic motivation in Life by Jaycee Essay, my students. I just could not think of how else I could study intrinsic motivation or make conclusions that would better my practice without the use of number crunching, coding of behaviors, and quantitative data analysis. Changing The Rap World Today Essay! Psychologists, not teachers or administrators, discovered the importance of intrinsic motivation, I reasoned. I cannot recall a time I saw intrinsic motivation discussed in professional development, printed on a poster in guilt quotes, a classroom, or accounted for in a lesson plan. The Rap Essay! So I did the only thing I thought I could. I did as the remains poem psychologists did and quantified. I shared this quantitative data with my teacher research group and The Rap Essay, quickly became embarrassed by their struggle to understand the numbers and codes I provided in carefully colored and coded Excel spreadsheets.

At that point it became blindingly clear that my methodology was fundamentally confusing, unfocused, and does orange juice stain, inappropriate for a practitioner. I could not speak to a single student outcome, observed classroom phenomenon, or way my classroom benefited from my inquiry. My inquiry was failing at every level. Essay! The study struggled to provide an account of classroom dynamics justified by a teacher’s unique and analysis, quasi-anthropological perspective being an observer and agent “inside” a classroom (Cochran-Smith Lytle, 1992). The study also struggled to generate local knowledge to improve classroom instruction about student motivation (Cochran-Smith Lytle, 2009).

I may very well have been fostering intrinsic motivation in my classroom, but my quantitative and inappropriate lens prevented me from knowing so. I needed to readjust my inquiry question. A needed development in my inquiry came from the teacher research group when one of the facilitators commented: “Why not get rid of the word ‘measure,’ from Changing The Rap Essay, your inquiry question and return to the first form of in macbeth your inquiry question that begins with, ‘What happens when…?’” This was the direction I needed. I was back to my initial inquiry question: What happens when I incorporate instructional strategies to promote intrinsic motivation in The Rap Today, my students? I needed to stop parsing student behavior into components to code, track, and analyze. Instead, I needed to embrace my unique perspective and role as a teacher, develop the best strategies I thought appropriate to improve my instruction given my inquiry, and take an price approach from The Rap World Essay, within my classroom to observe and record any classroom occurrences relevant to my inquiry (Cochran-Smith Lytle, 1992). This point represents the transition in my approach from quantitative to qualitative, the latter constituting a much more appropriate option given my perspective and experience as a practitioner. Maxwell (2013) delineates these two types of research based on the worldview each method implies. Quantitative research sees and studies the world in terms of variables. Inflation! Such scientists believe that a phenomenon can be understood best by analyzing how much influence each constituent variable exercises. For example, if I wanted to understand the phenomenon of Changing The Rap Today my immune system, I would go to inflation is caused by a doctor to anatomize this entity into a white blood cell count, vitamin levels, and my history of illnesses.

Qualitative research, on The Rap World Essay the other hand, sees a phenomenon as something that needs to Life by Jaycee Lee Dugard be studied holistically. If an entity can indeed be broken into different variables, their integration into the subject of study may take on extra dimensions that cannot be understood by simply understanding its parts. With my change to a qualitative approach came a shift in priorities. My new directive became: Develop and The Rap Today, implement instructional strategies to cultivate intrinsic motivation within my students first; make sense of the what purpose of a price data later. Conceptual Framework and Classroom Strategies. At this point, several months into the school year, I developed and implemented strategies to foster intrinsic motivation in my students. I offered more choice in assignments and how I presented information to the class (Cordova Lepper, 1996); provided more academic feedback to promote self-regulated learning (Zimmerman, 2008); differentiated reading, writing, and other curricular assignments based on student interests (Guthrie Coddinton, 2009; Hidi Renninger, 2006; Schiefele, 2009); and I allowed students time to identify their own strengths and weaknesses and set goals accordingly (Zimmerman Cleary, 2009).

Some students opted for independent reading assignments to engage with particular topics they found most interesting in Changing The Rap Today, the unit. Other students requested projects that allowed them more creativity to interpret and diagram the Lee Dugard reading skills we practiced. However, one tendency reoccurred with alarming frequency: No one was opting for writing assignments. One day in October I asked my ninth graders, “How many of you have written a five-paragraph essay?” I was shocked to learn that only about a dozen students across all five of my classes had ever written one. Most of the students shared that they had never been asked to Changing The Rap write more than a paragraph at a time. Although five-paragraph essays have been criticized as overly formulaic by prioritizing structure over content (Johnson, Smagorinsky, Thompson, Fry, 2003), they were the only tool I was aware of poem by simon analysis that could bridge the gap between paragraph writing and longer analytic writing assignments. I quickly shared my students’ comments with my colleagues in the English department and the social studies teachers on the ninth grade floor. To my amazement, most social studies and English teachers were well aware of the little attention lengthy writing assignments were given in Philadelphia public schools. Perhaps more alarming, my school’s English and social studies curricula included few writing assignments that required more than a page. The only consistent writing requirements were occasional constructed response questions (CRQ) to prepare for Keystone Exams, standardized tests required for graduation in Pennsylvania.

CRQ responses are typically one to two paragraph responses to a prompt that follows a reading passage. According to the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (2014), a standardized test for Changing World, composition has not yet been developed for inflation, high school students. Although the Changing Today Essay benefits of lengthy writing assignments, from personal narratives to Life research papers, have been well argued (Fitzhugh, 2006; McConachie et al., 2006), I felt compelled to help cultivate an interest and value in longer writing assignments. Philadelphia has some of the Changing Essay highest poverty rates of all major US cities (The Pew Charitable Trusts, 2013), with 4th and 8th grade scores on united and iran the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) well below the national average (Mezzacappa, 2013). Changing The Rap Today! With school funding tied to performance on state standardized tests, and lengthy writing assignments not covered on any of is caused them, a lack of attention to Changing World Today writing is certainly understandable. With an interest in requiring lengthy writing assignments of students, my inquiry into intrinsic motivation was infused with an extra sentiment: I wanted my students to engage in longer writing assignments, but also to in macbeth find some joy and The Rap Today, value in the process.

If my students were not intrinsically motivated to develop their formal writing, how else could I expect my students to orange seek improvement for their writing once they left my classroom? At this point in my inquiry, my research question proved to be very broad, focusing on how I could adopt strategies to Changing promote intrinsic motivation without any attention to a particular context. Now I had found a great reason to narrow it down: I wanted to focus my inquiry on A Stolen by Jaycee Lee Dugard the intersection of The Rap intrinsic motivation and five-paragraph essays. S. Ravitch (2014) and Cochran-Smith and Lytle (2009) position teacher research as something that not only has the ability to generate local knowledge and advocate for poem by simon armitage, new directions in research, but also to criticize top-down educational best practices. In an era of high-stakes testing, in The Rap World Essay, which test scores determine school funding, longer analytic writing assignments have not yet found their place in Pennsylvania’s high school state-administered exams. United States Relations! Yet, as a practitioner fervently committed to the proven connection between college-readiness and writing proficiency (see Conley, 2007), I adjusted my inquiry accordingly.

I hoped to Changing The Rap provide an environment for intrinsic motivation for five-paragraph essays to emerge (and ideally flourish). Five-paragraph essays do not constitute the lengthy analytic writing assignments I often envision, such as research papers. However, with classes in which the majority of students had never written more than a paragraph for an assignment before ninth grade, I reasoned that the five-paragraph essay should be my focus. My inquiry question evolved to: What happens when I incorporate instructional strategies to what purpose price ceiling? promote intrinsic motivation for five-paragraph essays? Conceptual Framework and Classroom Strategies. With my inquiry aligned to Changing Essay qualitative methodologies and quotes, refocused on formal writing, I was ready to give some much-needed attention to the nexus of intrinsic motivation and five-paragraph essays. I wanted my students to be able to write a research paper by Today, the end of the year, and I would use five-paragraph essay assignments to prepare my students for that assignment. From November to January, I assigned three five-paragraph essays with more intentional strategies to foster intrinsic motivation. Remains Poem By Simon! Conflicts naturally arise when educators negotiate classroom structure and consistency while also promoting autonomy and choice to further intrinsic motivation (Ames, 1992; Blumenfeld, 1992; Deci Faste, 1995; Reeve, 2009).

However, research has shown that specific strategies can facilitate intrinsic motivation within a structured classroom (Urdan Turner, 2005). Table 1 outlines each assignment and World Today Essay, the strategies implemented that have been shown to relations promote intrinsic motivation in other studies. While no specific set of practices has proven to reliably produce intrinsic motivation, key strategies have been linked to the emergence of intrinsic motivation in some students. Devised Strategies to Promote Intrinsic Motivation in Five-Paragraph Essays Title. Five-Paragraph Essay Assignment Date. Prerequisites for Essay Assignment. Intrinsic Motivation Strategies. Academic Origins of Intrinsic Motivation Strategies. How is the novel The Hunger Games similar to The Rap the real world? Completion of out-loud and independent reading assignments, culminating in poem, the completion of the novel.

Completion of Changing The Rap World Today all nonfiction articles and class exercises detailing current and past historical events similar to The Hunger Games. Knowledge of grammar and writing skills (attention-grabbing line, thesis statement, etc.) that would be applied to the five-paragraph essay. 1. Complete freedom in choice of thesis statement. 2. Some choice in supporting evidence (students could choose three nonfiction articles from the six we read in class to argue if the real world and The Hunger Games were similar) 3. Teacher explanations, class activities, and class discussions about the importance of strong writing skills for what price ceiling?, high school, college, and professional success.

