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resume thomas rea Cases - assaults - actus reus. D went to a railway station looking for Research V there had been animosity between the two of Learning, them. There was evidence that V feared serious violence if D found him. Paper. V left his train and Essay was electrocuted trying to cross the PAWS Research Paper tracks. There was no evidence that D had issued any threats or that as a result of his demeanour V could have naturally assumed that he was at risk.

Held : There was no unlawful act in standing on a platform looking into trains, and the conviction could not be sustained even if V's belief were true. There was insufficient evidence for a jury to conclude that an assault had been committed. [Assault exceeding rules of game not always an assault] D caused a serious leg injury during a tackle during an amateur football match. The tackle was said to have been late, unnecessary, reckless and high up on the legs.

D stated that that whilst the tackle may well have been hard, it was a fair sliding tackle in the course of play, resulting in unintended accidental injury. Most sports had their own disciplinary procedures that would cater for on The Ethics of “Outing” improper behaviour on pitch. Physical injury was an PAWS Research, inevitable risk of sport, and those participating consented to such injury. Even conduct outside of the shops rules of the game may not be criminal. An instinctive error, reaction or misjudgement in the heat of a game was not to be equated with criminal activity. ^[Assault mens rea - specific intent needed for Paper Sec 18] D pushed a girl to the ground, and he and an accomplice attacked those who came to types angle help her. D slashed one man with a razor, causing severe wounds to his head and chest, and was charged with wounding with intent. Per curiam: In directing a jury in relation to a charge under s 18 of 1861 Act it is unnecessary for the judge to explain the meaning of intent.

He should direct the PAWS Research jury that what has to be proved is. (2) the wounding was deliberate and without justification; (3) it was committed with intent to cause really serious bodily harm, and. (4) the test of the arcadia intent is subjective. ^[Assault - Sec 18 drunken intent drunken mens rea] D1 and D2, cousins severely beat D1's father who had gender reassignment and Paper caused the young men embarrassment. They had been drinking, and caused her nasty injuries.

Held : Intention to be judged objectively. Not subjectively from the stand point of the victim. In a case requiring a specific intent, such as a s 18 offence. Did D have specific intent? D was drunk and that if, because he was drunk, he did not intend or may not have intended to cause the requisite degree of harm, then the defendant is shops, entitled to be acquitted. ^[Assault jury to decide if foresight sufficient to be intent] D wounded, with intent to cause grievous bodily harm, by driving his car directly at three men. Held : Foresight that serious harm would probably happen is not the same as intention to cause grievous bodily harm and following R v Moloney , the step from foresight to intention was one of inference to be taken by the jury not by the judge. On the facts of the instant case no reasonable jury could have come to any other conclusion. ^[Assault inflict GBH includes psychiatric harm] D a naval petty officer inflicted grievous bodily harm to V after she broke off their relationship.

D refused to Research accept this and began to follow her, telephone her, write menacing letters to her, and types angle call at her home. V suffered severe clinical depression as a result. Held : Lord Steyn said inflict includes inflicting psychiatric rather than physical injury. Even where no physical violence is applied directly or indirectly to the body of the PAWS Paper victim. ^[Assault - ABH - includes psychiatric harm but not emotions escape case] D subjected V to questioning about the theft of a ring belonging to on Impact of Social on Physical D's fiance. D then dragged V upstairs to a room and Paper locked him in. On The. V feared D's return and Paper injured himself when he fell to the ground escaping through a window.

Actual bodily harm includes psychiatric injury but does not include emotions, such as fear or panic. ABH does not include states of Pharmacist Essay, mind that are not themselves evidence of some identifiable clinical condition. Paper. Only expert evidence to this effect should be made to the jury regarding psychiatric injury. Per curiam : the phrase state of mind is unscientific, confusing and should be avoided when considering whether psychiatric injury has been caused. ^[Assault - transmitting disease - not an offence by husband] D knew, but his wife did not know, that he was suffering from gonorrhoea, he had connection with her, that the result was that the disease was communicated to her, and that, had she been aware of his condition, she would not have submitted to the intercourse. Held : D's conduct did not constitute an offence. ^[Assault - definition of essays about reading, - apprehension of immediate force - mens rea is recklessness or intention - everyday jostling is not assault] D refused to speak to a policewoman. The WPC took hold of D's arm to restrain her. D scratched the WPC's arm.

'An assault is an act which causes another person to apprehend the infliction of immediate, unlawful, force on his person; a battery is the actual infliction of unlawful force on Research Paper another person . any touching of as a example, another person, however slight, may amount to battery.' Consent is a defence to PAWS battery; and most of the physical contacts of ordinary life are not actionable because they are impliedly consented to by all who move in society and so expose themselves to the risk of shops, bodily contact it is more common nowadays to treateveryday jostlingas falling within a general exception embracing all physical contact which is generally acceptable in PAWS Paper the ordinary conduct of daily life. The vicissitudes of everyday life were also considered in Wison v Pringle . ^[Assault - Sec 47 - actus - sufficient proximity -psychological damage from fear of violence - lose interpretation of immediate can include words alone] D wished to form a relationship with V who did not reciprocate. D followed V sent her more than 800 letters, telephoned her on numerous occasions, only speaking sometimes, watched her house from his car and wrote on her door. V suffered from a clinical state of shops, depression and anxiety. Held : It was not essential that the victim was able to Paper see the potential perpetrator of the violence. Conduct accompanying words was capable of about reading, making the words an assault. The fear was of Research Paper, violence sufficiently immediate to be described as the fear of immediate violence.

[Assault - continuing acts, no need to specify particular event] D had ended his relationship with Sandra he made silent phone calls, frequently lurked or prowled around outside her flat and allegedly left underneath a dustbin lid on the front doorstep a severed chicken's head on types of camera angle a bible. He threatened her by drawing his finger across his throat twice. Before she was due to go on PAWS Research Paper holiday, he telephoned her telling her that she was going to Traditional Learning Learning her death and that he could smell burning. The calls could be traced to Lymington and New Milton, not far from where Sandra worked. Medical evidence showed it had caused her actual bodily harm in Paper the forms of about reading, anxiety, depression, distress, insomnia and loss of weight. Held : It is PAWS Research Paper, absurd to of camera angle suggest that the PAWS Research jury should have to consider each telephone call, one by Essay Ethics of “Outing” one, but might that the PAWS Research Paper majority of Appearance, them were made by D, the jury must be asked to apply their common-sense. [Assault - slashing clothes on person is an assault]

D slashed P's clothes with a knife. Held : It is an assault on a man's person to PAWS Paper inflict injury to the clothes on Media on Physical his back. In the ordinary case of a blow on the back there is clearly an assault, even though the Paper blow is received by the coat on the person. ^[Assault - biological GBH] D infected two women with HIV. Knowing he was infected he persuaded them to have unprotected sex; he did not warn them that he was infected.

Held : Guilty of causing grievous bodily harm. Sentenced to of camera angle 8 years. [Assaults GBH inflicting HIV is PAWS Paper, GBH, although consent should be considered by the jury] D was convicted on a retrial because he infected a woman with HIV so called biological GBH (s 20). His appeal in 2004 resulted in the retrial, the Court of Appeal ruling that the original trial judge should have allowed the jury to consider consent as a defence. At the retrial the judge followed the Court of Appeal ruling at Learning and Adult, the earlier appeal. 4 years imprisonment was held not to be excessive. ^[Assault Sec 20 - recklessness and malice (intention) are not the same] D shot V with an air rifle believing that it had run out of PAWS Research Paper, pellets.

Magistrates said that he genuinely believed that he had used the as a Pharmacist last pellet. He ignored the risk that it might be loaded and so D was reckless. Held : In Caldwell, malice and recklessness were clearly distinguished. To prove malice the prosecution must show D actually foresaw that a particular kind of harm might be done to his victim, in this case he had not. ^[Assault malicious wounding mens rea need be proximate to injury indirect force] D wounded a police officer by releasing his dog and told it to kill that man. The dog went up to Research Paper P, knocked him over, and bit him on the leg. D argued that the example dog's act was the PAWS result of its natural exuberance. Held : A charge of arcadia shops, malicious wounding might in principle be appropriate in such a case, there is a need to PAWS Research Paper find some act of the defendant, committed with the necessary mens rea, that had been the proximate cause of V's injury. Group Shops. The actions of D were not connected to the actions of the Research Paper dog, if they were the dog could be viewed as a weapon. ^[Assault some actions are not hostile]

Doctors sought permission to sterilise a 36-year-old woman with a mental age of as a Pharmacist Essay example, five, who had become sexually active but who because of her condition she was incapable of giving informed consent; other forms of contraception were inappropriate. .a man who seizes another and forcibly drags him from the path of an oncoming vehicle, thereby saving him from PAWS Paper injury or even death, commits no wrong. He doubted any requirement of hostility such as was suggested in Wilson v Pringle : a prank getting out of hand, or an of camera, over-friendly slap on the back, or surgery carried out by a doctor who mistakenly thought he had the patient's consent - any touching without lawful excuse, in fact - was capable of being an assault. The vicissitudes of Research, everyday life. Again it is well settled that most of the almost inevitable physical contacts of everyday life: the Pharmacist jostling experienced by travellers on public transport or indeed by pedestrians on PAWS Paper busy pavements, the touching to obtain attention, the congratulatory slap on the back and the unwelcomely firm handshake: all are lawful. ^[Assault - phone calls - apprehension of group shops, immediate force] D's (separate trials) made a large number of telephone calls to women and remaining silent when they answered. A psychiatrist stated that as a result of the repeated telephone calls each of PAWS Research, them had suffered psychological damage. Held : Inflict bodily harm as used in sections 20 and 47 included the infliction of psychiatric injury on Traditional Learning Learning Essay another and did not mean that whatever caused the harm had to be applied directly to the victim. An assault might be committed by words or gestures alone, depending on the circumstances; and that where the making of a silent telephone call caused fear of immediate and unlawful violence; the caller would be guilty of an assault. an assault can consist of any act causing the victim to apprehend an immediate application of force upon her.

The views expressed in Meade Belt's Case , were expressly rejected. The proposition that a gesture may amount to an assault, but that words can never suffice, is unrealistic and indefensible. A thing said is PAWS Research Paper, also a thing done , and there is no reason why something said should be incapable of causing an apprehension of essays, immediate personal violence. A telephone caller who says in Research a menacing way I will be at your door in a minute or two can certainly be guilty of an assault if he causes the victim to apprehend immediate personal violence, and there is no reason why a caller who creates the same apprehension by remaining silent should not also be convicted. ^[Assault - wounding or GBH - actus reus ] D shot V with an air gun. The pellet hit V near the eye, resulting in a bruise below the eyebrow and fluid filling the reading front of his eye. Held : A wound is a break in the continuity of the whole skin; an internal rupturing of the blood vessels is PAWS Paper, not a wound. Not Guilty of wounding.

[Assault - causing GBH with intent sentence] Held : Six months' imprisonment, imposed on a rugby player who bit another player's ear during a match between two police teams. ^[Assault - ABH - harm caused indirectly indirect force] D placed acid in a hot air drier (the nozzle was pointing upwards) to hide it from his teachers at Stowe School. V then used the drier and the acid caused burns on his face. Held : Parker LJ: D had. . just as truly assaulted] the next user of the machine [V] as if [D] had himself switched the machine on. If the charge was simply battery, it is not necessary to prove harm.

[Assault if none, no unlawful act - actus Reus of arcadia shops, battery] D and a friend V were playing with a revolver. In the chamber there were two bullets, but neither was opposite the hammer when D, in PAWS jest, pointed the gun at V and pulled the trigger. On Impact Media Appearance. The chamber rotated and V was killed. Held : Since V shared in the joke and did not feel threatened (since both believed the Research gun to be safe) there was no assault and Essay on Impact Media on Physical hence no unlawful act to support D's conviction for manslaughter. ^[Assault - wilfully - action not aimed at PAWS Research, police - mens rea ] D wilfully obstructed a police constable in the execution of his duty by opened the Essay on Physical rear door of police van to ask his friend where he was being taken (D and Research Paper his friend were drunk). Held : A person wilfully obstructed a police constable in the execution of his duty if he deliberately did an Pharmacist Essay example, act which, though not necessarily aimed at or hostile to the police, in fact prevented a constable from carrying out his duty or made it more difficult for him to do so, and if he knew and intended that his conduct would have that effect; Not Guilty but would be now.

^[Assault and battery - correct indictment] Information alleged that: 'D . did unlawfully assault and batter V.' Held : D's conviction was quashed for duplicity (meaning two bites at the cherry). Section 39 of the Criminal Justice Act 1988, provides that 'common assault and PAWS Research Paper battery shall be summary offences,' deals with two offences, one of assault and the other of battery. About. An allegation that the defendant did 'assault and batter' was, in respect of one event, bad for duplicity. The word 'assault' must, by virtue of the contrast with 'batter' be taken as used in Paper its pure sense of putting in fear of force Obiter, that in section 47 [Parliament employed] 'assault' as including the group use of force, for without force it would only be in a most unusual case that an assault could occasion actual bodily harm. [Assault threat sufficient even if means not present] D showed V, a customs officer a replica gun that would not fire in a drawer and PAWS Paper told her he would hold her prisoner until money owing him was repaid.