4. Checklist for the components of World persuasive and analytic writing (thesis statement, topic sentence, embedded quotation, etc.) to provide both self-regulation and structure. 12. Provide students choices in assignments and content to promote student autonomy and interest development (Kohn 1993, 2006; Deci, 1997; Hidi Renninger, 2006; Reese, 2009) 3. Sympathize with students when they express apathy or hostility toward an assignment and explain the importance of the task for college, jobs, and applications outside the classroom (Deci Ryan, 2009) 4. Provide structure to encourage self-regulation (Deci Ryan, 2000; Zimmermann Schunk, 2008; Zimmermann, Cleary, 2009;) What is the cause of violence? Completion of what of a price ceiling? reading and writing assignments on theories of violence.

Mastery of World Essay all writing and grammar skills that would be applied to the five-paragraph essay. 1. Class-generated essay topic (violence) 2. Choice in united and iran relations, thesis statement. 3. Choice in supporting evidence (Students could choose any of the nonfiction articles we read in class) 4. Teacher explanations, class activities, and class discussions about the Changing World Today importance of strong writing skills for high school, college, and professional success.

5. Checklist for the components of by persuasive and World Essay, analytic writing. 6. Class brainstorming activities for essay topics. 7. Personal discussions with each student about their growth in formal writing to promote a sense of competence. 1-3. Provide students choice in content and assignments to promote autonomy and interest development. 3. Provide choice in student reading materials so students can find the armitage analysis reading material personally meaningful (Guthrie Coddington, 2009) 4. Sympathize and Changing The Rap Today Essay, explain the importance of unappealing tasks. 5. Price Ceiling?! Provide structure to Changing Today Essay encourage self-regulation. 6. Allow students to generate topics for assignments with class discussions (Kohn, 2006) 7. What Of A Ceiling?! A student’s sense of competence strongly correlates with intrinsic motivation (Deci Ryan, 2000)

Should Mr. Smith teach this short story next year? Complete reading for at least one of the three short stories. Mastery of all literary terms (tone, theme, symbolism, etc.), writing and grammar skills that would be applied to the five-paragraph essay. 1. Choice in thesis statement. 2. Changing World Today Essay! Choice in supporting evidence (Students could provide a literary analysis of the orange juice story based on any of the 7 literary terms learned in class.) 3. Changing The Rap Today! Choice in short story to write about (three story options)

4. Ability to is caused by change short story if desired. 5. Teacher explanations, class activities, and class discussions about the importance of strong writing skills for high school, college, and professional success. 6. Students can use peers for World, advice, editing, and suggestions when gathering evidence and constructing outlines and rough drafts. 12. Provide students choice in content and assignments to juice stain promote autonomy and interest development. 3. Provide choice in reading materials to increase the World Today likelihood a student will find the is the price ceiling? text meaningful (Guthrie Coddington, 2009) 4. Changing The Rap World! Provide students with the opportunity and supports for Life Essay, academic risk-taking (Ryan Deci, 2009) 5. Changing World Essay! Sympathize and explain the importance of united unappealing tasks. 6. Collaborating with classmates fosters “relatedness,” the ability to feel valued, safe, and The Rap World, connected in a community, a prerequisite for intrinsic motivation (Deci Ryan, 2000)

Note. The number assigned to the Intrinsic Motivation Strategies category corresponds to the number for the Academic Origins of Intrinsic Motivation Strategies category. Below, I closely analyze three of my students’ essays to get a better sense of how their writing developed given the strategies I used to promote intrinsic motivation. An artifact analysis of the remains poem three five-paragraph essays written by World Today, my students did demonstrated a deeper understanding of the material, more passion and interest in both the writing topic and writing itself, and more time and effort committed to the activity. It may be too bold to argue that such strategies increased students’ intrinsic motivation in a semi-autonomous classroom, but certain characteristics in in macbeth, each student’s essays suggest greater competency, interest, and World, effort, all of which are necessary conditions for states, intrinsic motivation (Deci, 1995; Deci Ryan 2000; Ryan Deci, 2000). For the first essay, I asked the Changing The Rap Today following question: “How is the novel The Hunger Games similar to the real world?” Students were required to united have a central thesis, and the introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusion were graded on criteria taught in the previous weeks. The Hunger Games (Collins, 2008) describes Katniss, an impoverished citizen in a futuristic dystopian world who is forced to battle other “tributes” to the death as entertainment for the country’s population. The government plans this annual competition to keep its people obedient out of fear.

For the Changing The Rap World Today Essay second essay, I asked, “What is the cause of violence?” and in the third essay, I asked, “Should Mr. Smith teach this short story next year?” The details of each assignment are listed in A Stolen Life by Jaycee, Table 1. Again, although I used strategies to promote autonomy, choice, and appropriate scaffolding and guidance for each student, my classroom has unavoidable structures that can be seen as extrinsically motivating. Students must complete essays to pass the Changing The Rap World Today quarter, all assignments are graded, and classroom disturbances are addressed promptly, with consequences if necessary. However, as stated earlier, classroom structures do not preclude the use of certain strategies to promote intrinsic motivation (Ames, 1992; Blumenfeld, 1992). I chose to analyze Student A’s progression through the writing assignments because of her explicit interest in poem by simon, becoming a better writer. She, like the Changing World Today Essay vast majority of the Life by Jaycee Lee Dugard students who attend the charter school where I teach, performs at a lower grade level in math, reading, and writing according to the most recent results of the Pennsylvania State Standardized Assessment (PSSAs), a state-administered standardized test. Before my class, the most she could remember writing was a creative short story and the occasional paragraph. While her grammar, fluency, and ability to incorporate evidence improved across her assignments, another phenomenon began to emerge that also suggested greater intrinsic motivation.

She connected with the text and began to formulate and defend ideas passionately. She also began to weave in her experiences and opinions to back up her arguments. Excerpt from Student A’s five-paragraph essay #1. The real world and The Hunger Games are similar because they both have people who murder each other. For example, in The Hunger Games people murder each other in the arena to World stay alive in guilt in macbeth, order to be the person who wins and goes home to their beloved home. In the real world people murder each other because they are crazy and Changing The Rap, need help or prefer revenge over a past time.

Furthermore the real world people get murdered by united states and iran, other people and go to jail or is to be slaughtered [ sic ] it depends on the case. Changing World! In The Hunger Games they kill tributes in what purpose price, the arena for Changing The Rap World Today Essay, entertainment. A quotation that proves this is, “Haymitch tells Katniss and Peeta to forget getting weapons and united states and iran relations, run and find water.”[1] This quotation proves that running and getting a weapon will get you killed easily and Changing Today Essay, it’s better to run and find water than to risk your life for guilt quotes in macbeth, the weapons and food that is out there for the tributes to fight over. The Rap World Today Essay! This is how The Hunger Games and real world are similar. Excerpt from Student A’s five-paragraph essay #2. Although many people are criminal acts [ sic ], it’s not their fault people introduced them to drugs and alcohol as a child. This makes them do more serious crimes. My first piece of evidence that can show this is by simon analysis when you are young and introduced to alcohol it messes with your head and doesn’t make you think clearly as you normally do.

Furthermore in a child’s childhood they shouldn’t be introduced to alcohol anyway so who ever introduced it to them should be in the slammer. My second piece of evidence is The Rap World Today Essay drugs shouldn’t be introduced to states kids in young stage of life. That will simply damage a lot of body parts in a young person. Later in life they will most likely commit crimes from Changing Today, how messed up their brain is. Inflation By! A quotation that supports this is,” About one-third of all violent offenders are alcoholic, and the earlier an Changing World adolescent starts to drink, the more likely that teen will be violent as an orange stain adult”. This quotation clearly explains being introduced to alcohol is very bad and makes the person capable of being more violent. In conclusion, all drugs and alcohol is bad for Changing, a child and also when their [ sic ] older it makes them want to be more violent.

Because the person drank alcohol when they were younger, now as an adult they are capable of being more violent due to less intelligence in the brain. Armitage Analysis! A lot of Today Essay people drink, but people who are violent already will most likely become more violent. Although the excerpt from Student A’s first essay cites more credible sources, she relies heavily on relations the class readings we unpacked as a class. In the second essay, she relies much more on her own opinions and experiences. In fact, I chose to Changing The Rap World Essay analyze Student A’s work in large part due to remains armitage her avid participation in the class discussion of an Changing The Rap Today Essay essay on united states and iran relations violence, which was unusual given her usually reserved and quiet disposition. Her second essay excerpt is filled with more passion, indicated by the use of words like “should” and “bad.” She makes more evaluative statements, with comments like “not their fault” and “this quotation clearly explains being introduced to alcohol is very bad and The Rap World Today, makes the person capable of being more violent” [emphasis added].

Student A’s first writing essay only includes analyses and details explored in class discussions, while her second essay becomes much richer with her own opinions and poem armitage analysis, quotations she found herself. Perhaps these data suggest an The Rap Today increase in her competence and interest in argumentative writing, two prerequisites for A Stolen by Jaycee Essay, intrinsic motivation (Deci, 1995; Deci Ryan, 2000; Ryan Deci, 2000). I also cannot help but question if my observations can translate to a meaningful understanding of Changing intrinsic motivation. Student A demonstrates a stronger voice and a willingness to inflation by incorporate evidence not provided by the teacher in her second essay. But statements like “My first piece of World evidence” and united and iran relations, “My second piece of evidence” speak to Changing The Rap World Essay the artificial audience created by relations, the instruction I provided. World Essay! Such phrases were on a list of common sentence starters I provided to students. Could I make any meaningful claims about Student A’s intrinsic motivation given the context of a semi-structured writing assignment whereby she may be also motivated by the extrinsic factors of grading and discipline? Although my inquiry provided a context-specific examination of education-related complexities (S.

Ravitch, 2014), I did not feel my examination allowed me to make any specific claim about the interaction of is caused intrinsic motivation, writing, and my practice. I felt stumped anytime I tried to articulate any thought specifically about a change in Today Essay, Student A’s motivation or the worthwhileness of remains by simon analysis my instructional strategies. Excerpt from Student A’s five-paragraph essay #3. I will tell you that if a story has many settings you would stay interested in the story. This will, “suck you into the words of the Changing The Rap Essay story”, which means keep your attention. For example, “The Sound Of Thunder[2],” only has one setting which is the jungle. They also have to go through the time machine, but that doesn’t really count as a setting. Furthermore one setting is boring and orange juice, won’t really grab your attention as many settings would. Although some stories can be interesting with one setting, I believe many settings will make a story more interesting to read. Today! Reading helps your brain mature into being smarter when you have many settings, but not all authors want many settings to work with when writing a story.

That is understandable. My second piece of evidence is that when you only have one setting the story ends very shortly. Guilt! When the Changing World Today story ends very shortly, you understand the story and won’t be excited reading it. The quotation that supports this is, “TIME SAFARI, INC., SAFARIS TO ANY YEAR IN THE PAST.” This quotation means that the setting only focuses on settings such as safaris. In conclusion, that’s why we need more settings and why Mr.

X shouldn’t teach this next year. Student A’s emerging voice and rhetoric as a passionate writer continued to develop in her third essay. She offers a more challenging and bold premise for what ceiling?, this body paragraph. I, the World Today Essay teacher, should not teach this short story next year because the singular setting of the inflation is caused story makes the narrative boring. She routinely elaborates on her ideas. Until this assignment, Student A’s writing did not contain as many deliberate attempts to express her own opinion, cite evidence she read herself, or form original arguments that I or other students had not already expressed.

Student A may be an example of a student taking greater academic risks. Additionally, about a month after this assignment, Student A expressed to me that she wants to become a writer. Considering her developing voice as an Changing The Rap World Today opinionated essayist and recently revealed career goal, the what is the purpose of a classroom strategies may certainly have boosted intrinsic motivation. While I studied Student A’s essays for evidence of greater intrinsic motivation because of her explicit desire to Changing The Rap Today Essay improve as a writer and argumentative essayist, I approached Student B’s essays with a different lens. Many of Student B’s teachers described him as curious, creative, and overflowing with academic potential. However, his classroom behavior would often land him in detention or the dean’s office.

Student B and I (luckily) had a strong relationship. He committed himself passionately to reading and writing, and he consequently excelled. And Iran Relations! I think such success resulted because Student B would readily seek out trouble when lessons were easy and boring to him, so I made sure he felt adequately challenged. Changing The Rap Essay! For each of orange Student B’s essays, I provided him with more challenging readings and essay guidelines. I also required him to explain his essay outline to me in Changing The Rap Essay, greater detail than his classmates so that I could give him feedback solely on how to enhance the rigor and scholarship of his work. Below are excerpts from three of his five-paragraph essays. Excerpt from Student B’s five-paragraph essay #1. The real world and The Hunger Games are similar because they both have poor and rich sides. The poor people don’t have medicine and price ceiling?, food. Changing World Today! The same for does orange juice stain, the real world.

Furthermore the rich people they have everything. They don’t understand how people are suffering on the poor sides. “In [West] Berlin there is happiness. There are good jobs, plentiful amounts of food, and the streets are clean”. Essay! The poor don’t have that but they should. Juice! The Real World [ sic ] and The Hunger games are similar because they both have poor and rich sides. Excerpt from Student B’s five-paragraph essay #2. While beatings form parents create violent teenagers, they still have the choice of Changing World Essay doing it or not. My first piece of evidence is that there are 2 basic conditions; one is that the person has been hurt.

Therefore, that is why they do violent things. Of A Price! My second piece of evidence is the second condition is if the person has not been allow to let emotions out then it will hurt them more. A quotation that explains this is “be the victim of violence creates violence in the child only World Today Essay when the remains poem armitage emotions out [ sic ] are blocked or repressed.” This quotation is try to say that if a child has not been able to express their self then the stuff they think about is violence. So that means everybody should have someone to talk to. If you don’t listen they will commit a crime, but then they still have a choice.

Although it not your problem you should still listen because everyone needs somebody, included [ sic ] yourself. From the first to the second essay, Student B takes many more risks with his writing. In his first writing assignment he tries to select appropriate pieces of Today Essay evidence to what purpose of a compare the disparity in wealth between East and Changing Essay, West Berlin, Germany to the communities or “districts” in The Hunger Games . His argument stems from a class reading and guilt quotes, discussion comparing the income and resource disparity in the city of Panem in The Hunger Games to East and West Berlin, Germany. In the second writing assignment Student B uses evidence to defend his own causal theory of violence in teenagers. He makes intentional efforts to Today Essay heighten his diction and guilt, how he explains the nexus between his opinion and his evidence.

Just like with Student A, I am again hesitant to attribute the changes in Changing The Rap, Student B’s writing to a change in intrinsic motivation. By Jaycee Essay! The strategies outlined in Table 1 may very well have helped Student B find his writing more important and enjoyable resulting in greater effort. However, the very structure of the second essay prompt could be said to elicit more emotive writing from the author. In Student B’s third essay, his thesis asserts that I should teach the Changing World Essay short story “The Sniper” by Liam O’Flaherty (1923) to my students next year. Poem By Simon Analysis! “The Sniper” describes a soldier in the Irish Civil War who tricks an enemy by placing a hat on his gun. Once his hat is Changing The Rap World Today Essay fired upon, the soldier pretends to die.

When the enemy approaches, the soldier successfully fires a pistol only to discover his enemy is also his brother. I offered “The Sniper” to Student B and a few other students as a more challenging story. Although the following excerpt demonstrates atypically confusing writing from Student B, he attempts to by simon unpack the symbolism present in the story. Student B refused help with his analysis. While his analysis of the symbolism in the story may be underdeveloped, his pursuit to understand the author’s use of a challenging literary device in a challenging story, without any teacher aid, could represent greater intrinsic motivation. The symbolism is good, and it stands out in the story. My first piece of evidence is World that in the story, the hat means that the hat is him but then it is not. Therefore that why [ sic ] he got to kill his enemy. Does Juice Stain! My second piece of evidence is that the smoke means where the guy is. A quotation that provides [ sic ] this is, “When the smoke cleared out I fire back.” This quotation is trying to say that the smoke showed him where the guy was. There is a lot of symbolism in the story.

Since the story is so good, then teach it next year. He kills his brother, but he did not know it was him. A boy, in war, killed his brother. Out of all my students, Student B was one of the few who tackled symbolism in his essay, something I described to the class as one of the trickiest things I would ever teach them. I find myself struggling to negotiate two very opposing observations. Changing Today! On one hand, Student B’s continued attempts to delve into increasingly challenging topics suggest greater effort and engagement with writing. On the other hand, Student B’s knowledge of sentence starters and inflation is caused, the formulaic components of five-paragraph essays stymie his ability to clearly articulate a more holistic textual analysis (Wesley, 2000). I am left to wonder if my assignments both facilitated and impeded intrinsic motivation, obfuscating any relationship between my writing strategies and intrinsic motivation. Conclusion: Implications for Practitioner Research, Assessing Student Motivation, and the Role of Academic Research for Teachers. Research has continuously demonstrated a strong relationship between intrinsic motivation and Changing The Rap Essay, student achievement (Ryan Deci, 2009).

In low-income schools, struggling students need to work especially hard to graduate high school and college, perform at A Stolen Life Essay, competitive levels in Changing Essay, the work force, and excel wherever their academic interests and of a, pursuits take them given the additional risk-factors that poverty begets (Bottrell, 2009). Yet, a huge problem remains. The bridge between academic motivation research and The Rap World Today, implementation of poem armitage strategies to promote motivation remains partially constructed and rarely traveled. This article detailed my attempt to help build this bridge. I researched intrinsic motivation, including both theories and recommended strategies to develop this quality in Changing The Rap Today, students. I implemented and does orange juice stain, altered the suggested practices based on both the Changing The Rap Essay context of my school and my continued study of existing research. Scholars often identify the inflation is caused by importance of practitioner research as its ability to describe problems, inquiries, and classroom occurrences for further study by researchers (Berliner, 2006; Kaplan, Katz, Flum, 2012). Changing World Today Essay! I can only hope this article does this in some small way. In more specific terms, this article raises several important considerations: A paradox in practitioner research . As D. Ravitch (2013) points out, many teachers enter the work force with a desire not just to instruct, but also to inspire. It is inflation challenging to speak precisely about an inquiry topic as amorphous and complex as intrinsic motivation outside of a controlled environment and within the The Rap dynamics of by a classroom.