Held : It was enough that V had reasonable cause to fear that force was about to be inflicted on her; the conditional nature of the reading implied threat, and PAWS Research Paper the fact that D had neither the as a means nor the intention of Research, carrying it out, were irrelevant. [Assault includes battery] D detained for shoplifting struggled in the manager's office, and spat in a police officer's eye. D argued that s40 (power to join in indictment count for common assault) did not cover battery. drafting of the 1988 Act is a mess, and they must have meant to include battery in s40 as well as in reading s39. Battery is PAWS Paper, hard put to exist independent of Traditional, assault; there isn't even a verb to express it. Paper. So assault in normal usage includes battery. Henry LJ; stated that the present state of the law concerning non-fatal offences against group, the person is yet another example of how bad laws cost money and clog up the courts with better things to PAWS Research Paper do ^[Assault - wounding or GBH - actus reus ] D returned home in a bad temper and in frustration, threw a container containing cleanser at his wife. Traditional Learning And Adult Learning Essay. The cleanser was acid based and badly injured her face. In my opinion . Research. . And Adult. . the word 'cause' is wider or at least not narrower than the PAWS Research Paper word 'inflict. .' Thus, 'causing grievous bodily harm under s 18 includes 'inflicting grievous bodily harm' under s 20; it was open to a jury to convict a defendant charged under s 18 of the Essay alternative offence of inflicting grievous bodily harm, contrary to s 20.

Not Guilty of Section 18 Guilty of Section 20. [Assault - actus reus of battery = inflicting unlawful personal violence - intentionally or recklessly indirect force] D, as a joke, placed an iron bar in a theatre across an Paper, exit, turned out the Learning Essay lights on Research a staircase and Essay on The of “Outing” yelled 'Fire!'. Research Paper. As a result, several people were injured. Lord Coleridge CJ:

The prisoner must be taken to arcadia have intended the natural consequences of that which he did. An assault as such was not essential to the offence; some unlawful act and PAWS Paper the foresight of harm would be enough. Inflict meant no more than cause and did not require a face-to-face assault. [Assault words and on The of “Outing” singing not sufficient] D1 and PAWS D2 fired a pistol killing V. D1 had angered local boatman by informing the Customs of their smuggling. The smugglers threatened to come at night and burn down his house. A Career Pharmacist Essay Example. In the middle of the night they came singing songs of menace; Held : No words or singing alone could amount to PAWS Paper an assault justifying shooting in self-defence, but invited the jury to consider whether any actions were also performed. D2 was acquitted. D1 Guilty manslaughter. ^[Assault - ABH - actus reus - includes injury to types of camera angle state of mind]

D had non-consensual sexual intercourse with his wife, after which she was in a hysterical and nervous condition. 'Actual bodily harm includes any hurt or injury calculated to interfere with the PAWS health or comfort of the prosecutor. There was a time when shock was not regarded as bodily hurt, but the day has gone by when that could be said. It seems to me now that, if a person is caused hurt or injury resulting, not in on The Ethics of “Outing” any physical injury, but in an injury to the state of his mind for the time being, that is within the Research Paper definition of actual bodily harm. Not Guilty of rape.

^[Assault - amount of force] D a publican wounded V during an attempt to throw him out. Held : A wound was excessive force. ^[Assault - GBH - actus reus - assault, battery indirect force] D was seized by a woman police officer. Shops. The WPC told D she was arresting him. D then dived through a windowpane dragging the WPC through the glass. PAWS Paper. The WPC suffered serious facial cuts.

Held : Sect 18 requires an Ethics of “Outing”, unlawful and malicious wounding with intent to resist the lawful apprehension of the person. Not Guilty of Section 18. ^[Assault - GBH - mens rea - intentional or reckless causing of some physical harm] D struck V several times, knocking him unconscious. PAWS. D's companion had taken money from V. V had seized D by angle the lapels and demanded to know where D's companion was. Held : Intention or recklessness as to PAWS Paper the wound or GBH need not be proved.

It is enough that [D foresaw] . that some physical harm to on Physical Appearance some person, albeit of a minor character, might result. The intent expressly required by s 18 of the Offences against the Person Act 1861 is more specific than the element of foresight of consequences implicit in the word 'maliciously' in that enactment, and in directing a jury on this offence the word 'maliciously' is Research, best ignored; in A Career as a Pharmacist Essay the offence of unlawful wounding (Offences Against the Person Act 1861 s 20), the word 'maliciously' imports, on PAWS the part of the person who unlawfully inflicts the Traditional Learning and Adult Learning wound or other grievous bodily harm, an awareness that his act may have the consequence of causing physical harm to some other person. Guilty of PAWS Paper, wounding. [Assault transferred malice cannot be transferred to a different offence] D broke a pub window. D picked up a stone and threw it at essays about reading, the group of men he had been fighting, missed them and Research Paper broke the window behind them. Held : His malice in intending to strike another person could not be transferred to an intention to Traditional and Adult Essay break the window. Obiter: He could have been convicted had it been proved that he was reckless, having foreseen the risk of damage to Research the window. [Assault - mens rea - intention as to consequences] D attacked V with a hammer and strangled her, causing injury.

You must feel sure that the defendant intended to cause serious bodily harm to the victim. You can only decide what his intention was by considering all the relevant circumstances and in Learning and Adult particular what he did and what he said about it . There is no restriction to cases of virtual certainty.' (citing Lord Bridge in Moloney ) Guilty of Sec 18. [Assault words accompanied by actions sufficient] D and his men surrounded P, rolling up their sleeves, and PAWS threatened to break P's neck if he did not leave. P was a rent collector who entered D's workshop and refused to A Career as a Pharmacist example go until the Research Paper rent was paid. Held : This was an assault: the condition attached to the threat was not enough to nullify it. [Assault mens rea did D (or would D, if sober) foresee the consequences] DD two students lifted another over about a balcony and dropped him about 12 feet to the ground, causing him serious injuries. During horseplay following an evening's drinking.

Held : Clarke LJ said that the Research Paper question was not what another person would have foreseen but what DD themselves would have foreseen had they been sober. ^[Assault - escape cases - ABH - occasioning refers to causation - not the essays about assault] D in a car with V a not inexperienced 21 year old woman. They were travelling between two parties. D made advances towards V who then jumped out of the car (travelling at 20 mph), sustaining injuries. Occasioning in ABH relates to causation, and is an objective test. If the (common assault) was intentional there is no need to consider Recklessness. The proper test for PAWS Research occasioning is not whether D actually foresaw the conduct of the victim which resulted in the actual bodily harm, but whether that conduct could have reasonably been foreseen as the arcadia group consequence of what he was saying or doing. ABH requires proof of an assault together with actual bodily harm occasioned by the assault. The prosecution are not obliged to Paper prove that D intended to cause some actual bodily harm or was reckless as to whether such harm would be caused.

The victim's reaction does not break the chain of causation if it was reasonably foreseeable, that is it was not. . so daft . Essays About Reading. or so unexpected . that no reasonable man could be expected to foresee it' thereby constituting a novus actus interveniens. ^ [Assault - actus reus - inactivity by D - an omission can amount to Research Paper the actus reus of an assault] D injured a woman police officer by allowing her to search him, knowing he had hypodermic needles in his pockets which stabbed her. D denied having any needles or sharps when asked. D had created a danger by of camera angle an act that act was a continuing act . The risk of injury was foreseeable. Not guilty but would be now. Comment : The police woman was not infected by HIV or hepatitis present in the defendant's blood. [Assault - meaning of grievous bodily harm] D, on a road at night, approached a stranger who was sitting resting at the roadside, asked him what the problem was and, when the victim said that there was no problem, D said that he would give him one and Paper punched him in the face.

The victim suffered a broken nose and other injuries. Held: The origin of the phrase really serious injury was DPP v Smith [1961]: Bodily harm needs no explanation. Grievous means no more and no less than really serious.. A broken nose on any view was serious bodily harm, Commentary (L. Norman Williams, Barrister.)

The word really is, as the Oxford Dictionary has it, used to emphasise the truth or correctness of an epithet or statement. It means no more than actually or as a matter of fact. In the context it does not add anything to group serious but emphasises to PAWS Research the jury that the angle harm caused must be - actually or really - serious. ^[Assault - ABH - actus reus of ABH and mens rea of common assault - not intention or recklessness] D intentionally threw beer at V (a former girlfriend of her husband). The glass left her hand and struck V, causing a cut. P roughly handled his child, causing the breaking of arms and legs. Held : Throwing the beer would clearly have been an PAWS Research, assault. The offence requires an actus reus of assault causing bodily harm and on The the mens rea for common assault. The intent required in s 47 relates not only to the assault, but also to the consequences of the assault, . maliciously in a statutory crime postulates foresight of consequence.

the physical harm which the defendant intended or foresaw might result to some person need only be of a minor character for him to be Guilty and Research it is unnecessary for the Crown to show that he intended or foresaw that his unlawful act might cause physical harm of the gravity described in as a Pharmacist Essay s 20, ie either wounding or grievous bodily harm. P Not Guilty of GBH. Guilty of ABH. ^[Assault actus reus cutting hair is ABH] D caused actual bodily harm to V by cutting off her pony tail. D went to the home of Research Paper, his ex-partner and cut of her pony tail with kitchen scissors. The magistrates accepted that there was no actual bodily harm; the essays about reading DPP appealed.

Held : Cutting off a persons hair amounted to ABH. Harm was not limited to injury to the skin, flesh and bones and extended to hurt and damage. That the hair cut was dead tissue was not relevant. Obiter: If paint or some other unpleasant substance were to be put on a victims hair that would to could amount to actual bodily harm. R v Donovan [1934]; R v Chan-Fook [1994]; R v Stephen Cook (unreported, 28 July 1994, CA) and R (on the application of PAWS Research, T) v DPP [2003] considered. ^[Assault - meaning of types of camera, grievous bodily harm] D trying to PAWS Paper escape from the police in a car was signalled to stop. Traditional And Adult. He did not do so. PAWS Research Paper. A PC jumped onto the cars bonnet. Traditional Learning. D drove at PAWS Research Paper, high speed, swerving from A Career as a Pharmacist Essay example side to PAWS Research Paper side, until the arcadia shops officer was thrown off and Research Paper killed.

Held : Viscount Kilmuir LC; I can find no warrant for on The Ethics of “Outing” giving the PAWS words grievous bodily harm a meaning other than that which the words convey in their ordinary and natural meaning. Bodily harm needs no explanation and grievous means no more and no less than really serious. We consider that the arcadia same is true of the phrase actual bodily harm. These are three words of the English language which require no elaboration and in the ordinary course should not receive any. The word harm is a synonym for PAWS Research injury. The word actual indicates that the injury (although there is no need for it to be permanent) should not be so trivial as to be wholly insignificant. Reading. In the first place, the PAWS Research word bodily does not limit harm to the flesh, skin and bones. The body of the victim includes all parts of his body, including his organs, his nervous system and brain. Essay Ethics Of “Outing”. Bodily injury therefore may include injury to any of those parts of his body responsible for his mental and other faculties.

The phrase actual bodily harm is PAWS Paper, capable of including psychiatric injury, but it does not include mere emotions such as fear or distress or panic, nor does it include, as such, states of mind that are not themselves evidence of some identifiable clinical condition. The phrase which is often used to explain actual bodily harm interference with the health or comfort of the victim is likely to result in the jury thinking that this is Traditional and Adult Essay, sufficient, whether or not any injury has occurred; it should not be used. Guilty of PAWS, murder. ^[Assault - apprehension of immediate force] D frightened V by looking through her bedroom window late at Ethics, night. Research. V a policewoman was absolutely terrified, to the extent that she was very nervous and jumpy for a few days afterwards. Held : D assaulted V as V apprehended unlawful personal violence. [Assault mens rea recklessness Cunningham] D caused ABH by shooting a 7-year-old girl with an air pistol.

He was firing from the Pharmacist window of PAWS Paper, his flat, aiming at a target in types the yard below. V was playing in the yard D had not known she was there. Held : Recklessness as envisaged in Venna was clearly subjective recklessness (that is, that D foresaw the risk but went ahead regardless), because the judgement in Venna speaks of Paper, recklessness and intention as being often almost indistinguishable. [Assault threatening actions sufficient] D advanced towards V with his fists raised but was stopped by another person before coming within striking range. Following an argument.

Held : It was enough that V was put in apprehension even though the battery (the actual striking) never occurred. [Assault no mens rea because of drunkenness] D, in Essay of Social Media on Physical Appearance a drunken state stabbed V causing GBH, during a fight outside a pub. He was charged under s.18, but the prosecution and PAWS Research the Recorder accepted a plea to s.20. Held : Although the absence of mens rea due to drunkenness would be a defence to of camera angle a crime of specific intent, that drunkenness would have to be very extreme to Research justify reducing a s.18 offence to s.20. [Assault must be indecent - assault is - merest touch] D, a school caretaker assaulted a 12-year-old after taking hold of the hem of her skirt. Held : The act was not inherently indecent and there was no evidence of angle, circumstances making it so. There could be no dispute that if you touch a person's clothes while he is wearing them, that is equivalent to PAWS Paper touching him.

^[Assault - apprehension of immediate force] D struck V causing him to loose an eye. D had placed his hand on his sword and said to Learning Essay V that, If it were not assize-time, he would tell him more of his mind. V defended himself when there had been no assault, D's response was to Paper remove V's eye. Held : As the A Career as a Essay example judges were in town D would not have used force on V.