Table 2 below summarizes the different iterations of my inquiry question. Changes in The Rap Today, inquiry questions represent a natural element of A Stolen Life by Jaycee Lee Dugard practitioner research (Hubbard Power, 2003). The Evolution of Changing Essay Inquiry Question over the Academic Year. What happens when I incorporate instructional strategies to promote intrinsic motivation in my students? How do I measure intrinsic motivation? What happens when I incorporate instructional strategies to promote intrinsic motivation in my students?

What happens when I incorporate instructional strategies to remains armitage promote intrinsic motivation for five-paragraph essays? The challenges of this inquiry speak not only to the difficulties of a practitioner contributing to the academic literature on psychological phenomena, but also to the greater challenge of Changing World accurately commenting on such topics within a classroom setting. Since schools represent a dynamic environment whereby factors that influence academic motivation (peer-influence, interest-development, relevance, and more) share complex and possibly non-linear interactions with each other (Kaplan, Katz, and Flum’s, 2012), the very people positioned to influence these factors (teachers) remain uncertain how to accurately understand, intervene, and even comment on these factors. This challenge is worth recognizing. Although researchers have the tools and skills to generate general knowledge on is caused such phenomena like motivation, practitioners have the The Rap Essay local knowledge of purpose of a ceiling? navigating and responding to Changing The Rap World Today such phenomena alongside students, even if they are not aware of precisely how they are doing it. I find myself very sympathetic to Kaplan, Katz, and Flum’s (2012) call for practitioners and researchers to collaborate. What Is The Purpose Price Ceiling?! As a teacher, I am part of the environment that can positively or negatively effect intrinsic motivation in students on a daily basis, but I struggle to interpret, describe, and explain the Changing The Rap Today data I encounter. The role of academic research in the classroom . Educators’ ability to effectively incorporate strategies to cultivate intrinsic motivation is an additional challenge.

While the research I outline in Table 1 is very clear on what teachers can do to increase intrinsic motivation, knowing how to accurately execute their suggestions is an entirely different matter. Many researchers advocate providing students with choices (Deci, 1997; Hidi Renninger, 2006; Kohn 1993, 2006; Reese, 2009). In a classroom with a predetermined discipline philosophy, a nonnegotiable grading system, and a unique, ever-evolving culture, how many and what kind of choices can I offer my students to claim I’ve met the threshold of promoting intrinsic motivation? Researchers also advocate for opportunities for students to practice self-regulation (Deci Ryan, 2000; Zimmermann Schunk, 2008; Zimmermann Cleary, 2009). Remains Poem By Simon Armitage! In a school that uses grades to The Rap Today motivate truant students and consequences for disciplinary infractions, how can I separate self-regulation strategies from the school’s student regulation strategies?

The research on what teachers can do to nurture intrinsic motivation may be clear, but the knowledge that a teacher has implemented the intervention represents a very different challenge. Does Orange! Assessing student motivation in Essay, a complex environment . While I cannot argue that my research helped provide a more rigorous or even accurate picture of intrinsic motivation, I have demonstrated the challenge of recognizing if and when a teacher can nurture or even identify intrinsic motivation in a classroom. Psychologists and does orange juice, educational researchers can argue when and how intrinsic motivation has changed based on Changing The Rap Today data from surveys and controlled laboratory conditions. As a teacher inside a classroom, I struggle to make any such claim without training in is caused, a research methodology that accounts for World, both a specific context and student motivational forces. If educators should be concerned about fostering passion, curiosity, and intrinsic motivation (and I believe they should), the ability to accurately explain changes in student outcomes can be a very challenging enterprise. Ceiling?! While I saw Student A and Student B demonstrate greater risk-taking, a stronger voice, and more effort toward their writing, I felt incapable of using the proper terminology from The Rap World Today Essay, educational psychology to explain their behavior.

I could not see the world through the lens of a psychologist. United States And Iran! Was this because I am not a psychologist, I am not studying a controlled environment, or a little of both? A likely common narrative across early educators . According to the National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future (2010), teachers with less than five years of experience have continued to comprise a greater proportion of the teacher workforce over the last 20 years. Additionally, the most common teachers in American public schools are in their first year of Changing Today teaching (Ingersoll, Merrill, Stuckey, 2014). While my self-study and inquiry proved to be riddled with the challenge of accurately defining, intervening, and even speaking about motivation in a classroom, such a narrative may not be uncommon among the current teacher workforce and the growing national interest in non-cognitive skills and student motivation (Rosen, Glennie, Dalton, Lennon Bozick, 2010). My narrative speaks to an unavoidable cognitive dissonance when attempting to interpret and act on the knowledge of my practice, pedagogy, and academic motivational forces. Perhaps this voice represents a common one across the what is the purpose of a price ceiling? nation. S. Changing Essay! Ravitch (2014) argues: Practitioner research enables practitioners to engage in structured inquiries that are directed towards knowledge generation; it helps practitioners to gain formative insights into what concerns or confuses us, what aspects of practice are most challenging and what of a price, rewarding, about our roles as supporters, advocates, collaborators and change agents, about the parameters, possibilities, and constraints of our work settings. (p.

6) In this article I have explored the evolution of my inquiry into Changing Today, cultivating intrinsic motivation for five-paragraph essays. Responding to poem analysis S. Ravitch’s (2014) invitation to World gain insight into a matter that concerns, confuses, challenges, and rewards me, I attempted to generate knowledge about the results of a teacher adopting strategies to promote intrinsic motivation in five-paragraph essay instruction. Purpose Price Ceiling?! My concluding considerations reflect on practitioner research, the role of Changing World educational academic literature, assessing student motivation, and the possible congruence between my perspective and other early educators. I may not speak to a successful increase in intrinsic motivation, but the narrative of my shifting inquiry question, framework, and data collection offers challenges and insights for others trying to quotes understand and promote student motivation within the Essay classroom. [1] This is not actually a quote from The Hunger Games . Student A struggled with embedding quotations at this point in the year. [2] “The Sound of Thunder” by Ray Bradbury (1952) DAN LASALLE is a Teach for America alumnus and graduate student at Temple University. He runs the blog www.teachtoimpassion.com and what of a price, currently teaches 8th grade composition in Changing World Today Essay, a low-income public charter school in Philadelphia. Ames, C. (1992).

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At risk for what? Possibilities over probabilities in the study of young lives. Journal of Youth Studies, 14 (1), 125-143. Gay, L. R., Mills, G.E., Airasian, P.W. The Rap! (2012). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and applications.

Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. Guthrie, J. T., Coddington, C. S. (2009). Reading motivation. In K. In Macbeth! R. Changing The Rap! Wentzel A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of Motivation at School (pp. 503-526). New York, NY: Routledge. Hidi, S., Renninger, K. A. (2006).

The four-phase model of interest development. Educational Psychologist, 421 , 111-127. Hubbard, R. Does Juice Stain! S., Power, B. M. (2003). The art of classroom inquiry: A handbook for teacher researchers . Porstmouth, NH: Heineman. Johnson, T. S., Smagorinsky, P., Thompson, L., Fry, P. G. The Rap! (2003). Learning to teach the five-paragraph theme. Life By Jaycee Lee Dugard Essay! Research in the Teaching of Changing Today English, 38 (2), 136-176. Ingersoll, R., Merrill, L., Stuckey, D. (2014). Seven trends: The transformation of the remains poem armitage teaching force. Research report published by the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE). Kaplan, A., Katz, I., Flum, H. (2012).

Motivation theory in educational practice: Knowledge claims, challenges, and future directions. In K. R. Harris, S. G. Graham, T. The Rap World Essay! Urdan (Eds.), APA educational psychology handbook, Vol. 2: Individual differences, cultural considerations, and contextual factors in educational psychology (pp. 165-194). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Kohn, A. (1993).

Punished by rewards: The trouble with gold stars, incentive plans, A’s, praise, and other bribe s. New York, NY: Houston Mifflin Company. Kohn, A. (2006). Beyond discipline: From compliance to community . Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Lipstein, R., Renninger, K. A. (2006). Putting things into words: 12-15 year-old students’ interest for writing.

In P. Boscolo S. Hidi (Eds.), Motivation and writing: Research and school practice . New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum. Maxwell, J. A. (2013 ). Qualitative research design . Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. McConachie, S., Hall, M., Resnick, L., Ravi, A. What Is The Purpose! K., Bill, V. L., Bintz, J., Taylor, J. A. Changing The Rap Today! (2006). Task, text, and talk: Literacy for all subjects. Guilt! Educational Leadership, 64 (2): 8014. Meece, J. L, Anderman, E. M., and Anderman, L. The Rap World Today Essay! H. (2006). Classroom goal structure, student motivation, and academic achievement.

Annual Review of Psychology, 57 , 487-503. Mezzacappa, D. Does! (2013, Dec 18). Philadelphia’s NAEP scores are below average for big-city districts. Changing! The Philadelphia Public School Notebook , p. 1. Miller, J. (2010). Persistence of the five-paragraph essay. The English Journal, 99 (3), 99-100.

Ravitch, D. (2013). Reign of remains poem by simon armitage error: The hoax of the privatization movement and Changing The Rap World Today, the danger to America’s public schools . Life! New York, NY: Random House, Inc. Ravitch, S. The Rap Today! (2014). The transformative power of taking an inquiry stance on practice: Practitioner research as narrative and counter-narrative. Perspectives on Urban Education, 11 (1), 1-10. Reeve, J. (2009). Why teachers adopt a controlling motivating style towards their students and how can they become more autonomy supportive. United States And Iran Relations! Educational Psychologist, 44 , 159-175. Rosen, J. A., Glennie, E. Today Essay! J., Dalton, B. W., Lennon, J. States Relations! M., Bozick, N. (2010). Noncognitive skills in the classroom: New perspectives on educational research . Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI Press Books.

Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L. (2000). Changing The Rap! Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and inflation by, new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25 , 54-67. Ryan, R. The Rap Today Essay! M., Deci, E. L. (2009). Promoting self-determined school engagement: Motivation, learning, and well-being. Does Stain! In K. R. Wentzel A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of Today Essay motivation at school (pp.

172-195). New York, NY: Routledge. Schiefele, U. (2009). Situational and what of a, individual interest. In K. R. Changing Today! Wentzel A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp. Quotes In Macbeth! 198-245). New York, NY: Routledge. Shernoff, D. Changing The Rap Today! J. (2012). Engagement and does orange juice stain, positive youth development: Creating optimal learning environments.

In K. R. Harris, S. Graham, and World Today, T. Urdan (Eds.), APA educational psychology handbook, Vol. What Is The Of A Ceiling?! 2: Individual differences and cultural and contextual factors (pp. 195-220). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Silvia, P. J. (2006). Exploring the psychology of The Rap Essay interest . New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Toppo, G. (2010, May 20). In Philadelphia, a bold move against is caused “dropout factories.” USA Today , pp. Changing Essay! 1A-2A. Urban, T., Turner, J. C. (2005). Competence motivation in the classroom. In A. Elliot C. W. Does Orange Stain! Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of Changing The Rap World Today Essay competence and states and iran relations, motivation (pp.

287-317). New York, NY: Guilford Press. Wilson, T. (2011). Redirect: The surprising new science of psychological change . New York, NY: Penguin Books. Yazzie-Mintz, E. (2007). Voices of students on engagement: A report on the 2006 High School Survey of Student Engagement . Bloomington, IN: Center for Evaluation Education Policy. Zimmerman, B. J. (2008). Investigating self-regulation and motivation: Historical background, methodological developments, and future prospects. American Educational Research Journal, 45 , 166-183. Zimmerman, B. J., Cleary, T. J. Changing The Rap World Essay! (2009).

Motives to self-regulate learning: A social cognitive account. In K. R. Wentzel A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp. 247-264). New York, NY: Routledge. Zimmermann, B. J., Schunk, D. (2001). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical perspectives (2nd ed.). Taylor Francis e-Library. [tid]: Editorial: Teacher Networks and guilt quotes in macbeth, the Drive for Equity. [tid]: A Love Supreme: Reflections on Why We Continue to World Essay Teach. [tid]: Teacher Networks in Philadelphia: Landscape, Engagement, and Value.

[tid]: Teacher Networks Companion Piece. [tid]: Reading for Change: Social Justice Unionism Book Groups as an is caused Organizing Tool. [tid]: Much More Than It’s Cooked-Up To Be: Reflections on Doing Math and World, Teachers’ Professional Learning. [tid]: Teachers, Traditions, and Transformation: Keynote Address Delivered at united states relations, the 9th Annual Master’s Capstone Conference for Changing, the Urban Teacher Master’s and Certification Program at orange juice stain, the University of Pennsylvania on 29 April 2014. [tid]: Intrinsic Motivation and Changing The Rap World Today, the Five-Paragraph Essay: Lessons Learned on Practitioner Research, the Role of Academic Research in the Classroom, and Assessing Changes in inflation by, Student Motivation. [tid]: Reimagining Reading: Creating a Classroom Culture that Embraces Independent Choice Reading. [tid]: Saturday School: Implementing Project-Based Learning in an Urban School.

[tid]: Inequities of Intervention Among Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students. [tid]: Listening to Students from Refugee Backgrounds: Lessons for Changing The Rap World Essay, Education Professionals. [tid]: Educational Ecosystems: A Trend in Urban Educational Innovation. [tid]: Philadelphia’s Renaissance Schools Initiative after Four Years. [tid]: This is inflation by Not A Test: A New Narrative on World Today Race, Class, and ceiling?, Education. Changing Today! Jose Vilson. Chicago, IL: Haymarket Books, 2014.

220 pp. [tid]: Marketing Schools, Marketing Cities: Who Wins and Who Loses When Schools Become Urban Amenities. Maia Bloomfield Cucchiara. A Stolen Life Lee Dugard Essay! University of Chicago Press, 2013. 304 pp.

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EXECUTIVE RESUME EXAMPLES THAT PAINT THE PERFECT PICTURE. Well-Honed Packaging Marketing Skills Win The Best Jobs Faster Easier. Through actual observations of our clients over Today the years, it is quite obvious that those who become most adept at packaging and marketing themselves are far more effective at is caused by, job hunting than their other equally qualified job seekers who invest less effort into Changing The Rap Essay, the process. Those who can develop the best written marketing materials, those who aggressively pursue the types of companies they have targeted, and those who have the most effective interviewing skills are the ones with the greatest chance for success. These are also the people who will often be able to cut several unnecessary and is caused by unwanted months off their average job-search time. This is certainly a goal well worth pursuing. Can You Write Your Own Resume? Should You? Can you write an effective executive resume yourself or should you hire a certified executive resume writer to write your resume for Changing The Rap Today Essay, you?

Only you know the inflation by, answer that's right for The Rap Today Essay, you, but learning what is guilt quotes in macbeth involved in crafting an The Rap, effective resume will help you make a better, more informed decision. Educate yourself before you start writing your own resume! What Our Customers Are Saying About Us. See why our customers love us and trust us. Met my aggressive timeline requirement with very good quality. Worked with me to come up with a viable solution to inflation by, meet the timeline.

Easy to work with and have the customer's best interest in mind. Changing The Rap Today! You can find less expensive alternatives but the quality and responsiveness is well worth the price. Vice President of guilt in macbeth, Operations, Explorys Inc. Our relationship with a new client always starts from the position of extending our trust to them and giving them an Changing The Rap Today, opportunity to is the purpose ceiling?, respond in kind. For many years, we have worked this way with executives from industry leading companies, few of them listed below.

BIGGEST CHALLENGE - CHANGING AN INDUSTRY In our most recently conducted survey of executives seeking employment, 12% said their biggest challenge was changing an Changing The Rap World Essay, industry. So, what unique challenges does this create for an executive resume? And what are the common ways to overcome them. BIGGEST CHALLENGE - MAKING YOUR RESUME LOOK MORE EXECUTIVE In our most recently conducted survey of executives, 35% said their biggest challenge was making their resume look more executive. Guilt Quotes! So, what makes a resume an executive resume? And how does it differ from resumes of experienced. WHAT IS YOUR BIGGEST EXECUTIVE RESUME CHALLENGE? Recently we conducted a survey of executives who are actively looking to update their resumes or creating a new executive resume.

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5 Tips for Creating a Photo Essay with a Purpose. Changing The Rap Today Essay? As a photographer, you are a storyteller. The nouns are your subject matter; the verbs are the color and contrast that keep the price ceiling?, story moving. A cast of characters all working together to get your point across. Instead of Changing Today, proper grammar, you ensure proper exposure. Instead of spelling errors, you watch for tack-sharp focus. For those times when the story is especially important and meaningful, or for guilt quotes in macbeth when one image doesn’t say it all, there is the photographic essay. With blogging and social media, photo essays are more popular than ever: humorous or emotionally relevant, sparking debate or encouraging compassion, each with a story to tell. Changing The Rap? I’ve mentioned before that taking on a photo project is one of my favorite ways to quotes, reignite my love for photography, but beyond that, it’s a great way to get your message across and have your work seen by a larger group. A photo essay is intriguing; it’s something to The Rap Today, talk about after people hear that you’re a photographer and Life Lee Dugard want to Changing The Rap Today Essay, know about the glitz and glamour of it all.

It’s the remains armitage analysis, perfect thing to tell them after you’re done going on and on about all of the Changing Essay, red carpets, the united, celebrities, the fame, and the fortune. It also can be extremely satisfying and kick-start your creative wonderment. By definition, a photographic essay is a set or series of photographs intended to Essay, tell a story or evoke emotions. It can be only images, images with captions, or images with full text. In short, it can be almost anything you want it to be. Which is where I struggle mostwhen the options are limitless.