No assault, finding for D. [Assault - actus reus of battery] D a schoolboy, in fun seized the bag over PAWS Paper C's shoulder, causing him injury, and Learning and Adult Learning Essay C sued for the tort of assault. Held : C must establish an intentional and hostile touching of one person by another, though not necessarily an intent to injure. A claimant who cannot prove hostility on the defendant's part is Research Paper, likely to fail, because in arcadia a crowded world people must be considered to take upon themselves some risk of injury from the Paper lawful acts of others. ^[Assault - mens rea is Ethics of “Outing”, recklessness or intention] D struggled with the police officers who were arresting him. D fell to the ground and lashed out PAWS Research, wildly with his legs, fracturing a bone in the hand of an officer.

The offence of battery is satisfied by proof that the and Adult Learning defendant intentionally or recklessly applied force to the person of another. [Assault - words and actions sufficient] D threatened and kicked gatekeeper, calling out Research Paper, Get out the knives. D was found poaching and essays about reading the gamekeeper tried to PAWS Research arrest him. Obiter: Lord Goddard CJ; Words such as those were capable of arcadia group, being an assault on their own, even without any accompanying acts. Guilty of PAWS Research Paper, common assault.

[Assault - ABH. sec 20- actus reus ] D, whilst driving, nearly ran down V. D got out of his car and punched V in the face. Held : An infliction of Learning and Adult, grievous bodily harm contrary to PAWS Paper s 20 may be committed without establishing first an assault. Lord Roskill, citing Salisbury (1976). [G]rievous bodily harm may be inflicted . either where the of “Outing” accused has directly and violently inflicted it by assaulting the victim, or where the accused has inflicted it by Paper doing something, intentionally, which, though it is not itself a direct application of force to the body of the victim, does directly result in force being applied violently to the body of the Learning victim, so that he suffers grievous bodily harm.

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Librarian Resume Sample and Paper Writing Tips. By Resume Genius. Click here to Essay on Impact Media download. this MSWord Librarian Resume. Library Page Resume. 7844 Bond Street, New York, NY 63414.

Recent graduate looking to leverage three years of internship and volunteer experience into PAWS Paper your Librarian I job. opening. Experience working as both a childrens and a reference librarian, and A Career assisted with various library projects such as presentations and grant writing. Possess a Master of Library Science degree. OAK VIEW PUBLIC LIBRARY New York, NY. Librarian Intern | Reference Desk, Childrens Library January 2014 Present. Researched, assisted writing, and won a $500 grant offered by the American Association for Research the Advancement of Science and Traditional Learning and Adult Learning Essay Neutrogena to host library programs regarding skin care Spearheaded a silent auction fundraising activity raising over $3000 in Research Paper, library donations Assisted with the coordination of on The Ethics childrens library operations, promoting special activities through email list campaigns Analyzed patrons requests to determine needed information, and assisted in collecting and furnishing that information Assisted with the checking in and out of books in PAWS Research, a library serving. BUFFALO LIBRARY Buffalo, NY. Library Volunteer June 2012 January 2014. Taught first-time visitors how to browse the library catalog by using the OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog) Assisted patrons with locating books on arcadia shelves Processed new materials including books, audiovisual materials, and Paper computer software Performed clerical activities, such as answering phones, sorting mail, filing, typing, word processing, photocopying, and angle mailing out material. Master of Research Library Science, June 2014.

Bachelor of Arts in English, June 2011. Skilled at grant writing audience analysis, proposals, submissions Mastery of Microsoft Office Suite Organized, efficient, and friendly with the public Bilingual English and Korean. Resume Builders: How to Write a Librarian Resume. The tips and insights on this page were provided by professional librarian Susan Frohnsdorff, who was kind enough to be interviewed for of “Outing” her take on what makes a strong librarian resume. PAWS Research? She is the Assistant Branch manager for the public library in Mt. Pleasant, South Carolina. She has a Master of Library Science from Kent State, and has been working as a librarian since 1998.

In a sea of Traditional Learning Essay entry-level candidates, what can you include on your librarian resume to make yourself stand out? Susan identified several key areas where entry-level and professional librarians can strengthen their resumes to make themselves more attractive candidates. Weve written an ideal resume based on Paper her suggestions. We suggest that you follow along with these tips and types pay attention to the small details to help you get your foot in the door. (Keep in mind that the resume sample on PAWS Research Paper this page is for an entry-level candidate looking to land a job as a Librarian I. Begin with a sterling Career Objective. Starting off with an eye-catching Career Objective is a key aspect of Traditional and Adult writing a resume that will get you more interviews.

In this section, you should boil down the most essential aspects of your professional experiences, academic record, and skills, and present them in a tight and concise three-sentence paragraph. (Read more about PAWS how to write a Career Objective in on The of “Outing”, our in depth article.) Lets take this candidates Career Objective apart sentence-by-sentence and discuss what makes it strong. In the first sentence, the candidate reveals several bits of relevant information that would entice a hiring manager. Paper? First, she immediately reveals that shes an entry-level candidate looking to as a Pharmacist Essay fill a specific job role (Librarian I). In addition, she places her valuable librarian related internship and volunteer experiences in the first sentence, which quickly makes her a relevant and strong candidate for that particular job role. Pay particular attention to the bolded sections: Recent graduate looking to leverage three years of Paper internship, and Essay Ethics of “Outing” volunteer experience into your Librarian I job opening . Susan emphasized that volunteer and internship experience are the Research Paper, most valuable items to include on an entry-level librarian resume, as they can give you the type of real-world experience that hiring managers are looking for in a potential candidate. Volunteering is types angle easier than ever now just use a website like this to PAWS Paper get matched up with local opportunities. Having volunteer and internship experience indicates that you wont need to go through as much training. Having volunteer and internship experience indicates that you wont need to go through as much training, and that you have the drive and types initiative to Research discover opportunities and take advantage of them, which are excellent qualities for essays reading a potential candidate to have. In the second sentence, the candidate reveals that shes had experience in both childrens librarian services and reference desk services, and has also helped with presentations and grant writing.

Take a look at PAWS Research Paper that sentence here: Experience working as both a childrens and a reference librarian , and assisted with various library projects such as presentations and grant writing. Why is this sentence so important? Susan said that she prefers to hire librarians who show that they are constantly improving themselves, and have experience working in all job roles at a library. If you dont have experience writing grants, or have only worked as a childrens or a reference librarian, try to move out of your comfort zone and Learning Learning learn new skills and job roles for a stronger resume. Finally, the candidate reveals that he/she has a Master of Library Science degree, which is a prerequisite for the Librarian I job opening. With this information at the top of the PAWS, resume, the candidate will have both made the resume extremely relevant to the job opening, and captured the Essay, hiring managers attention. Target your professional experience section, and PAWS Paper quantify it.

Your primary goal in this section is to respond to the hiring managers job description as much as possible. If you visit this website, you can see a list of normal Librarian I job duties (and all of the other roles as well.) Ideally, you should fit your resume to match the job description written by the library you intend to apply to. However, your resume should be more than just a bland list of job duties that youve performed previously. You should make your resume achievement oriented, meaning that your resume is reflecting your professional accomplishments, not just robotic daily duties. Susan identified a few items that she likes to Essay see on a resume, because they indicate competence, self-discipline and a desire to PAWS Research learn, improve, and grow as a librarian over time.

Weve included most of them on this resume, and wherever possible, quantified them and you should do the A Career example, same. Quantification means that wherever you can, you should include numbers to describe your experience clearly. 1. Research? How many years of experience the candidate has. This is the most basic form of types angle quantification, but many forget to include the PAWS Paper, number of years theyve been working professionally. This information can have a big impact. recent graduate looking to leverage three years of internship and volunteer experience Giving the hiring manager a sense of the size of the library you worked in reading, will give them a clearer picture of the scope of the responsibilities you had to undertake. PAWS? It also shows that you pay attention to the details.

Assisted with the checking in and out of books in a library serving. Earning grant money is a great feather to of “Outing” put in Research, your cap, and you should display it proudly on your resume. Researched, assisted writing, and won a $500 grant offered by of “Outing”, the American Association for the Advancement of Science 4. Donations earned through fundraising activities. Both book and monetary donations are an important part of many libraries operating budgets, so by putting a dollar value on any type of Research Paper fundraising activities that your were a part of, or that you initiated. Spearheaded a silent auction fundraising activity raising over $3000 in types angle, library donations. Quantifying your experience will make your resume stand out. Susan said that the Research Paper, minimum she expects to arcadia group shops see on a librarian resume is the ability to use the Research Paper, Microsoft Office Suite, and basic computer skills into order to be able to use the library operating system. About? She indicated that while Microsoft Word and Excel were the most necessary to have experience with, knowledge of Power Point was useful for helping library patrons with their projects, and knowledge of Publisher was useful for making publicity signs. Susan also looked favorably on including soft skills such as Organized and Research Paper efficient. She noted, however, that there should be evidence in essays about, your job description bullet points to prove that you really do possess those soft skills.

Another way to diversify you from the rest of the PAWS, pack is to include any additional foreign language skills you have . Youll want to be proficient enough to be able to hold an interview in whatever languages you claim you can speak however, so a semester of high school Spanish would not be something you include, but native level Korean would be. All of the above are great ways to make your resume stand out. Traditional Learning Essay? But what else can you do now in your librarian career to ensure that your resume will look strong for future jobs? Where else would a hiring manager look to see if youre a good candidate to interview? I asked Susan how she would choose between two very similar resumes, between two candidates of similar backgrounds. She said that if she had to choose between two very similar resumes (similar educational and work experiences), she will look for PAWS Research Paper evidence that one candidate shows more initiative and drive than another . She determines this by looking for the following attributes: Engaging in project experience means developing public programs, doing presentations, and types of camera angle training and teaching patron classes. This could mean anything from rearranging reference books more in a more logical manner, to having authors come into speak to your patrons, or giving a lecture on Research Paper a topic that you have expertise in. Heres an Learning Essay, example from this resume where the candidate emphasizes their project experience: The more professionally engaged you appear to be on your resume (as evidenced by PAWS Paper, the projects youve managed), the essays about reading, more youll stand out from your competition. Susan suggests that you write and Research apply for arcadia shops grants to put on programs in your library.

As you saw earlier, the candidate in the above resume sample actually earned a $500 grant (which is actually something Susan did, by the way!) If youve won other awards associated with being a librarian, such as Librarian of the Year (or quarter!) dont forget to include that information as well. 3. What about Professional Organizations and PAWS Research Paper Associations? If you belong to an organization such as the American Library Association (ALA) or anything similar, feel free to create a section on your resume that includes this information. Essay On Physical Appearance? However, Susan said that she does not look to see if candidates belong to librarian association, and that it doesnt affect how she views a resume. Susan says she doesnt belong to an association because the fees are too high. Research? So dont feel pressured to join an association just to beef up your resume its probably not necessary. We hope that this article helps you write your resume, and types we wish you the PAWS, best of luck on your job search. Didnt get the specific answers you wanted from this page? Please leave a comment with your question or visit Resume Genius on Essay on The of “Outing” Facebook, Twitter, Google Plus, or Linkedin to ask. And if you really liked the sample, dont forget to pin it on Paper Pinterest! Share Librarian Resume Sample and Writing Tips

Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in todays competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and on Impact Media on Physical PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to PAWS Research Paper the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game Thatll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds?

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essay on steelpan The Creation of a Peoples Music. William R. Aho, Ph.D. Re - published with the expressed permission from author William R. Aho. Published in Latin American Music Review, Vol. 8, No.1, 1987, 26-58.

Contents or portions of this video cannot be rebroadcast, changed or manipulated in any way without the expressed permission of the author. The focus of this paper is the Paper, class, color, and race components in types the struggle to create a peoples music a music originally and essentially of the economically disadvantaged and PAWS Research Paper, less formally educated citizens of Trinidad and Tobago, primarily those of African descent. It is based on interviews with former and present panmen and pan women in Trinidad and Tobago and Traditional Essay, also draws on government documents, newspapers, and personal observations during some sixteen months of Paper, fieldwork in types Trinidad between 1972 and 1985. Music as a social phenomenon has been of interest to scholars for some time and has given rise to numerous books and scholarly articles and to several scholarly journals (for example, The Sociology of Research Paper, Music, Ethnomusicology and The Black Perspective in Music). Max Weber has noted that some of the forces shaping music have social origins and that musical instruments themselves are socially ranked (Martindale etal., 1958:111). Da Silva has referred to music as subjective, shared mental conduct by a collectivity that sometimes defines a communitys boundaries. He has also called attention to the conflict inherent in the social organization of music (1984:34). Shepherd has observed that an elite musical establishment of intellectuals persuades society that popular music is an Essay example inferior and less desirable art form and Research, that musics value is not a socially shaped reality but an arcadia ultimate one with objective criteria for judging its quality. In music, as in PAWS Paper much else, writes Shepherd, the as a Pharmacist, rulers ideas dominate (1977:1-2). Such social ranking, community boundary definition, conflict, and elitism in the musical realm have all found expression in Trinidads steelband movement. Trinidad and Tobago is a two-island independent republic in the southeastern Caribbean, seven miles off the Paper, coast of Essay of Social on Physical, Venezuela.

A British Colony for PAWS 165 years and a Spanish one for 300 years before that, it has been independent since 1962. Types Of Camera Angle. English is the official language (both a dialect and Standard English are spoken), and Research, the literacy rate is about 95 percent. Some Hindi and some French patois are spoken. Historically, there has been considerable social and cultural influence from group, French, Portuguese, Indian (from India, called East Indians in Trinidad), Chinese, Lebanese, Venezuelan, other Caribbean, and North American people, institutions, and ideas. Over one-half of Trinidad and Tobagos citizens are Christian, about one-third of the total population Catholic, and one-fourth are Hindu. PAWS Research. About the of Social Media on Physical Appearance, same percentages of Trinidadians (41) are East Indian and Negro (the official term used there), about PAWS Paper sixteen percent are of mixed ethnic/racial heritage, and about one percent is white. Mixed and white people are generally believed to have a disproportionate share of the wealth, power, and Essay Ethics, social status, although there are many high-ranking civil servants, professionals, elected and appointed government officials who are East Indian or Afro-Trinidadian. The late Dr. Eric Williams, Trinidads popular prime minister for 25 years and a historian of considerable reputation, was Afro- Trinidadian, as are most of the members and supporters of the political party he led (the Peoples National Movement). Steeldrums are called steel pans or just pans in Trinidad and Research, Tobago. Beginning in the 1930s, they were created and A Career as a Essay, refined in the poorer sections of Trinidads capital, Port of Spain, by Paper, young men of African heritage with little formal education or musical training.

At first the drums were simple biscuit tins, pitch-oil tins, dustbins or their covers, without tuned pitches. Gradually, through experimentation and shops, refinement, pitches were added by PAWS Research, pounding in arcadia group shops and out on the top surface of the PAWS, drums, and drums of varying depths were created to produce different ranges. Today steeldrums are quite amazing and versatile musical instruments. The small tenor pans may have up to 32 different pitches. Pans are played with rubber-tipped sticks and are tuned either by Essay of Social Media Appearance, ear, with a tuning fork, or with an electronic tuning device. PAWS Research. The small number of skilled tuners and panmakers command considerable respect and earn high incomes. Making and tuning steeldrums requires considerable knowledge, experience, patience, and a good ear. The proper raw material must be carefully chosen, the top hammered down to a precise depth, notes carefully marked in, sometimes with calipers, the drum cut down to the correct size and tuned, and the metal tempered by throwing water or oil over the drum while it is in a fire. According to a 1952 government report on the steelband movement, The magician behind this wizardry of sound is the tuner who, with his uncanny sense of ear, tempers and pounds the metal until its notes respond to Essay on The of “Outing”, the tonal pattern deep in the recesses of his soul. (Farquhar, 1952:1) The tuning of steeldrums is not standardized, so it is usually not possible for two or more steelbands to play well together unless their drums have been tuned by PAWS Research Paper, the same person.

The number and position of the notes on Essay on The Ethics the drums vary from tuner to tuner, and the pitches on PAWS Paper some of the drums are not arranged in chromatic order, which facilitates striking the notes with the rubber-tipped sticks. Unlike the piano or guitar, steeldrums are tuned from arcadia, high to low pitches. There is wide variation in the types and combinations of steeldrums used in a given ensemble, depending on Research the occasion and the personal preferences of the band leaders and arrangers. Following are the basic types of drums and arcadia group, their voice parts: (a) The tenor pan, also known as the Research Paper, melody pan or the ping-pong, approximates the types of camera, soprano voice and plays the melody. It has from Paper, 28 to 32 pitches and is about six inches in depth. (b) The double tenor is a set of angle, two tenor drums, which play harmony and counterpoint and are about one-half inch longer than the single tenor. (c) The second pan is in the alto voice range and about eight inches in PAWS Research Paper depth. (d) Double seconds play harmony, in a set of two drums, providing the upper register of chords. (e) The guitar pan plays rhythm and has about sixteen pitches. Arcadia Shops. It is about fourteen to sixteen inches in depth and is played in pairs.

(f) The cello pan is in the tenor voice range, about Research Paper twenty-one inches in depth, and played in sets of three, with eight, eight, and essays about, five pitches, respectively. (g) The tenor bass plays rhythm, in PAWS sets of four, with two or three pitches on on The each drum. Research Paper. It is Essay on Impact of Social Media on Physical about five inches shorter than the full bass pan. (h) The bass pan is the full size of the oil drum and plays rhythm in sets of six or nine. Arranged on stands either horizontally or vertically, the bass pans have two, three, or four notes. A steelband might also include a set of trap drums, some congas, bongos, maracas, and a piece of steel or heavy iron (sometimes an automobile brake drum), played as a percussion instrument with a piece of steel or an iron bar. (Keer, 1981:1-2; Mahabir, 1986:33; Seeger, 1961:22) Because pan music is almost always played by ear, band members, who today include more women, East Indians, mixed and white people than at the start of the movement, must attend long and PAWS Research Paper, frequent rehearsals to memorize their parts for essays about reading the repertoire. The repertoire includes classical music, popular, Latin, rock, jazz, and the Jamaican-born reggae, along with the traditional Trinidadian calypso and the more recent Soca (soul calypso) music. Color, Race, and Class in Colonial Trinidad.

Class, color, and race conflict over musical styles, preferences, instruments, and PAWS, life-styles emerged as early as the 1800s in colonial Trinidad and continues in a milder form today. Although some see the group, conflict as a socioeconomic rather than a color or race issue, color and PAWS, race have also played an important role. In British colonial Trinidad in the 1800s there was considerable prejudice and reading, discrimination against people of African heritage, whether slave or free, colored or black. Brereton observed that under Governor Picton in 1802: The coloured militia officerswere stripped of PAWS Research Paper, their rank, the troops were racially segregated withexofficers put under a white sergeant. They had to get police permission to hold a ball and (had to) pay a discriminatory tax A curfew at Traditional Learning and Adult Learning Essay 9:30 P.M. was imposed on them, and when on the streets after dark they were obliged to carry a lighted torch.

They could be arrested if found carrying a stick on the streets. Free coloureds, even respectable land owners, were forced to serve as constables, performing the humiliating duty of guard service at officials houses. The free coloureds were subjected to a whole battery of discriminatory laws designed to humiliate them and PAWS, cow them into submission. (1981:49) Errol Hill has observed that for centuries in Trinidad, Europeans have been afraid of any sort of diversions that might incite the passions of of camera, black people. Dancing and drumming were seen as agan or immoral and as potentially dangerous as a rallying point for slave revolts. Drumming was outlawed in Jamaica in 1792 and in Tobago in 1798. A 1797 law in Trinidad required police permission for the coloured classes to have dances or entertainment after 8 P.M., and slaves could not even apply for Paper such permission (1972:33). Of Social Media. Even after Emancipation in 1834, white and coloured leaders held African cultural practices, particularly drum music, in contempt. They felt it their duty to rid the country of what they considered barbaric customs (Brereton, 1979:152-153). Drumming, important in social and religious ceremonies, especially at wakes, was noisy, and the elites considered noise of that kind to be primitive. Drumming was important also to PAWS Paper, Trinidads East Indians, so this was an instance of cultural as well as class and racial repression.

The government-introduced Music Bill of 1883, although it was later withdrawn, reflected the attitude of many government officials. Essay On Impact Media Appearance. It would have banned drumming after 10 P.M., but allowed the playing of European instruments by license. Between 6 and 10 P.M. drumming would have required a police license, but European instruments would not (Brereton, 1979:161). PAWS. An 1883 ordinance outlawed singing, dancing, drumming and other music-making by rogues and A Career as a example, vagabonds or incorrigible rogues and called for the punishment of the owners of dwellings or yards that allowed it (10 July 1883 Amendment to Ordinance No. 6 of 1868). So vital is the drumming tradition that measures to restrict it have always been fiercely resisted in Trinidad. Between 1881 and 1891, there were several violent clashes between the police and the people, both East Indians and Research, those of African heritage, over the use of drums in religious and social observances. In one of these, twelve persons were killed and over 100 injured (ibid., l84). Because skin drums could not be used freely, other instruments were improvised. In the early 1900s, the tamboo bamboo (bamboo drum) band was developed.

Hollowed- out bamboo sticks of various lengths and diameters were struck against each other, with sticks, or against the ground to produce sounds of varying pitch. Bottles and spoons were used for types higher-pitched sounds. The discovery and refinement of the steel drum followed the tamboo-bamboo bands. The Development of the Steeldrum. Trinidadian artist Patrick Chu-Foon recalls the early tamboo-bamboo sounds and the beginnings of the steeldrums: Long before even steelband came out, I remember seeing the bandsmen thumping bamboos on PAWS Paper the raw pitch, the asphalt on the street. I used to stand at the top of my fathers shop front and look down into the street and see all the Traditional Learning, goings on Research of early carnival I remember the sounds. Maybe this is A Career as a Pharmacist Essay where the African influence comes in, because it was a thumping, a thumping of the drums They also had some skin drums. This was also the Paper, early beginnings of Essay Ethics, steelbands. (1983:1) The Roaring Lion - 1979. Rafael DeLeon, known professionally as The Roaring Lion, is a calypso singer of international reputation and a historian of Trinidads folk music. When I interviewed him in 1983 when he was age 76, he recalled that people in Paper Trinidad had been beating on metal and tin for of “Outing” some years before the steel drum itself was created: Long ago and to some extent up to now, children used to get together on PAWS Paper Good Friday and of camera, make an effigy of PAWS Paper, Judas.

The children would collect all the old cooking utensilsempty milk tins, pieces of iron, pitch-oil tins, and Essay on Impact of Social, garbage pans or dust bins would be borrowed for the occasion. They would march back and forth through the Research Paper, district beating their pans while they sang and the rhythm of that pan was identical with what is now known as the steelband, even up to the middle 1940s, before they started to discover notes and produce bits and A Career Pharmacist Essay example, pieces of Research, melody. (1983:1-2) He further reports that around 1930 the members of a tamboo bamboo band led by David Leach, from George Street in Port of Spain, would pick up garbage pan covers, pieces of steel from the smith shop in reading George Street, and any cooking utensil they could find and proceed to beat it in time with the rhythm of the PAWS Research, tamboo-bamboo (ibid. :3). There are several versions about Traditional Learning and Adult Essay when, who, or even what event or refinement constitutes the invention of the steeldrum. Oscar Pile, pioneer steelbandsman and the organizer and leader for many years of the PAWS Research, Casablanca steelband, claims that: way back in 1935 they had the of Social Appearance, tamboo-bamboo and playing on the road, by an accident, one of the Research Paper, leading men, which was Forde, was playing one of the bamboos. That bamboo happened to break, and in the excitement and the heat of reading, it he wanted something to beat. Research Paper. He then run across the road and take up a dustbin cover, and by beating the arcadia, dustbin cover they found out really the Research Paper, dustbin cover had a more stinging and more rhythm sound than the bamboo just knocking on the ground and from then on that particular band from Newtown, Alexanders Ragtime Band, they then went back and of Social Media on Physical Appearance, they start looking for PAWS Paper pans old paint pans and of camera angle, so on and getting a more genuine sound than the bamboo.

Whilst they was at that, Gonzalez (a district in PAWS Port of Spain) went and A Career as a example, start making pans and Paper, getting pans, old disregarded bins, biscuit drums, gasoline tanks, and so on, and this was the birth of the steelbands. (1983:6) The crucial point in the transition from bamboo to steel is on Impact on Physical probably when different pitches were added to Paper, the metal drums and melodies could be played on them. There is a consensus that the first pan with notes was created in the mid-1930s, evidently by accident, and that one of the first, if not the Essay on Impact on Physical, first, to add notes and PAWS Research Paper, play recognizable songs was the late Winston Spree Simon, who is Traditional Learning Essay accepted by many Trinidadians as the father of steelband music. Here is PAWS his version of how notes were added to the crude pans: I had lent this drum and on Traditional Learning coming back to retrieve my drum, the face of the drum was beaten in so badly that it had taken on a concave appearance. PAWS Research. Now I just took the drum and went on the side of the road and on Impact on Physical, tried to get back the face of the drum to its normal surface. By pounding on the inside with a stone and a stick, in and out, I discovered that I was able to get four distinct notes, which enabled me to play something of a bugle calland therefore I played at that moment (a short bugle call). (Martin, 1981)

Steelband musicthe discovery and evolution of the PAWS Research Paper, instrument itself, the Essay, bands that played it, and Paper, the entire social organization of the band, its followers and supporters, and, in many cases, virtually the entire community where the band was basedwas a product of the underprivileged areas, primarily in Port of Spain, inhabited almost entirely by people of African heritage. Arcadia Shops. Young people in these areas did not have much opportunity for recognition, success, or self-fulfillment in PAWS the customary areas of achievement education, job, or careerso they channeled their energies and talents into whatever areas were available to of camera, them, in spite of, in some cases, precisely because of, resistance by the ruling colonial government and elites. In the Paper, case of arcadia, steelband music, they were using their own distinctive culture, instruments and music of their own creation, to express themselves and to PAWS Paper, define an acceptable and comfortable social location for A Career Pharmacist Essay example themselves in Paper their own eyes, in the eyes of arcadia group shops, their peers, and in the eyes of the communities in which their bands were based. George Yeates, leader of the Desperadoes steelband during the 1940s and PAWS Research Paper, 1950s, elaborated in an interview on the economic and social conditions of the early band members: Those were the colonial days and the boys didnt have much education they just reached of age for primary school and types angle, they left and were all unemployed, without a skill The steelband was the only pursuit at the time a young man could have involved himself in and sort of gave a status to a village youth so that when you come from Desperadoes or the Laventille Hill and you go to Research Paper, another district if your band is a powerful band, you will be respected. (1983:3) At the time that the steel drum was being refined, in the mid-1930s, there was considerable political and labor unrest in Trinidad. There was high inflation, much unemployment, underemployment, and low wages, particularly for the black and East Indian sugar estate and oil field workers. There were strikes, hunger marches, and, in 1937, a labor riot. The workers and unemployed complained of prejudice and discrimination in hiring, pay, and promotions.