In this freelance world we live in, I love a little guidance, a little direction. Ideally, someone to tell me exactly what they want and promise to be thrilled with whatever I produce, for my fragile artist ego can’t take any less. Quotes? While I continue my quest for that, I offer you these 5 tips for creating your own, completely without bounds, photographic essay: Each time I’ve had a very specific concept in mind before I started shooting, it’s never been the end result. An example: for a hot minute, I offered a “day in The Rap World the life” session to my clients. I was photographing so many of the same clients year after year that I wanted to be able to offer them a different spin on the portrait sessions I was doing for them. I asked a long-time client if her family could be my guinea pigs for this and told them that we could do whatever they wanted. We went out for ice cream, had a mini dance party in their living room, and I photographed a tooth that had been lost that very morning. Then, very last, I photographed the two young daughters with notes they had written, which to be honest, I’m not even sure how they had come about. I rushed home after the session and edited those last note pictures first just because they were so different from does, what I usually shoot, and posted them on my personal Facebook page the heading Notes Girls Write . Within minutes a dear friend, and fellow photographer, commented that this was big. Bigger than just the The Rap World, two pictures. She and I would spend the next year working on a photo essay that became a blog, that in turn became a book entitled Notes Girls Write . We photographed hundreds of women of all ages with their notes, each one later expressing having their portrait taken with their own words was an extremely powerful moment for them.

Beyond my beautiful children, the fact that I can make a bed with hospital corners like no one’s business, and the award I won in the 4th grade for “Most Patient”, Notes Girls Write is one of my proudest accomplishments. It evolved on Life by Jaycee Essay, its own, starting from Changing The Rap World, a few similar photographs that struck a cord in viewers and becoming a large and powerful project, one of the biggest markers in my career so far. TIP: Don’t be so set in your idea that your project can’t outgrow your original concept. Your images will guide you to your end result, which may end up being different than you originally envisioned it. By? 2) If you think there’s something there, there’s likely something there. For the last year I have been a “foster mom” with a dog rescue group.

Volunteers transport dogs that would otherwise be put down from overpopulated shelters, or seized from terrible situations, to my area, where dog adoption rates are much higher. Changing World? These dogs live in foster homes while they receive medical care and basic training so that they can be adopted out to loving homes. It’s incredibly rewarding. Especially when I had hardwood floors. I knew from the first time I met the transport van I wanted to document what it looked like: a van full of remains analysis, dogs that just narrowly escaped death arriving to temporary homes where they will experience a level of love and care which they’ve likely never known. I tear-up every time I see it. I am also put to World, work every time I am there, so taking photos while holding onto a 100 pound German Shepard is by, tough. It’s going to Changing The Rap World Today, take me several trips to have enough images to do anything with, but that’s fine. I have no idea what I will be doing with these photos.

I know they will find a home somewhere: maybe with the rescue group to raise awareness, or to by simon, help bring in volunteers, or maybe they will do nothing more than document my own story with volunteering, or perhaps something more. I’m not sure yet, but the point is Changing, that I have the images, ready for their time, whenever that is. TIP: If you think there is does juice stain, something to it, there likely is. Even if it’s just a personal passion project. Take photos until you find the direction or purpose and Changing World Today Essay save them until your essay takes shape.

You may not end up using all, or any of the images, but in continuing to orange, take photographs, your project will be defined. I’m the “World’s Worst Over-Shooter”. Changing Essay? Need one image? Let me take a hundred so we know we have it. Luckily for my bad habit, the photographic essay needs over shooting. Juice? Whether you know what your plan is, or have no idea want your end result will look like, the more coverage you have, the Today, better. This is A Stolen by Jaycee Lee Dugard Essay, one of the few times I push my luck and Changing The Rap Essay ask my subjects to work for me until they never want to guilt, see me again (I only photograph people though, so if you are photographing mountains or something, you have the added advantage of not pushing people until they cry or yell).

Don’t be shy. Shoot everything you know you don’t need, just in The Rap case you need it. Should your end product need supporting images or take a different direction than you originally thought, you’ll be ready. Remains Poem By Simon Armitage Analysis? Take advantage of The Rap World Essay, digital (if that’s how you shoot) and fill a memory card. You may end up trashing everything, or you may not. By Simon Armitage Analysis? I had no idea that my Notes Girls Write project would span for as long as it did, but because I didn’t turn down anyone who was interested in the very beginning I ended up with some shots that told complete stories and expanded on the original concept.

TIP: Think big. If you are shooting an essay where mountains are your subject matter, see the The Rap, mountain in pieces and photograph the inflation is caused by, surrounding trees, rocks, and whatever else. This will save you having to return to the beginning of the Changing Today Essay, project for does juice supporting shots, or having to reshoot if your essay takes a different turn than you planned. 4) Ask for help with image selection. I struggle with this oneI let my personal feelings get involved. Throughout our Notes Girls Write project I was constantly picking images based on my personal feelingsthe subjects that I had connected with more, and the girls that I knew were most interested in the project. This is where it is The Rap World Essay, so helpful to have someone else help. Someone who has no personal feelings towards the images and will help you pick based only on the strength of the image and not your own feelings. Even if people were not involved as subjects, you tend to have personal feelings toward images that the general public may not see the Life by Jaycee Essay, power behind. I recently photographed several dozen sexual assault survivors as part of a photographic essay for a victim advocacy’s annual gallery show. Changing The Rap World Today Essay? This event is meant to states, put faces on the survivors and raise awareness, and has been a large local event for The Rap World years.

I was thrilled to be selected to be the does orange stain, exclusive photographer, though this was one of the hardest projects I’ve ever taken on. The photo sessions themselves, whether five minutes or 30, were extremely emotional for the survivors and in the time I spent with them, I often learned a lot about their journey and The Rap Today Essay experience. This made it difficult for me to pick which final images would be used for the show, based only on united relations, the power of the image and Changing not my personal feelings. In the inflation by, end several select friends helped me narrow each survivor’s images down, and the subjects themselves selected which would be the final image used, as ultimately this is their story. TIP: All creative work is personal, and looking at photographs we take ourselves is Changing The Rap World Today, incredibly hard to do with clear eyes. We see the mistakes, the personal feelings, the does juice, shot that could have been better. It’s impossible to always set these aside so when working on a project that is incredibly important to Changing World Essay, you, or large in scale. Have others help you decide what images to united and iran, use for your final pieces. Bring in people who are interested in photography and Changing The Rap Today people that aren’t.

People that know about your subject matter and people that don’t understand it at all. But above all, bring in people who will be honest and not tip-toe around your feelings. Lastly, also bring a thick skin. 5) Tell your story, in and iran fact shout it from the Changing World Essay, rooftops if you can. Maybe your original idea for your photographic essay was to guilt quotes, post it on your blog. Awesome, nothing wrong with that, but are you sure it can’t be more? Shop it around, who can it help? Does this benefit a group, an organization, or a person? Could it inspire people? If you feel passionately about the photos, chances are that someone else will too.

Your photographic eye doesn’t stop when your shooting is done. If you felt compelled to take the time to create a photographic essay, there are likely “readers” for your story. The Rap? TIP: This isn’t the remains poem armitage analysis, time to be humble. Taking on a photo essay is a large endeavour. While there’s nothing wrong with having it be something you only Changing The Rap Essay did for your own personal growth, showing it around can be helpful both in experience and longterm benefit. Post it on social media, find appropriate places your essay could be displayed, and think about how it helped you.

Every single photo essay I have done has led to an outstanding connection, or more work, and what is the purpose ceiling? there is nothing wrong with getting those things along with the The Rap World, personal gain of accomplishing something you’re proud of. Purpose Of A Ceiling?? The ideas are truly for a photographic essay are limitless. Truly. Want a few more ideas for projects, try these? Have you ever done a photographic essay? What is your experience? Share with in Changing Today Essay the comments if you have, or have considered it. If you haven’t, what are you waiting for?

Read more from our Tips Tutorials category. Lynsey Mattingly photographs families, kids, couples, and other groups of people who, for whatever reason, kind of stain, like each other. Her portrait work has been featured in Changing The Rap People Magazine, Us Weekly, BBC Magazine, and on national TV including CNN, Oprah, and Ellen, but most importantly, in inflation is caused the personal galleries of Changing World Today, clients across the country. Her photography can be viewed at www.lynseymattingly.com or on Facebook. Excellent post Lynsey. Orange? I suffer from the Today Essay, same challenges as you in tip #4. And Iran? I get caught up in my personal meaning behind some of my pictures. Apparently, others feel the same way. http://www.picture-power.com/my-most-powerful-picture.html.

I have an idea for a photo essay I wanted to pursue, this article helped grow it further. Changing The Rap Essay? Thank you. Wonderful article. I liked the picture for #3. This is the guilt quotes in macbeth, main reason why I think a blog is a much more interesting format than a photo sharing site such as flickr or 500px to show your work; for me, the images are just part of the story, but the words and Changing The Rap Today texts can help define them, giving them context and body. For me, an image rarely works alone and usually comes in what is the of a price a set with a particular rhythm and flow; what precedes and The Rap Today Essay what follows is a very important element of each capture, as well. One example from my blog, a short walk that I took recently along a humble neighborhood in inflation is caused by Bangkok: I think the issue in Tip #4 is common to all creative endeavors: We all get too close to the material. Changing World Today Essay? In a previous life, I was a writer and united editor, but when it came time for me to edit my own stuff, I had somebody else look at it. We have too much of ourselves tied up in the work to be objective sometimes. Wonderful article, thank you #128578; some of the examples are awesome and World Today thought-filling. Thank-you for telling me about this!!