There was an awakened race consciousness and heightened feelings of exploitation by British and other foreign investors in Trinidads oil companies, sugar estates, and other enterprises. The Italian invasion of Ethiopia in 1935, unopposed by the Western nations, served as a stimulus throughout the essays about, West Indies to black nationalism and support for PAWS Research Ethiopia (Brereton, 1981:174). During the mid-1930s in Trinidad, a group of writers and intellectuals started a literary and artistic movement that encouraged and supported Afro-Trinidadian culture and the poor and repressed in general. This entire political, social, artistic, and intellectual milieu very likely stimulated or, at the least, was very consistent with the essays, development of the newly-emerging steel drum as an innovative musical creation of poor Afro- Trinidadians. The Social Importance of the Steelband. The importance pan players attached to their activity, and the role it played in PAWS their self-image, is reflected in an anecdote told by Trinidadian writer, patron of the arts, and politician, the late Albert Gomes. As a high-ranking government official in the early 1950s, he was asked by the girl friend of a young pan player condemned to hang for murder to intervene on his behalf. Gomes saw the youth and learned that he had killed another young man in a rage because the man had told him that he didnt know anything about steelband or how to beat pan (among other insults). Of Social Media On Physical. The prisoner was hanged (1974:96). Panmen have been celebrated in PAWS Research poetry as well as prose in Essay on The Trinidad, as these excerpts from Sugar George, by Paul Keens-Douglas, show:

Ah was dey when dey bury Sugar George. When he get de fus piece ah property he ever own, Six foot of hard, dry Trinidad soil . . . De pans was playin When George dead dat nite, Beatin de dark wit notes so sweet. Ah fittin death for Sugar George, For he was ah man, ah real man, An more dan dat ah steelban man. An now Sugar dead an gone. An ah see him lyin dey on Paper de bed, De greatest Tenorman in Trinidad,

As poor as de day he born, Yet richer than any millionaire in de land, More respected than any politician, For Sugar was ah something, ah somebody, He was part of group, ah plan. Dat we eh even begin to PAWS, understand Before he dead he say beat pan. So dey beat when he sick, An dey beat when he dyin

An dey beat when he dead, And when dey finally put Sugar away, Every band in Trinidad play. An ah swear to Jesus ah could hear Sugar tenor playin softly, softly, An Sugar laughin (Keens-Douglas, 1979:34-35, 37) Celebration of the Essay Media, lives of steelbandsmen at their deaths is not confined to poetic representations but is a fact of real life in Trinidad. When Rudolph Charles, the leader of the Desperadoes steelband, died in 1985, his funeral was rivaled only by that of the PAWS Research, late prime minister, Dr. Eric Williams. The media mourned him as a national hero, and his body was drawn through the streets of angle, Port of Spain in a casket fashioned from two large steeldrums.

Thousands jammed the downtown square and the cathedral where his funeral was held. It was attended by the countrys leaders and by the people he had loved and Research Paper, served as bandleader, friend, community leader, and role model for young people. His ashes were scattered by helicopter over Laventille Hill, home base of the Desperadoes. Chu-Foon Pan Sculpture. Steelband has also been honored in the other arts. Patrick Chu-Foons sculpture Tribute to the Steelband in Port of Spain, Errol Hills drama The Ping-Pong, and the well-known oil painting Steelband Boys in White by on Impact Media on Physical Appearance, Boscoe Holder are just three of the better-known examples. An example of the enduring pride former steelbandsmen often have in their bands was revealed to me at a professional meeting by a Trinidadian university professor employed in Canada. He showed me his bands symbolic tattoo on PAWS his arm and seemed as proud of that as of Traditional Learning, his Ph.D. degree. The Interim Report of the Committee to Consider the PAWS, Role of the Steelband in the National Life reported that the steelband movement brought not only a knowledge of music to its adherents: It contributed the discipline of Learning, band organization and of steady practice to persons who might never have had such opportunities to acquire skills and disciplines fundamental to proper adjustment to a progressive role in society. PAWS Paper. Many villages have a steelband (some more than one) and in many cases the leader of the as a Pharmacist example, steelband is a member of the Village Council.

There appears also to be great willingness on the part of the Village Council to cooperate in such things as the putting on of concerts involving the steelband and the loan of the Community Centre for practice sessions by the steelbands Most rural bands also make it quite clear that they were established for PAWS musical enjoyment. The urban bands have become quite commercialized and specialized and as a result do not form as integral a part of community life as do the Village bands (with the exception of Desperadoes and Casablanca).(1965:9,11) These findings point out an important factorthat at least some of the urban bands, and Traditional Essay, many, perhaps most, of the rural ones, play an important role in the community. It is important to realize that the two or three large bands are from PAWS Paper, poor communities with little else to enhance their images. The community band is a source of essays reading, pride to the community, which supports it with tremendous enthusiasm and devotes time and energy to making it successful. Followers and supporters identify with the band much as some Americans identify with hometown athletic teams. It is an important social organization in the community, which may have a practice yard (panyard) or an enclosed practice area or hall that furthermore serves as an important focus of social activity. Furthermore, the PAWS Paper, leader of arcadia shops, a community band may well be an important community leader, as well as act as an Paper intermediary with government officials and Learning, the police and Research Paper, civil servants. Bandleaders often provide vital assistance in obtaining jobs for Essay on Physical Appearance community residents, get them out of trouble with the police, or cut through government red tape. One such leader was the PAWS Paper, late Rudolph Charles of Desperadoes.

Journalist Peter Blood has observed that: The panyard of Desperadoes stands precariously nestled atop the lofty heights of Laventille Hill, overlooking the city of and Adult, Port of Spain. PAWS Paper. Like chromed sentinels, its pans, some of traditional design and others of futuristic form, loom defiantly, fringing the contours of the hills peak. Pan is a way of life on the Laventille Hill and Desperadoes provide the Traditional and Adult Learning, lifeblood for this vibrant and creative community Beside being the bands captain, [Rudolph] Charles also tunes the bands low pans, and is regarded, amongst other things, the godfather and the sole lawmaker of the hill. (Blood, 1983:62) Schoolteacher Rudy Piggott, at Rudolph Charless funeral, claimed that, Rudy was the Moses of the people of Laventille. We do not even need the police there. PAWS Research. Rudolph was a leader and he controlled us all. (Piggott, 1985:3). Another mourner, Dalton Narine, referred to Charles as the beacon on Laventille Hill a lighthouse signal to the forces of innovation that contributed to an uncommon respect from his peers. (Narine, 1985:3) Journalist Meryl James Bryan referred to Charles as a fallen leaderappointed African style by a council of elders and as the General of one of urban Trinidads most African populations.

His life symbolized unity and of “Outing”, continuity to the people of Laventille, and his death a new life, expanded vision, and renewed commitment to the steelband movement. (Bryan, 1985:38-39) And a Trinidad Express editorial of April 5, 1985, referred to Rudolph Charles as a welfare officer and community leader. In a 1985 interview with a prominent business executive very closely connected to Rudolph Charles Desperadoes band, it was observed that: Charles was an exceptional leader. Dynamic, with personal magnetism and good managerial talents. It was hard to refuse him what he asked for his band. He was a genius in steelband, an innovator. He built discipline in the band, although some of this was achieved through brute force. Research Paper. The Laventille area, home base of the band, is a state within a state, and he was its undisputed leader.

He dispensed money and aid on the Hill like a politician. (Anonymous 1, 1985:1) Another very close Rudolph Charles confidant, who also asked to remain anonymous, said that he was a very determined person, had an inventive brain, and that though he used physical strength at times to as a Pharmacist, enforce discipline, he was accepted and respected. He would intervene in court and at police stations to Paper, help his followers. Group Shops. The doors of government ministries were open to him. He was a skillful manager and a born leader. Paper. He even ruled Laventille while he was away, living for most of the last several years in Los Angeles. He worked with the of camera angle, village elders, outside the legitimate county council. (Anonymous 2, 1985:1).

Not all of the people in the poor sections approved of steelband activity. Some had adopted the attitudes and values of the Research Paper, ruling elite toward noise, drumming, and Essay on Impact, the entertainments of the poor African masses. Others, often parents of young people, didnt want their children hanging out with the rough crowd that frequented the panyards in PAWS Paper the early years. Many of the men there engaged in gambling, drinking, carousing, and physical fighting and on Impact Media on Physical Appearance, were generally thought to be a bad elementbadjohns in Trinidad parlance who were often in trouble with the law. Paper. Bertie Marshall, pan player, tuner, and steel drum innovator, recalled that, I didnt have to ask my mothers permission to group, play pan. I knew her well enough to know that I would be able to hang around pan and panmen only over her dead body (Marshall, 1972, Vol. 2, No. 1:8). He recalled also that teachers would warn students about PAWS hanging around the panmen, but the panyard was on essays about the path he took to and from school and he could hear the sounds of the panyard from his schoolroom. So, in spite of PAWS, everything we hung around and I came to know Spree (Simon) and others. (ibid., No.

2:3) The opinions and observations cited above seem to represent the dominant middle-class view of steelbands today in Trinidad. At present, they are seen as a unique and creative cultural achievement in which all Trinidadians can take pride. This view evolved due to several factors to be discussed later. Unlike an earlier period, today strong criticism of, or negative attitudes toward, steelband music and musicians is minimal. Rather, there is a general feeling of as a Pharmacist example, respect and pride for those involved in Trinidadian or West Indian cultural forms. Violence in the Steelband Movement. During the heyday of the steelband era, from roughly 1945 to 1965, there was considerable violence in the movement. There was violence between bands and between bands and Research Paper, the police. A Career As A Essay Example. It is generally accepted that the police-steelbands conflict was related to the noise the bands made, parading on the streets without a permit, stealing dustbins and other items to use as instruments, and the steeldrums lack of acceptance by the government, ruling classes, and police as a legitimate musical instrument. Research. Some also believe the police simply harassed people living in the poorer districts. Inter-band rivalry was related to territoriality, arguments over girl friends, accusations of theft of each others tunes, over-enthusiastic followers and supporters, or even accident, when, for Essay on Impact of Social on Physical instance, a bottle was thrown by someone unrelated to either band.

The 1952 report of the government steelbands committee, known as the Canon Farquhar Committee, is instructive in this regard: The steelband is essentially a creation of the masses with their poor housing, overcrowding, unemployment, large families and general lack of opportunity for recreation and cultural expression. It was as if in unconscious protest of these delimiting circumstances that underprivileged youth evolved a medium of self-expression which seems destined to make a distinctive contribution to the cultural life of the West Indies. The typical steelband population is predominantly negroid with a fair sprinkling of PAWS Research, East Indians. Shops. To them the steelband is not merely another local institution: it is a way of life. Its devotees have their peculiar mode of dress, manner of PAWS, speech, style of walking and dancing and, though yet in rudimentary form, group codes and norms of Essay Ethics, their own. Unfortunately, however, this unique form of music-making was characterized by feuds between rival bands. These clashes were invariably instigated by and centered around the Research Paper, young women of ill repute who followed the bands. There was, too, that element of what might be described as professional jealousy. These clashes became more frequent; public apprehension was aroused, and in the interest of society police intervention became necessary. A state of tension existed, often rendered more acute by of camera, sensational headlines in the local press, and the steelband community, despite its internecine conflicts, developed the Research Paper, characteristics of an essays about reading outlawed minority group. The movement became a menace; clashes developed into pitched battles in which weapons ranging from sticks, stones and bottles to scribers, knives and cutlasses were brought to bear with an alarming disregard for human life and PAWS Paper, property.

There were two fatal woundings. About. Public apprehension gave way to fear. Police action became more decisive, though at PAWS Research times positively unimaginative, and of Social Media, whole bands and PAWS Paper, even individual members were restricted to 11 rigidly proscribed areas. (Farquhar, 1952:2-3) According to Albert Gomes, instruments were seized, players roughed up, slums invaded, and players frog-marched to prison cells (1974:99). Similar repressive treatment had been accorded to other African-based cultural forms in the pastthe Shouters religion, the calypso singers, and the annual Carnival celebration after it was taken over by the poor and the blacks. Earl Lovelace nicely captured the spirit of this era when he wrote that: those were the days when every district around Port of Spain was its own island, and the steelband within its boundaries was its army, providing warriors to uphold it sovereignty. Those were the war days, when every street corner was a garrison; and to be safe, if you came from on Physical Appearance, Belmont, you didnt let night catch you in St.

James; if your home was Gonzalez Place, you didnt go up Laventille; and if you lived in Morvant, you passed San Juan straight. (1979:54) The Trinidadian calypso singer The Mighty Sparrow sang a calypso entitled Outcast about how the steelbandsmen were treated: For a long time to associate yourself wid dem. Was a big crime. If you sister talk to a steelband man.

De family want to break she hand. Lick every teet out she mout Pass, you a outcast. Other sections of Paul Keens-Douglas previously-quoted Sugar George illustrate the defensive side of steelband clashes and the concern of panmen for their instruments: An in those years when pan meant fight, Sugar learn to fight. There was no one to pull ah blade. As fast as Sugar George; He cut an he get cut too. But people respect Sugar,

For he only fight when he had to. An only because he had to. But Sugar never forget he pan, Dey say when fight start an band clash, Sugar take care of he pan first. Like ah baby he used to Research Paper, wrap it up an hide it, Sometimes in ah canal, sometimes in de bush; An woe to de man who touch. De pan of Sugar George. Errol Hill recalls the incessant noisy practicing, often at times when people wanted peace and Essay, quiet.

The noise carried a considerable distance, so people did not want pan beating in Research Paper towns, but up in reading the hills somewhere. PAWS Research. Thus, the police restricted the beating to A Career as a Pharmacist Essay example, specific hours (1983:3). Further, recalls Hill: We always jumped up behind these bands on Carnival Day and I have been in several where a rival band is coming and PAWS Research, theyre actually in a no-mans land and you can feel the tension in the band as they came closer and closer and A Career Pharmacist Essay, closer but no one would leave. On one occasion the PAWS Research, bands actually crossed each other on Traditional and Adult Learning the same street, and you could just feel them going and everybodys looking and the eyes come out all over your head, looking around to see whats gonna happen. Occasionally at that time someone would throw a bottle and that was the last thing youd want to happen because it would immediately be felt that its coming from one of the enemy and all hell would break loose. (ibid.) The roots of some of the steelband territorial rivalry may well go back to earlier times. According to Ralph Araujo: In those days, the days of the Great Depression, youth in Belmont was generally touched with poverty but not unhappy, full of rivalry but not of factional bitterness. Belmont was the center of our lives. Woodbrook was a place where we had to change tramcars. it lay in a direction in which our elder brothers sometimes sallied forth on their bicycles in pursuit of new girlfriendsand it is Research Paper interesting how many marriages resulted in cross-breeding of the Woodbrook and Belmont strains.

It was a standing jokethat Belmont boys never married Belmont girlsas we told the girls, they were too own way. This Montague/Capulet arrangement seems to Essay Ethics, have created a certain amount of PAWS, friendly rivalry between Woodbrook and Newtown boys on the one hand and Belmont boys on the other, a rivalry which sometimes surfaces now amonsgt those who grew up in that era.(1984:5) George Goddard, old-time panman and early president of the Trinidad Steelband Association, also claims that turf clashes preceded the development of steelbands and underprivileged youths would have fought among themselves or with the A Career Pharmacist Essay, police in any event. (1983:7). PAWS Research Paper. In the eulogy delivered for Wilfred Speaker Harrison, early leader of the Desperadoes steelband, he was remembered as having: insisted that the early Despers all have tatoos on their backs, chests or forearms, which was to indicate Life Membership, and be given code names. He was referred to as The Dresden, and on the battlefield as Sergeant Rollock and sometimes Inspector Fugot, becoming General in charge of Central Intelligence, Despers. He organized battle practice sessionsfor all the men he would select to operate with him in launching attacks on the enemy. At the height of the arcadia group, violent steelband era, it was not only the government, police, and elites in Trinidad who feared or were against the steelband clashes. A calypso of the time advised the government to give the hooligans the old time cat-o-nine and they bound to change their mind. With licks like fire send them Carrera (a prison island) and they bound to PAWS, surrender. (DeLeon,1983:5).ld-time panman Carleton Constantine, popularly known as Zigili, recalls that: So much different things used to cause them.

A woman from Essay on The, one band, she have a man from PAWS, one bnd and probably see a next guy from a next band. That is one of the factors. And Adult. Thensometimes like tunes bands playingthis band playing this tune say the next one take their tune. In a dance where drinks is concerned anything, anything at Research Paper all, because that was a era that violence was very high. So anything could start a fight. (1983:4)

Concerning the weapons used in clashes, Tony Slater states that, bottles (were used), one or two people may have a gun a lot of people get damaged, a lot of instruments get damaged; 67 was the worst, it was a total wreck. Essays Reading. All amplification, everything mash up. It was a form of jealousy. (1983:8) Curtis Pierre offers a chilling account of his personal experience in a 1953 steelband clash: There was a certain amount of turf rivalry, which there is in Paper any type of group activity. For no other reason than, you know, you just want to be King of the Rock and guys said, Youre from Belmont and you should not be walking in Woodbrook. It had nothing to do with the quality of your music, it had nothing to do with whether you had their girl, people have advanced all kinds of Traditional, reasons, that, you know, this girl was seen walking with a guy from Invaders so that the boy from Desperadoes got annoyed. PAWS Research. My experience in 1953 when steelbands were asked to come on the road for the coronation of Elizabeth when she was crowned; we had a clash with a band called Ebonites. It was not anything that they knew who we were or we knew who they were. Some little incident sparked it off and it got real messy.

You know, guys were swinging baseball bats. I got hit with a baseball bat. Lucky nobody was holding it at the time, somebody just flung it across. One guy next to me got his cheek cut open with a razor. That was the scariest part, you just saw the flesh part and you saw the teeth and essays about reading, a couple minutes after, the blood. One guy came charging at me with what looked like a piece of a kitchen fork, a large kitchen fork, and Research Paper, all I could do was raise the tenor pan I had and hit him across the bridge of his nose and that I remember also seeing the bone just go white and A Career Essay, the guys eyes closed and he flaked out and I disappeared. But it was not a pitched, prolonged battle. Within minutes there were sirens and everybody scattered.

Nor were there any sort of vindictive feelings in that particular battle. (1983:5) World War II saw several U.S military bases in Paper Trinidad, and many movies with violent war, gangster, and Western themes. The steelbands took on some of the films names, individual steelbandsmen took actors names for their nicknames and emulated actors behavior. There are still steelbands bearing some of these movie-inspired names. Learning And Adult Essay. Pat Chu-Foon recalls that: those were the days when we used to see a lot of these films with Back to Bataan and Robert Taylor and Audie Murphy. It inspire the moviegoer and these poor fellas, some of PAWS Research Paper, them just lived in the cinema in those days. Most of them didnt work, other than playing pan, tuning pan, lazing around playing a game of wappie (a card game), they just scrunt for some money to go to the next matinee and after seeing a good war picture they want to do the same thing, and this is what caused a lot of thing, with the steelband clashing those periods.

It was like a game. You would see fellas go up and say, Look, we going up to Traditional Learning and Adult Learning Essay, beat Casablanca tonight. Invaders, we going and beat the Invaders. You hear how the names are, all war names. Invaders from Woodbrook coming up to clash with so and so and they meet on Research Paper this corner. Men used to walk with razors in their waist. (1983:4-5) The steelband badjohn role was an important one, a source of identity for angle many young Trinidadian males that had to be maintained, even if only as a front. Bertie Marshall reports, I cultivated my badjohn image.

But my badjohnism was a pose really. Still, it was necessary to Paper, cultivate the essays, image. Paper. And I managed to do this yet at about reading the same time keeping my hands cleanexcept for a couple of gambling cases which were no big thing, really. But the Research, image was an about reading important thing in those days. (Marshall, 1972: Vol. 2, No. 5:9) Positive Influences of the Steelband Movement. Not all of the experiences of the steelband movement were negative. There are success stories on all levels. As Carleton Constantine (Zigili) said in PAWS Research 1983: I have to be very grateful to of Social Media on Physical Appearance, steelband.

Because I left this country in 1956 . and Research Paper, lived in the UK and up to this day I am making a living from group, steelband. It was good to me because I have seen the world, I have traveled through the whole of PAWS Research, Europe, the Middle East, Far East, and still playing. (1983:5) Steelband music provided many young Trinidadian males with opportunities for personal growth and the development of types of camera angle, leadership skills that they found useful in other areas of their lives. Curtis Pierre, in response to an open-ended query about steelband, said that: A lot of the PAWS, distance Ive covered in arcadia shops my life both in Research terms of a businessman, as a father, as an organizer, I can safely say that the on The, experience Ive gained, I owe it completely to my exposure in the steelband world. Ive learned how to deal with people, Ive learned how to handle people, Ive learned how to take insults, Ive learned how to give. You know, it is really a forge for straightening out your whole approach to life. (1983:10) George Yeates reports on PAWS Research Paper a perhaps unforeseen outcome of the police-band violence of the early steelband era: I had been able to reading, command a great respect among steelbandsmen, and I had that disturbance (a steelband clash) quelled. I did as much work or perhaps even more work than the police, because most of the time the police would come and PAWS, call me and ask me to go with them whenever they had any steelband clashes.

Superintendent Barnes would always come and call me to go speak to both sides because when it came to Despers, and I held the reins of Despers, I would try to keep them out of A Career Essay, any further clashes and let them know that those who want to fight cannot be in the band that I run because I am thinking in Paper preparing the band for the music festival and angle, improving the arts, improving the instrument, and these steelband clashes is interfering with my works.(1983:5-6) Social Change and Acceptance of PAWS Paper, Steelbands. A precise ordering of the factors that influenced the gradual acceptance of steelband music is not possible, since they overlapped and since there is no consensus even among persons on the scene, concerning the chronology of types of camera angle, events and their importance. Growing acceptance due to one factor brought about PAWS acceptance in another area. The factors contributing to steelbands greater acceptance include the following: 1. Acceptance by several influential citizens, including writers, intellectuals, lawyers, musicians, and politicians. 2. Government concern, expressed in committee reports and the formation of a steelband association. 3. Commercial sponsorship. 4. Successful exportation to types, and enthusiastic reception of steel bands in foreign countries.

5. Open support from the Peoples National Movement political party. 6. Research. Involvement in the bands of white, light-skinned, and better-educated middle-class persons, including more middle-class women. 7. Refinements in Learning Learning Essay the instruments. 8. PAWS Research. The playing of semi-classical and classical music. 9. Involvement of steelbands in music festivals, in churches, at funerals, and at middle-and upper-class social gatherings.

10. A resurgence of Black Power and pride in the early 1970s. Support of Influential Citizens. Starting in about 1946, the Trinidad Youth Council and its members, including attorney and musician Lenox Pierre, Canon Farquhar, Kelvin Scoon, and Errol Hill, made consistent efforts to gain social acceptance of on The of “Outing”, steelband music, instruments, players, and supporters. Albert Gomes was another outspoken supporter who fought the tide of popular and official opinion of steelbands long before the government committees were appointed. He was frequently at the office of the Commissioner of Police, more often than not accompanied by the steelband boys themselves, lodging complaints against provocative acts by the police.

But the police were no more than instruments of the PAWS Paper, prevailing prejudice The root cause of it all was intense class feeling. (Gomes, 1974:99). A Career Pharmacist Essay Example. At a 1945 meeting of the Legislative Council, to which he had just been elected, Gomes said, Some people feel that some others should never enjoy themselves and that the music should belong to one particular class Personally, while I sit and enjoy Beethoven, it does not blind me to the fact that we have got to live among a people of divers races and PAWS Paper, creeds, and that we cannot fit these in a particular design. (ibid.) Other respected members of society became outspoken advocates of the steelband movement. Beryl McBurnie, dancer, choreographer, and founder of the Little Carib Theatre, brought the Invaders steelband into essays about her theater for a performance in 1948 and also got a number of middle-class young men and women involved in steelband. Government Concern, Recommendations, and Action. The 1952 Farquhar Committee report noted that: the government appointed a committee in November of 1949 to investigate the implications of the (steelband) problem and in April of 1950 the steelbands themselves organized a representative body known as the Trinidad and Tobago Steel Bands Association With the PAWS, setting up of machinery for negotiating with the Steel Bands public reaction became more sympathetic, and a new psychological approach to about, the problem gradually became evident. The steel percussion orchestra, as the steelband is now known, is no longer regarded as an outlawed nuisance. These orchestras perform at social clubs, hotels, concerts and PAWS Research, dances and, in many instances, have almost replaced the traditional orchestra.

It is hopefully significant too, to observe the formation of steel orchestras among middle-class youth of both sexes. (Farquhar, 1952:5). A major concern of the committee was expressed in its findings: The cohesion and arcadia, unity inherent in the steelband movement constitute a great social force which should be exploited and directed into constructive channels. The steelband movement is a peoples movement. It has captured the imagination and PAWS Paper, energies of the youth of our masses, and provides a ready-made entity around which a whole system of educational activities and recreational interests can be advantageously organized. Essay Ethics Of “Outing”. The steelband movement and the problems which stem from it must he viewed as an integral part of the general pattern of social and Paper, economic life peculiar to as a example, the masses of the colony. In this context one underlying conclusion emerges: there is imperative need for an awakening of a national sense of community responsibility. (ibid.: n.p.)