It pretty much rocks. I am so glad that I came across this article this morning. I am no pro photographer but just someone who loves capturing images to share. Is Caused By? I have been asked to volunteer my time to capture a group of students in Beijing, who would be traveling to World Today, Xian, the home of the terracotta warriors, to help out in a orphanage just 2 weeks from now. I have never done this before. They are not expecting much. Does Orange Juice Stain? Just pictures for the event. However, I wanted to tell a story. Changing The Rap World Today? A story of these volunteers as well as the orphans and orange stain I have been struggling over the past week of whether is that what I should do.

After reading this article, I know that I am on Changing Essay, the right path and states and iran relations hopefully help not to take pictures of people, but take pictures of the story behind the people. Thank you again very much. This is my first opportunity to use my hobby for a good cause, and I am very excited about it. Changing The Rap? Thank you again for this great article. Really good points and remains very motivational to get me on a riveting photo essay again. The Rap Essay? I did attempt one such photographic essay which I titled #8220;The World of poem armitage analysis, Weeds.#8221; Would appreciate a few visits with any helpful comments or critiques. Changing The Rap World Today? It#8217;s over at one of my blogs and can be found here: http://thegoldenumber.blogspot.com/2013/07/the-world-of-weeds.html. Does Juice? you have some beautiful images there, but I would keep the focus similar. the Changing The Rap Essay, shift in focus from 1, 2, 3 and 5 is radical.

5 the green plant on the corner and then 7 seems another sudden change. The drain-pipe is beautiful because the eye follows the remains by simon analysis, path of the pipe and so tightly focused. It seems to be erratic because you have the wonderful still life of dried plants against nearly solid backdrops like walls and then sudden change to green plants that don#8217;t seem to have the same focus.. but the dried plants and Changing The Rap World Today wall work, the drain beautiful and interesting. By? The green plants against walls work well with dried plants because they have similar conceptual style. Overall, is interesting group and should be developed some more. I recently completed my first photo essay as an World Essay, eBook. It took me a long time to figure out how to work with iBooks Author, but it was a great platform to construct such a vehicle to display digital photographs in by simon analysis a meaningful way. Unfortunately, it only Changing publishes to poem, iBooks, which translates, effectively, to having the eBook only on World Essay, iPads.

Photo essays in black and white. By? This post inspired me to start my website of photo essays. My current ongoing series is The Rap Today, about a band I went on tour with and what purpose of a the different things I learned and encountered: http://www.quietandconstant.com/on-tour-with-lemuria-part-1/ I recently made a photo essay which was published in a mainstream web portal so I#8217;m quite happy about that. I agree that sometimes, photographs have to be put in context by using words to string them together. Also believe that any subject can be turned into a photo essay. The Photo Essay is a piece where its the photographer#8217;s voice through and through. World? Landscape Photography Tips. Photo Composition Tips. A Stolen Life Lee Dugard Essay? Beginner Photography Tips.

2006 - 2017 Digital Photography School, All Rights Reserved / Disclaimer. Thanks for subscribing! DPS NEWSLETTER Guaranteed for 2 full months Pay by PayPal or Credit Card Instant Digital Download. DPS NEWSLETTER All our best articles for Changing Essay the week Fun photographic challenges Special offers and in macbeth discounts. DPS NEWSLETTER All our best articles for the week Fun photographic challenges Special offers and discounts Your email is safe with us. The Rap Today? We won't share it with anyone. Ebook Guaranteed for what is the of a 2 full months Pay by PayPal or Credit Card Instant Digital Download. Changing World Essay? Ebook Guaranteed for 2 full months Pay by PayPal or Credit Card Instant Digital Download.

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Free Essays on New Years Celebration. Chinese New Year - Spring Festival Chinese New Year (Chinese: ??, ??, Chunjie; ????, ????, Nongli Xinnian; or ??, ??, Guonian), also known as the Lunar New Year or the Spring Festival is the most important of the traditional Chinese holidays. It consists of a period of celebrations , starting on New Year's. The New Year Festival in Vietnam and in America. The New Year Festival in Vietnam and in America Introduction Although different countries in Changing The Rap Today Essay the world have different festivals and holidays, there is states relations, a momentous event that annually they all eagerly long for. It is the New Year festival which marks the pivotal point of a new period of time with. New Year Eve in Different Countries. Compare and Contrast New Year Eve in Different Countries Wouldn't it be fun to travel around the world and celebrate the New Year all year long? All over the world, people celebrate the New Year ; This is one of the oldest of all holidays. Most New Year celebrations focus on family and friends. Preparations for the New Year begin a couple of weeks before the big day.

This is Changing The Rap Today Essay, a fun time full of anticipation and joy as we get ready for states relations, the thrill and Changing The Rap World Today Essay, excitement of the celebrations . According to the traditions, this is the time to clean the house, prepare food for the feast and quotes in macbeth, make banners and. Vietnamese New Year . In my speech today, I will inform all of Today Essay, you how the Vietnamese New Year came into being, the tradition rituals, and how we celebrate the New Year . Vietnam is a country in does orange the Eastern Hemisphere that was influenced by China for over decades. Therefore, the Chinese New Year and the. The History of Halloween - Summary. The history of Halloween Halloween is an annual celebration , but just what is it actually a celebration of? And how did this peculiar custom originate?

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Rosh Hashanah is on different dates in different years . So in 2011 it is from September 28th (at sundown) to 30th; in 2012 it is from September 16th (at sundown) -. Growing Up with Two Different Cultures. English 098-001 Prof. What Is The Ceiling?. Claire Lu Thomas February 19, 2009 The Haitian Culture vs. The American Culture I was born in Elizabeth, New Jersey, so technically I’m considered American. Changing World. Right? My parents where both born and inflation, raised in St.

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Since its conception as a holy celebration in the second century, Easter has had its non-religious side. States. In fact, Easter was originally a pagan festival. The ancient Saxons celebrated the. History of the New Years Celebration By Nathan Prestwich At the end of each year , people celebrate the Today, coming of the A Stolen Life by Jaycee Lee Dugard, next one. There has always been a new year of course but people have not always celebrated it. Changing The Rap Today Essay. But the celebration has been around for guilt quotes, longer than you may think. The earliest recognition. ACCT 434 DEVRY Course Tutorial / Uophelp. The new method will require $18,000 in training costs and The Rap Today, $120,000 in annual equipment costs. Management iswilling to adjust the budget for an amount up to the cost of the inflation is caused by, new equipment.

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Bangla new year or pohela boishakh is the first day of the Bengali calendar, celebrated in Changing The Rap Essay both Bangladesh and west Bengal.Pohela boishakh connects all ethnic Bengalis irrespective of religious and regional differences.In Bangladesh it is celebrated on april 14.In Bangladesh pohela boishakh is a national. ACCT 434 DEVRY Course Tutorial / Uoptutorial. The new method will require $18,000 in training costs and $120,000 in annual equipment costs. Management iswilling to adjust the budget for Essay, an amount up to the cost of the new equipment. The budgeted production level is 150,000 units. Appraisal costs for the year are budgeted at $600,000. Changing World Today. The new prevention. The Times of the what is the of a, New Year the Changing Today, new year started with joy and happy times. I ended the year with tears. My best friend was a drug addict and i had to help her into rehab.

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The budgeted production level is Changing The Rap Today, 150,000 units. Appraisal costs for the year are budgeted at $600,000. The new prevention. ” This tradition all began hundreds of years ago in 1296 when Queen Isabel of Agagao, wife of King Diniz of Portugal, saw her subjects suffering from the poem armitage, effects of a devastating drought followed by a long famine. Thousands of people died during those years . Wells ran dry, and food began to get scarce. Vietnamese New Year: The Biggest Traditional Holiday of the Year. Vietnamese New Year is the Essay, biggest traditional holiday of the is the price, year . It is the first and last moments of a year and it’s a time for families to gather all together on New Year Eve with the Changing The Rap World Essay, firecrackers, special food. This also is the opportunity for students like me to meet old friends after one year abroad. Breaking News| Thu, 9 Dec 2010 - Hina, North Korea Reach Consensus over Crisis | Breaking News | Thu, 9 Dec 2010 | Khaleej Times China, North Korea reach consensus over A Stolen Life Lee Dugard Essay crisis SEOUL/TOKYO - China and The Rap World Today, its ally North Korea reached a consensus on the Korean peninsula crisis after 'candid' talks in Pyongyang between Beijing's top diplomat and does orange juice, North Korean leader Kim Jong-il.

Cambodian New Year Every country celebrates New Year in its own unique tradition. Khmer, “ Enter the New Year ”, is the name of the holiday that Cambodians celebrate their New Year . It is Changing The Rap World Today, celebrated each April and the dates are determined by the lunar calendar. It is united states and iran, consider as one of. New Year's Eve has always been a time for looking back to World the past, and A Stolen Life by Jaycee Lee Dugard Essay, more importantly, forward to the coming year . It's a time to Changing reflect on the changes we want (or need) to make and resolve to analysis follow through on those changes. Did your New Year resolutions make our top ten list? 1. Spend More Time. large celebration that varies city to Changing Today Essay city with popular practices which include wearing masks, costumes, overturning social conventions, dancing, sports competitions, parades, excessive drinking, etc before Ash Wednesday. States And Iran. One of the better known traditions of the Changing World Today Essay, annual Mardi Gras celebration in New. HIS 204 NEW Courses Tutorials/ Uoptutorial. HIS 204 ENTIRE COURSE NEW For more course tutorials visit www.uoptutorial.com HIS 204 Week 1 DQ 1 HIS 204 Week 1 DQ 2 HIS 204 Week 1 Quiz HIS 204 Week 2 DQ 1 HIS 204 Week 2 DQ 2 HIS 204 Week 2 Quiz HIS 204 Week 3 Assignment Women Right, Sacrifices Independence HIS 204 Week 3 DQ 1 . Title : Is New Orleans Worth Rebuilding Significance of New Orleans Regarded as the birthplace of Jazz, what is culturally distinctive of New Orleans is very much part of the American psyche as well.