Although the 1965 interim report of another government-appointed steelband committee found some fault with the Steelband Associations leadership and PAWS Research, cooperation, it could observe that: the Steelbandsmen feel that they have improved the social situation in respect of gang warfare and that the Traditional and Adult Learning, Association (which was formed partly for that purpose) and the National Steelband have improved the situation in PAWS Research respect of inter-band relationships. The Police are also satisfied that the types, steelbands as such pose no problem to the peace and order of society (Interim Report, 1965:9) The same report recommended continuing most vigorously the struggle for Paper social acceptance of the Steelband Movement at home and acceptance and recognition of the movement abroad. Commercial sponsorship of the bands was another, to some a dubious, advantage, carrying with it some control over the bands and of Social on Physical, less independence than they had previously enjoyed. Nevertheless, the bands needed the legitimacy, status, funding, and PAWS, perhaps organization that sponsorship could provide. About. Oil companies, banks, airlines, and similar large enterprises sponsored steel bands starting in the 1950s. They supplied uniforms emblazoned with their names, as were the drums themselves, and the sponsors enjoyed good publicity and public relations benefits. They sometimes sent the bands to other islands or to Europe, Canada, or the United States. Recalling his early association with the West Indian Tobacco Company as the sponsor of PAWS, his Desperadoes steelband, George Yeates said that, From then onwards, this is where I can say that Despers has been the trendsettersfor good behavior in the steelband movement, because they no longer had cause to fightthey were thinking that they would lose their sponsorship, so that sort of held them. (1983:7)

Other panmen expressed their views on the role of sponsorship in the steelband movement. Curtis Pierre thought: It was a good thing because even though we all know it came from the underprivileged, when this thing started to evolve and the costs started to go up, the bands who had a sponsor you found that those bands were better. And then the sponsorship thing got very, very big and the government got onto it and decided, Okay, well this would be a nice vote-catching gimmick if we can tell the Learning Essay, steelbandsmen that we are giving instructions to Research, the business community to sponsor their bands. So from a devious motive came a very good end result. A Career Pharmacist Essay Example. It went out of control in the last couple years where sponsors were being called upon to pay some thing like twenty or thirty thousand dollars a year for a band. (I983:4) Sponsorships play a good part (in easing the Research Paper, tension). To me it give and it takes. Because some people say you lost your name, but you get money. And a lot of Essay on The Ethics, bands need money because preparing a band for Panorama (a Carnival steelband competition) is expensive.

Sponsors have done a lot. Paper. They needed money to A Career as a Pharmacist, progress and PAWS Research Paper, sponsorship assisted a lot of bands to progress. Some bands dont need sponsors, they get along somehow. But the bands with sponsors, those are the Pharmacist Essay example, progressive bands today. (1963:8). Pat Chu-Foons opinion of sponsorship throws a new light on the issue: Well, long after when they settle down properly and they were like gentlemen of pan, and pan started to Research Paper, make history in Europe, then and only then certain top companies started to assist to choose sponsorships here and there. (1983:12). Sponsorship did not blossom, in A Career Essay fact, until after the successful 1951 European tour of the Trinidad All Steel Percussion Orchestra, discussed in more detail below. The Steelband Abroad. Another important factor in the increasing acceptance of steelband music was its exportation to other countries.

In 1951, under the PAWS Research Paper, sponsorship of the and Adult Learning, Trinidad Youth Council, an all-star steelband, called the Trinidad All-Steel Percussion Orchestra (TASPO) was sent to England to play at the Festival of Britain, and to France. The 1952 Farquhar Report stated that the band convincingly demonstrated the possibilities of the steel orchestras as a distinct and original contribution to the field of music. (1952:n.p.). Errol Hill has observed that: They were very successful, and once the pan became recognized as a new kind of musical form in England, then the local population had to PAWS Research, accept it. Once people outside said, this is great, theres something here that needs development. (1983:5) Led by police lieutenant Joseph Griffith, the A Career as a Pharmacist example, band amazed the European audiences. PAWS. A London correspondent wrote: People smiled indulgently as the rusty pans were rolled off the cart and set up. It seemed impossible that music could come out of such unlikely instruments. But jaws dropped and eyes widened as the first sweet notes were struck and the band swung into Mambojambo. Example. Feet were soon tapping to the rhythm of the music. (Hill, 1972:51) The music critic of the Research, Manchester Guardian found the bands playing of Tosellis Serenade equal to anything that a first-class band could offer. The playing is wonderfully skilled. (ibid. :51) Today there are steelbands in many countries outside Trinidad. There is a U.S.

Navy steelband organized with the Learning Essay, help of Trinidadian Ellie Mannette and steelbands in Boston, New York, Washington-Baltimore, Montreal, Toronto, and in high schools, colleges, and universities throughout the PAWS Research Paper, United States, thanks largely to Mannette, now living in the United States, and other Trinidadian promoters. This spread is at once the result of, and evidence for, acceptance and creates even more legitimacy. Support by the Peoples National Movement Party (PNM) Errol Hill reports that: US Navy Steelband. After 1956, with the coming to power of A Career as a Pharmacist, Williams Peoples National Movement, we saw a change in the whole psychology of the people. They had at last got in a government of their own that purported to represent the people. They were moving toward self-government.

It was necessary to establish an indigenous culture, and there was a great surge forward to find those elements of our culture that could be identified as belonging to Trinidad and Tobago. The calypso was one, the steelband was another. And I think as a result of this that the steelband began to PAWS Research Paper, come into its own. (1983:8-9) J. D. Elder supports this view: The sickening picture has undergone radical transformation. The most obvious change in essays about the carnival calypso- steelband movement is the demonstration, at State level, of the admission that Trinidad popular music and musical festivals are elements of a high order in the national culture and that government has responsibility to so recognize it and give tangible demonstration of this attitude. This move is vitalizing; it has been effective in raising to a high status not only the traditional musicbut it has also elevated the PAWS Paper, total folk cultural complex to Traditional Learning and Adult Essay, a status never known in the past. Folklore in all its forms has suddenly attained an attractive status. This new awakening in the whole society to PAWS Research, the fact that the folk and their art and craft are important, must be put down squarely to Essay Media Appearance, the new attitude of Paper, government.(1968:25-26). Susan Craig has observed that, the PNM had an appeal for the urban unemployed, especially those who had created the arcadia shops, steelbands. PAWS Research Paper. Steel bandsmen became the unofficial army of the PNM in 1956. (1982:391). George Yeates, in a 1983 interview, said that if Despers were to simply move in and play in Essay of Social on Physical an area in support of Paper, a political candidate, that could almost assure election.

They could do this even without a police permit to play. The police would be afraid of them because of their reputation and, in any event, would not want to shoot their own people (1983:12). Others have contended that whoever controls the Desperadoes controls the whole Laventille area. Group. And the band has always supported the PNM. Bands in PAWS Research Paper the PNM areas prospered after they came to power, but then so did many others, because of the cultural resurgence. Selwyn Mohamed has stated that the types, PNM does get Despers and other bands to help it. The bands, says Mohamed, disrupt meetings of other political parties and they take people to the polls. A political party split in one band caused bloodshed before the election, and for some PNM functions, only Casablanca would play. PAWS. (1985:2) In 1956 Bertie Marshall formed a small band he named the Essay on Impact Media, PNM Band, because they played at everything the PNM had in Laventille. The PNM office was near their practice yard, and although the PNM officials always praised the band and Research, promised to help them, I have never gotten any of the things promised me by members of government over the last fifteen or sixteen years. Still, we played as the PNM Band. (Marshall, Vol.

2, No. 4:4). Although the evidence is mixed concerning the precise role the government, ruling party, and bands play with respect to each other, Curtis Pierre points out that, clearly, the arcadia shops, steelbandsmen constitute a potentially valuable voting bloc: You would look at the number of bands and they are made up of fifty guys each, and each one of those guys has a spin-off factor of 4.3 or something like that in his family. PAWS Research. If you get hold of some of those bands and you multiply by forty and then multiply by five, you have a sizable voting population. (1983:4-5) Personal Involvement of the Middle Class. The acceptance of steelbands grew when middle-class, lighter-skinned, and white young people started getting involved, often over the strenuous objections of their parents, teachers, friends, and group, relatives. Curtis Pierre became involved in PAWS 1949: I took the instrument home and I got enough flak from my parents, What the hell you doing with this thing here? I dont care who plays that. This is the underprivileged. (1983:1).

The grouping in on Impact of Social Media on Physical Appearance my band would be considered a little above middle class, which was anathema, that kind of thing was just not done by people in that class (ibid. Research Paper. :2). Pierre attributes to A Career Pharmacist example, his group the PAWS Research, change in the degree to which steelbandsmen and women are accepted in society: We have been told its because of our groupthat You fellas made a breakthrough. You guys dont realize what you did. Types. You fought society and you said, Were going to make this thing great(1983:3). Concerning the racial makeup of PAWS Research, his band, Dixieland, he says that, it could be considered what the essays about, people here would call fair-skinned boys. And there was not a predominance of Negroes in PAWS Research it at all, mainly because that was what middle class meant in those days. On Impact. And thats true, middle class had a certain color. It no longer applies today These boys from the best schools,you found they were all fair-skinned. (ibid. :6).

Teacher, pan player, and arranger Ray Holman recalls that: The change came about Research when people like myself, who might have the benefit of a secondary school education, began to come into the bands. So people began to look, the public at large began to Learning and Adult, look at it a little differently. (1983:3). The principal of my college, Queens Royal College, was an English Army Officer; he was a pretty stern fellow. PAWS Paper. He couldnt really understand how I could get involved in that (steelbands). It was like a social outcast at the time. (ibid.:6). Arcadia Group. The band he joined at age thirteen, the Oval Invaders, accepted him easily: They were very glad to have us.

It was like we injected something new so we were very welcome and we had a privileged place in Research the band. If you are mixing with people, sometimes you would have to follow the crowd. A Career As A Pharmacist Example. But following the crowd for me didnt mean getting involved in violence. It just meant playing panhaving a good time within the limits of certain standards. I saw my role should have been to try to uplift them, rather than my coming down. This is Paper how I saw it. (ibid.:7-8).

George Goddard believes that only Traditional and Adult Essay when middle-class youth began being brought up on charges before the police magistrates did public concern over steelband grow and PAWS Research Paper, efforts begin to reform the Essay Ethics, movement and work with it. This concern speeded up the changes, even if they might have come eventually without middle-class involvement (1983:2). The 1965 Interim Report of the Committee on PAWS Research the Role of Steelband in National Life reported that much of the struggle for social acceptance has been fought by persons outside of the essays about reading, groups from which the PAWS, original steelbands sprang: The effortsof Dixieland (a group of the St. Marys pupils which contained many persons of largely European descent) which persisted in the early 1950s despite some disapproval by some persons closely connected to its members, and Girl Pat (an all female steelband of Pharmacist Essay, teachers, civil servants, etc.) of the early 1950s. Now we find that there is an appreciable number of ex-Secondary School pupils in the Steelband Movement and the movement has enjoyed such confidence of the Community that it has been upwardly socially mobile to the extent that it embraces many persons who would be classified in our society as middle class.

Racial integration has perhaps been the Research, most resounding sociological achievement of the steelband movement. Born in types of camera angle circumstances rather confined to one ethnic groupthe Negroit has spread to every ethnic group in societyWe have come across no bands whose rules relating to recruitment would restrict admission of any sector of the populationThe steelband movement has made a most significant contribution to the integration of the races. (1965:10) Changes in the Repertoire and Instruments. Steelbands were more accepted when the instruments became more refined and melodious, when bands started playing more difficult classical and semi-classical music, and as they performed at local and foreign music festivals and competitions, in churches, at PAWS Research weddings, and at middle and upper class social gatherings. Curtis Pierre believes that the music sounds better today because money and sponsors have led to improvements in the instruments.

The instruments can be tuned better and you can afford a better class of types of camera, arrangers, musically, and theyre not afraid to tackle any type of music. When that kind of music is played, it will naturally attract a more curious and probably a better style of individual to play. (1983:8-9). Kelvin Scoon, Trinidadian businessman, steelband supporter, calypso judge, and PAWS Research, former Secretary of the Youth Council, contends that panmen themselves wanted to learn to play the classics in order to use more notes, to challenge and stretch the range of their instruments and their own abilities, not to A Career as a Pharmacist, please others or to be more accepted by PAWS, them. A Career As A Essay. They first broadened their repertoires to include Latin and popular music. (1985:2) Musician, conductor, and arranger Pat Bishop points out that at Research first the playing of classical music, religious music, hymns, or Christmas carols was met with revulsion by the upper classes. They were shocked that such lofty music would be attempted with the crude instruments and felt the steel drum unworthy of the effort. But the pan players persisted and gradually their music was accepted. Essay On Impact Appearance. (1985:2). Research Paper. According to Scoon, compared to the early days of the steeldrum, the sound of todays instruments is far more refined, mellower in tone, and of camera angle, there is PAWS a much wider range of pitches utilized. Forty years ago there were not as many types of drum, and the repertoire consisted primarily of calypsoes and Latin music. Arcadia Shops. Popular and classical pieces were added, and a variety of arrangements used.

Considerable talent and ingenuity in PAWS tuning and designing the instruments has evolved, and Essay on Impact on Physical, more is known about working the metal and tempering it. PAWS Research Paper. The drumsticks are now rubber-tipped, creating a mellower tone. Influences from jazz and fusion and constantly evolving experimental arrangements characterize the arcadia group shops, present repertoire. (1985:1) Although there is no empirical evidence to verify the PAWS Research, observation, it seems quite likely that as the steelbands began to engage in sponsored musical competitions with audiences including middle-class people, they sought to maintain and increase the latters interest and support by striving for a smoother, more refined sound, a wider range of notes, and a broader repertoire. They were also motivated by their own inner desire to arcadia group shops, stretch their talents and the potential of their instruments by taking on more challenging musical scores and showing themselves, their fellow countrymen, and the world what could be achieved with talent, hard work, and an instrument of humble origins. The attention received from respected musical personages, both local and foreign, at first informally and then more formally at competitions, carnival time and steelband festivals, encouraged those involved in PAWS Research Paper steelband music to of Social Appearance, expand and excel. The middle-class social contexts in which they were asked to play also had an impact on the kinds of music they found appropriate. Participation in Music Competitions. In 1952 steelbands were invited to participate in the prestigious biennial music festival in Trinidad and foreign music adjudicators judged their performances. One of these, Dr. PAWS Paper. Sydney Northcote from Essay Ethics, England, at first quite skeptical about steel bands, eventually came to hail the music as truly astonishing. In 1956 he commented that their performance was orchestral in every way.

The melodic line was beautifully smooth, almost like the playing of a string orchestra The technical skill of it all proved that there are possibilities of acquiring with the steelband an orchestral precision. (Hill, 1972:52). The enthusiastic reception of steelbands by the U.S. armed forces stationed in Trinidad also enhanced their image, as did their inclusion in the carnival celebrations. Today it is not unusual in Trinidad to hear and see live steelband music in church services, at funerals, at wedding ceremonies or receptions, diplomatic affairs, or middle-and upper-class parties. There has been some decline in recent years, however, due to PAWS Research, the high costs of steel bands, competition from U.S. music styles, and the bands more limited repertoire (they have largely become one-tune bands for the annual carnival steelband competition). Today there are all women steelbands, bands sponsored by companies for example their employees, and childrens steel bands. Summary and Analysis of Factors of Social Change. The gradual acceptance of steelband music seems to have started with a few outspoken persons who, motivated by social conscience, egalitarian ideology, nationalistic pride, and favorable attitudes toward Afro-Trinidadian culture, pressured the government for acceptance, tolerance, change, and involvement.

Government concern led to the formation of a steelband association of concerned citizens and, along with commercial sponsorship, inroads were made with the general citizenry. After foreign acceptance of the music and the instruments, even more local middle-class people supported the development of steel bands. When it was seen in the early 1960s that local middle-class, white, educated youth were taking steeldrum music seriously, and even excelling at it, involvement in it became popular (Pierre, 1983:3). PAWS. Politically and historically the mid-1950s were suitable for the development of a Trinidadian and types of camera, West Indian identity and pride. Great Britain was granting independence to its colonies. Local political leaders needed and wanted the support of the masses and would not have been wise to oppose a form of musical and cultural expression that was so vital to their identity. As the instruments developed a more refined and mellow tone, and as they were used to play semi-classical and classical pieces, the middle classes slowly began to PAWS Paper, accept them.

Because their social and Learning and Adult Learning Essay, personal identities had been so closely linked to steelband music, some panmen may have suffered from the Paper, greater involvement of essays about reading, government and the middle class. Generally though, because of greater involvement in formal education and in the labor market, Trinidadians were upwardly mobile during the era of the rise of the steel bands, and they developed alternate and PAWS, supplemental social roles and identities (Scoon, 1985:1). Most bands seem to shops, have benefited from the involvement of the Research, middle classes because sponsorship and support allowed them to hire expensive arrangers and tuners, as well as to purchase quality instruments and uniforms, and at times to travel abroad. This is a question on which opinions differ, however. Steelbands have undergone considerable change. Traditional And Adult. Their role in PAWS Paper the annual carnival celebration, at first a progressive step, has diminished considerably. Arcadia. The large carnival masquerade groups, some numbering three thousand, cannot hear the steel bands playing while they are parading.

The steelbands do not want to use amplification, and their method of Research Paper, moving on the streets, with somewhat clumsy racks or stands, seems to hinder their effectiveness at carnival. They are being replaced with brass bands using amplification or by disc jockeys. Panorama, the steelband competition at carnival, has caused bands to focus on one tune they can perform very well, so they reduce their repertoire for ftes and other social events. The Panorama, many observers believe, is now seen by steel bandsmen as the Traditional Learning, whole carnival and not just one part of it. Some bandsmen will move from a band unsuccessful in the preliminary rounds of the competition to play for PAWS Research Paper bands making it to the semifinals or finals, evidence that the Traditional Learning and Adult, legendary loyalty to a particular band has decreased. Arrangers are Trinidadians living abroad and command very high salaries for preparing music for the annual Panorama competition. Sponsors may pay up to $250,000 a year to support a band and $100,000 is not uncommon. The players do not earn much money, the bulk going to the captains and arrangers. In 1985 the Black Power-oriented National Joint Action Committee issued a national appeal to Research, fte promoters to hire steelbands rather than disc jockeys to support their national heritage throughout the year (Obika, 1985:1). It is A Career example hard to keep bands together throughout the year. Some feel that drug use is part of this problem; others point out that there is also competition from jobs (more panplayers are employed than before), education (more are in school), and television.

More people play alternate roles in society and find the pan player role merely subsidiary. Some bands have established working relationships with schools whereby they recruit a pool of players from the schools and in return provide pan instruction in Paper their panyards. Pan seems to reflect less cultural and national pride today. More panmen need and want pay. Curtis Pierre contends that todays steelbands are too large to be hired for social events such as weddings or ftes. Of Social Appearance. He feels they should number about fifteen players and use amplifiers to cut the costs and increase bookings (1983:8).

Socioeconomic class, color, and race have affected the creation and Paper, evolution of steelband music in Trinidad and Tobago. African customs, including skin drumming, were suppressed by the British colonial government and later by many elite or status-seeking black and colored persons who wished to disassociate themselves from the music, instruments, and life-styles of Trinidads poor urban masses of African heritage. Because the instrument and the social organization of the steel bands came to symbolize important, even vital, forms of cultural and racial expression, the poor, urban Afro-Trinidadian steel bandsmen and women persisted in their efforts, refining the instrument and sharpening their own musical talents and skills, expanding their musical repertoire, and eventually winning the support, encouragement, and active assistance of a few key people in Trinidad and abroad. About Reading. The organization of the Paper, bands provided needed social roles for players and opportunities for angle bandleaders to develop and Research Paper, demonstrate leadership skills and thus fill leadership roles otherwise unavailable to them in the society. Not all of this leadership was channeled into violent conflicts with other bands or the Pharmacist Essay example, police, and many steelbandsmen have credited their experiences with steelband music with developing skills they have used in PAWS Research Paper work or life in general. Their self-image, as well as that of the players, was enhanced by their roles in the steelband. As the about reading, steelbands gained favor both at home and abroad, they were viewed as symbols of individual, racial, community, and national pride and as a unique creative accomplishment. As recognition from abroad grew so too did support at home from higher-status persons. Research Paper. The several factors that contributed to the gradually increased acceptance of the bands, the Appearance, players, their instruments, and Paper, music indicate that this acceptance was achieved at essays about the expense of the bands independence and that it came about only after the musical repertoire had changed, business had exercised some control over the bands behavior (lighter-skinned, white, and higher-status people had joined the movement and the government openly supported it.) In short, it was not accepted on its own merits, but was changed by those who could confer legitimacy and higher status on it. Paget Henry, writing on decolonization and PAWS, neocolonialism, has observed that there is a locally rooted demand for foreign culture, persisting even after decolonization. As a result of colonial domination, the colonized ceased to have an easy, creative, and self-reflexive relationship with their cultural environment.

Elements of it had now been systematically imposed from without. (Henry and reading, Stone, 1983:115) Colonial domination further inhibited the PAWS Paper, demand for the words, songs, ideas, and of camera, other products of the local cultural system. Research. There was a greater demand for foreign cultural products. Decolonization only partially uprooted the set of social and psychological processes that generated the demand for Learning Essay imported culture. The demand for foreign culture shows no signs of abating, writes Henry (ibid.: 1l6), and Research, the major dynamic in the foreign sector of the cultural system is the of camera, institutionalization of a growing American presence (ibid.:117). This helps explain why many Trinidadian intellectuals, artists, and Research, musicians blame the Learning and Adult Essay, lack of what they consider sufficient local support for the steelband on the influx of American music and lifestyle in general, which they feel many Trinidadians are adopting too readily, trying to PAWS Paper, live like Yankees at the expense of their own cultures contributions. Although steelband music has become much more accepted in Trinidad and Tobago and abroad, it still faces competition from foreign musical tastes and difficulties caused by technology, costs, and a lingering and deeply-rooted self-denigration on the part of many Trinidadians. I am deeply grateful for the invaluable assistance of Anthony and Avril Bryan, Mackie Burnette, Deborah Cabral, Rhode Island College Dean of about, Arts and Sciences David Greene, Professor Errol Hill of Dartmouth College, Yvonne James of PAWS Paper, Providence, RI , and Arima, Trinidad and essays about, Tobago, Cynthia Mahabir of Suffolk University, Boston, Ancil McLean, Judith Philip, Everald Philip, Charles Price, Kelvin Scoon, Daniel Segal, the National Endowment for PAWS the Humanities, the Rhode Island College Faculty Research Committee and the talented and A Career as a, dedicated steelbandsmen and women of Trinidad and Tobago. 1. Anonymous 1, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 2. Anonymous 2, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and PAWS Research, Tobago.

3. Types Angle. Araujo, Ralph, 1984, Memoirs of a Belmont Boy, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Imprint Caribbean Ltd. 4. Bishop, Patricia, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 5. Blood, Peter, 1983, People in Carnival , Port of Research Paper, Spain, Trinidad and A Career Essay example, Tobago: Imprint Caribbean Ltd. 6. Brereton, Bridget, 1979, Race Relations in Colonial Trinidad, 1870-1900, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 7. Brereton, Bridget, 1981, A History of Modern Trinidad, 1783-1962, Kingston, Jamaica: Heinemann University Press. 8. Research. Cho-Foon, Patrick, 1983, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 9. Constantine, Carleton, 1983, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 10.

Craig, Susan, 1982, Contemporary Caribbean: A Sociological Reader. Vol. A Career As A Pharmacist. 2., Maracas, Trinidad and Tobago, College Press 11. Da Silva, Fabio B., 1984, The Sociology of PAWS, Music, Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press. 12. DeLeon, Rafael, 1983, personal interview, Mt.

Lambert, Trinidad and Tobago. 13. Elder, J. D., 1968, Social Development of the Traditional Calypso of about reading, Trinidad and Tobago, Mimeographed, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago: University of the West Indies. 14. Farquhar, M. E., 1952, Report of the Government Steel Bands Committee, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 15. PAWS. Goddard, George, 1983, personal interview, Diego Martin, Trinidad and Tobago.

16. Gomes, Albert, 1974, Through a Maze of Colour, Port of of Social Media on Physical, Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Key Caribbean Publications. 17. Henry, Paget, and Carl Stone, editors, 1983, The Newer Caribbean: Decolonization, Democracy, and Development, Philadelphia: Institute for PAWS the Study of Human Issues. 18. Types Of Camera. Hill, Errol, 1972, The Trinidad Carnival, Austin: University of PAWS Research, Texas Press. 19. Essay On Impact Of Social On Physical. Hill, Errol, 1983 , personal interview, Hanover, N.H. 20. Holman, Raymond, 1983, personal interview, Woodbrook, Trinidad and PAWS Research Paper, Tobago. 21.

Interim Report of the Committee Appointed to Consider the Role of the angle, Steelband in the National Life, 1965, Port of Research Paper, Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 22. Keens-Douglas, Paul, 1979, When Moon Shine, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, College Press. 23. Keer, D. F., 1981, Music of the Pans, Information Bulletin Series F, 91, No. 4., Port of Spain, Trinidad and about, Tobago: Trinidad and Tobago Tourist Board. 24. Lovelace, Earl, 1979, The Dragon Cant Dance, Essex, England: Longman Group. 25.

Mahabir, Cynthia, 1986, Steeldrums, Faces: The Magazine about People (Sept.):33-35. 26. Marshall, Bertie, 1972, The Bertie Marshall Story, Tapia, Vols. Research. 1, 2, 4, 5. 27. Martin, Von, 1981, Audio tape on the Trinidad steelband movement, Washington, D.C. 28. Mohamed, Selwyn, 1985, personal interview, Port of Ethics, Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.

29. Obika, Nyahuma, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 30. Pierre, Curtis, 1983, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 31. Pierre, Curtis, n.d., History of the Drum Script for slide/tape program, Port of PAWS Research, Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 32. Pile, Oscar, 1983, personal interview, Barataria, Trinidad and Traditional Learning and Adult Learning, Tobago. 33. Scoon, Kelvin, 1985, personal interview, Bay Shore, Trinidad and Tobago. 34.

Seeger, Peter, 1961, The Steeldrums of Kim Loy Wong, New York: Oak Publications. 35. Shepherd, John C., 1979, Music and Social Control: An Essay on the Sociology of Research Paper, Musical Knowledge, Catalyst, 13:1-54. 36. Slater, Tony, 1983, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 37. Essay. Warner, Keith Q., 1982, Kaiso!

The Trinidad Calypso, Washington, D.C.: Three Continents Press. 38. Weber, Max, 1958, The Rational and Social Foundations of Music, edited and translated by Don Martindale, Johannes Reidel, and Paper, Gertrude Neuwirth, Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. 39. Traditional Essay. Yeates, George, 1983, personal interview, Belmont, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.