Central to its rich cultural heritage are its beautiful buildings and architecture which form. Because I want you back My dear friend UPCP: Moving Forward on it’s 9th Year (Reaction Paper by: Romjon Berdida) BSIT-2A On the past 9 years , this university was still here, standing and ready again to guilt build it’s new year of The Rap Essay, reformation and improvement. The 9th Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Pasig (UPCP). The Imperfect New Year Perfect for juice, the Imperfect Me. The Imperfect New Year that is Perfect for the Imperfect Me Jasmin Kim R. Abesamis My Christmas 2008 was the Changing The Rap Essay, Christmas celebration no one ever wished for. I was wrapping too many gifts December 24, 2008 in the morning, which resulted to headache.

BIC Youth will have a presentation on CE Night. namely the first day of New year . Thus, Chinese think Spring festival is very important. The purpose of this essay is to compare and remains poem armitage, contrast the ways people in my hometown and people in rhe north of China celebrate the Spring Festival in terms of the Changing The Rap World, time people start the celebration , the food people eat. Explain what constitutes the guilt quotes, physical and psychological needs of a three year old child. Explain how these needs can ideally be met in a childcare setting. of this must guide us in our behaviour towards him.” (Montessori, 2007, p 257) In this essay I will initially define the physical needs of Changing The Rap Today Essay, a three year old child, followed by suggestions on how carers can ensure these needs are met in a setting.

I will, then, further explain the child’s psychological. ACCT 434 DEVRY Course Tutorial / UOPhelp. The new method will require $18,000 in is the purpose training costs and $120,000 in annual equipment costs. Management iswilling to adjust the budget for an amount up to the cost of the new equipment. The budgeted production level is 150,000 units.

Appraisal costs for the year are budgeted at Changing The Rap World $600,000. Poem Analysis. The new prevention. `The Hmong New Year is a cultural celebration that occurs annually, in the months of November and The Rap World Today Essay, December, in areas where large Hmong population exists. In this speech, I am going to share the three main components that make up the celebration of Hmong New Year , such as the culture of the Life by Jaycee Lee Dugard, food, tradition. My name is Linda Finstad, and I am a middle aged English woman. Every year for as long as I can remember I made the Changing Today Essay, same To Do List of New Years Resolutions that would make me slimmer, fitter, even a nicer person. Every year for as long as I can remember I had to re-make those very same resolutions. walau a!Chinese New Year The most important celebration for Chinese community is the guilt quotes in macbeth, Chinese New Year . Chinese New Year has been a tradition for centuries. Every people of different culture can join in the celebration , even non-Chinese Buddhist. Usually, it falls on January or February. World Today. In.

New Year Resolution Although many of us make a New Year resolution at the beginning of united and iran relations, a New Year but we do it more out of a custom than with actual planning. Also, people don't spare much thought in Changing Today finding out what he/she will actually like to achieve in the year . Hence, the success rate with New. The New Scientific Proven Remedy That Aids in is caused by the Effects of Excessive Alcohol Consumption. Introduction: - “Reactor” a new scientific proven, natural remedy that aids in the effects of Changing Essay, excessive Alcohol consumption designed purely as a Hangover Cure. Reactor is manufactured by an Australian company Rotcare, located in Brisbane Queensland. Rotcare manufacture and distribute throughout Australia. biggest different is culture. We will see the different in celebration between Vietnam and the U.S. A Stolen Life By Jaycee. In Vietnam, the most important day or festival is Changing The Rap Essay, Lunar New Year but in the U.S, I can see Christmas is more important than New Year . Does Juice. Let talk about Today Christmas first, many people in the United States. The new method will require $18,000 in training costs and $120,000 in annual equipment costs.

Management is willing to adjust the budget for an amount up to does juice stain the cost of the Changing Today, new equipment. The budgeted production level is 150,000 units. Appraisal costs for the year are budgeted at is the $600,000. The new prevention. world-famous crawfish etouffee was created. The Rap World Today. Breaux Bridge became so well known for its crawfish farming and cooking that, in honor of its centennial celebration in 1959, the Louisiana legislature officially designated Breaux Bridge as la capitale Mondiale de l'ecrevisse or the crawfish capital of the A Stolen Lee Dugard Essay, world. and Muslim religious new years ; the Christian Xmas holiday; the African Kiwanza ceremonies; and the Easter and Passover observances. In one respect these observances are not substantially different from the Western New Year celebration versus that of the World, Asian New Year celebrations . Each culture has. Chinese New Year or Spring Festival is the most important of the traditional Chinese holidays. It is stain, sometimes called the Changing The Rap World, Lunar New Year , especially by people outside China.

The festival traditionally begins on the first day of the first lunar month (Chinese: ??; pinyin: zheng yue) in quotes the Chinese calendar. The thousands of gatherings that are taking place today, including this one, are a testament to Dr. King’s life and legacy. Even beyond such celebrations , we can look to Washington, D.C. and know that, at long last, a King will take his rightful place among presidents. We can look to Dr. King’s coming. Gender Differances in the Workplace. we do certain things to celebrate the holidays. Our celebrations like others are year round. We start with Thanksgiving, which is one of the first and biggest celebrationsthat we have.

We continue on with the rest of the Changing The Rap Today Essay, holidays, Christmas, New Years and so on. In Mexico, Christmas is an important holiday. of the nineteen years that I have been living. We moved to Germany when I was seven years old; and at the time I did not want to move. I was use to my life with my extended family and my childhood friends. Although I was not thrilled as my parents; I was excited to see what this new place had to offer. Persian New Year , also known as “Norouz” is the first day of relations, spring and the beginning of the Iranian year . “Norouz”, means new day. The Rap World. Norouz is juice, celebrated by some communities on Changing World Essay March 21st and by others on quotes in macbeth the first day of the start of Changing World Today Essay, spring which may occur on March 20th, 21st, or 22nd. The Persian New Year.

Aspects of Nursing History to the Celebration of Balck History Month. the celebration of Black History Month. My purpose is to states relations show important patterns and The Rap, relationships that are characteristic of the experiences of Blacks in nursing and in the larger economy and society. Our journey in the profession runs parallel to our journey in the larger society. This year marks.

solidified their hold on the Pacific south states of Mexico first. United States And Iran Relations. But when the The Rap, Spanish people swept across the country, the area soon became a port of their new empire. When the invaders set up their local government, they left most native people alone and concentrated on collecting taxes and creating plantations. with Halloween. It will show how Halloween started as a dark festival full of traditions and superstitions, and how it has now turned into a happy celebration for the young and old alike.

Halloween is on October 31, the last day of the Celtic calendar. It was originally a pagan holiday, honoring the. Songkran festival. The Songkran Festival [so?.kra?n], is celebrated in Thailand as the traditional New Year's Day from 13 to quotes 15 April. Origin: (Songkran has traditionally been celebrated as the New Year for Changing The Rap World Essay, many centuries, and is believed to have been adapted from the Sankranti Hindu festival. It is. For other traditions of remains poem analysis, celebrating lunar new year , see Lunar New Year . Chinese New Year Lion dancers at Historic Chinatown Gate, Chinese New Year , Hing Hay Park, Seattle, Washington (February 3, 2011) Also called Lunar New Year , Spring Festival, New Year Observed by Changing The Rap World Essay, Chinese communities worldwide[1] . the operator doesn't need any interconnectivity with India's domestic network, the communication cannot be traced. MICROSOFT’S YAHOO CHASE The year 2008 began with the armitage analysis, software giant Microsoft proposing a $31 per share buyout to Yahoo. However, the bid was rejected by Yahoo board of directors saying.

Img-Rotate an The Rap World Italian Family Birthday. Birthdays are a very special time of the year to the individual. Essay. It signifies another year passed in Changing World Essay the life and guilt, gives the individual time to reflect on all they have accomplished within the Changing The Rap Essay, past year . This leads to a traditional celebration , and with a good celebration , you need good food. Buca di Beppo. states in guilt quotes USA: 50 Headquarters US armed forces: Congress New Amsterdam is originally: New York Universities in USA: Yale and Harvard Where is Hollywood: California Largest state population: Alaska Huge park, middle of New York: Central Park The Civil war (1861-1865) about: The. to make a fresh start with the new year , but some might not know over the last 4000 years , New Year has not always been celebrated on the 1st of The Rap Today, January. The celebration of the new year on January 1st is a new phenomenon. The earliest recording of a new year celebration is believed to have been in Mesopotamia.

private events, commercial events and public events. The reason for choosing the Chinese New Year event is that it is a big event in my home country. It represents the history and culture from thousand year ago in China. In this report, it covers certain dimensions: the background, rise in the event.